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  This document consists of 13  printed pages and 3  blank pages. DC (LEO/SW) 53412/4 © UCLES 2012 [Turn over UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONSInternational General Certificate of Secondary Education *7 5 077 84 5 81* ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE   0510/12 Paper 1 Reading and Writing (Core) October/November 2012   1 hour 30 minutes Candidates answer on the Question Paper.No Additional Materials are required. READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.Write in dark blue or black pen.Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.DO NOT  WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.Answer all  questions.Dictionaries are not  allowed.At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. For Examiner’s UseExercise 1Exercise 2Exercise 3Exercise 4Exercise 5Exercise 6Exercise 7Total   w  w  w  . X   t  r  e  m  e  P  a   p  e  r  s  . c  o  m    2 0510/12/O/N/12 © UCLES 2012 Exercise 1 Read the following article about the equipment you need when learning to paint, and then answer the questions on the opposite page. Starting to Paint  Taking up a new hobby usually means that you have to buy some basic equipment to get started. If you have decided that you want to learn how to paint, then you will need to know a little bit about what you have to buy and how to choose what you need.  Choosing the Paint  Learning to paint is similar to learning a new language: both require practice and patience. First, you have to choose which paint you are going to use. Acrylic paints are good to start with as they are quick-drying. Acrylic paints are excellent for achieving smooth, plain colours and are quite easy to use on their own without the need to mix them. If you do want to mix the paints, however, there can be problems. By the time the mixture is made, the paint may be too dry to be used. Oil paint, on the other hand, provides a deeper colour, but is much more difficult to use. It takes a long time to dry, simply because the paint is oil-based rather than water-based. You should also remember that each colour has a different drying rate. Mixing the paint  You need an easy-to-clean surface on which to mix the paint and you will find a wide variety of mixing surfaces available. These are called palettes. It’s best to mix paint with a palette knife, as it is specially designed for this purpose. It is not a good idea to mix paint with brushes because they absorb some of it and you will not have enough paint left to work with. Brushes There are four main shapes of brush to choose from. ‘Rounds’ have bristles which come to a point so that you can create precise lines. ‘Flats’ are good for applying areas of colour and for creating straight edges. ‘Filberts’ are tongue-shaped and allow you to create broad or narrow marks that can be curved. Finally, ‘Brights’ are short and useful for applying short strokes of thick colour.   Painting surfaces Deciding what surface you want to paint on is important. At the beginning it is probably best to start with paper because it is cheap and easy to prepare. It’s best to buy blocks of paper that have been specially prepared so that the paper doesn’t change shape when wet and then cause the paint to crack. When you are more confident you can begin to consider painting on other surfaces such as canvas and wood.  3 0510/12/O/N/12 © UCLES 2012 [Turn over For Examiner’s Use   (a) How is learning to paint like learning a new language? ......................................................................................................................................[1]  (b) What problem can occur if you want to mix acrylic paints? ......................................................................................................................................[1]  (c) In which ways is oil paint different from acrylic paint? Give two  details. ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................[1]  (d) Why are you advised not to use a brush to mix paint? ......................................................................................................................................[1]  (e) Which type of brush would you use if you wanted to paint accurate lines? ......................................................................................................................................[1]  (f) Why are you recommended to start by painting on paper? Give two  details. ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................[1] [Total: 6]  4 0510/12/O/N/12 © UCLES 2012 Exercise 2 Read the following article about television, and then answer the questions on the opposite page. Television Television viewing continues to grow around the world, even though the internet is now widely used for entertainment. This may be because the number of ways of watching television has increased. High definition technology, digital television, the use of digital video recorders and now 3D technology all contribute to enjoyable viewing experiences. Research reveals that a typical person views almost 200 minutes of television a day. The chart below shows what the situation is in a variety of regions around the world.300250200 Time(in minutes) 150100500NorthAmericaMiddleEastEuropeLatinAmerica RegionAverage Daily TV Viewing Asia-PacificAfricaWe know that many people watch a lot of television so it is important to ask what effect this may have on children. Research suggests that having the TV on may have a bad effect on young children’s language development by reducing the amount of conversation between child and adult. It was found that when the TV was audible, the number of words spoken by either adult or child reduced considerably. Surprisingly, even children who watched programmes that were described as educational and specifically aimed at them learnt fewer new words than children who did not watch the programmes. Unless further research shows that children under two years old might benefit from TV, parents should encourage language activities through imaginative play. While there is some evidence that a little TV viewing may be beneficial for the over twos, the evidence for those younger is less certain. It is argued that first words are learnt far more effectively from real people than from voices on the television. In the USA there is a formal recommendation that children under two years old should not be exposed to TV or computer screens, and a growing body of evidence is now causing governments and health authorities around the world to consider issuing similar guidelines. However, parents could choose to limit viewing to an hour a day for their three- to five-year-olds. Childhood is a critical period for brain development and the formation of behaviour patterns. Parents have a responsibility to ensure that the right conditions exist for these developments. It is very helpful if parents can teach their children how to use their leisure time more effectively. They can introduce their children to sports, music or other hobbies. An expert in child behaviour said, “Children can easily be influenced by the programmes they watch and this can result in a wide variety of psychological problems. Often parents do not know what their children are watching on television, and it may be that they are being exposed to programmes which are unsuitable.” Research also shows that television viewing leads to a decrease in physical activity and an increase in the consumption of sugary drinks and unhealthy snacks. In particular, children should not have televisions in their bedrooms as this encourages them to be inactive. Researchers had expected that by the age of seven the influence of early television viewing on children would have disappeared. However, they were shocked to find that the early experience of television viewing continued to have long-term harmful effects on school performance and on health.
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