1A 5. Abdul Rahim Hazard at Construction Site PAGE (95-104)

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Proceedings of the 5th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (APSEC 2003) 26 – 28 August 2003 Johor Bahru, MALAYSIA HAZARDS AT CONSTRUCTION SITES Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid1, Wan Zulkifli Wan Yusuf2 and Bachan Singh3 1,2 &3 Department of Structures and Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering,Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. rahimhamid@utm.my,wanzul@fka.utm.my and bachans@utm.my Abstract. Statistic has shown that the number of fatality an
    Proceedings of the 5 th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (APSEC 2003)26 – 28 August 2003 Johor Bahru, MALAYSIA   HAZARDS AT CONSTRUCTION SITES Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid 1 , Wan Zulkifli Wan Yusuf  2   and Bachan Singh 3 1,2 &3    Department of Structures and Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering,UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.rahimhamid@utm.my,wanzul@fka.utm.myand bachans@utm.my  Abstract.   Statistic has shown that the number of fatality and  permanent disablement cases due to accident at the Malaysiaconstruction sites is one of the highest as compared to the other sector. Even though the number of industrial accidents decreasingbut the benefits paid to the accidents victims are ever increasing. Hence, there is an urgent need to mitigate this problem. There arethree basic steps that should be taken namely identifying thehazard, assessing the risk and controlling the risk to ensure a safeand conducive working condition. Implementation of effectivehazards control methods may require different approaches due tochanging of working environment at the construction sites. Latest technology employed at site had wiped out traditional method of construction and consequently introduce new types of hazard tothe industry. Therefore, this paper is intended to identify and highlights the hazards that are most commonly found at our construction sites today. The data collection was being carried out through site investigation using a structured questionnaires formsregarding hazards in construction. The sites vary frominfrastructure works, high rise building, housing development,industry building and institutional building. The study determinetwelve (12) major groups of hazards in relation to works at construction sites such as power access equipment, ladder, roof work, manual handling, plant and machinery, excavation, fire and emergency, hazardous substances, noise, protective clothing and  protection to public. The study was conducted on 140construction sites and the results showed that the most commonhazards for the project around the study area are associated withthe protective clothing, noise and fire and emergency. - 95 -    Proceedings of the 5 th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (APSEC 2003)26 – 28 August 2003 Johor Bahru, MALAYSIA   1.   Introduction The construction industry is currently being recognized as a major economic force inMalaysia. It is also one of the most hazardous industry. Based on the Social SecurityOrganization (SOCSO) report in 2000, the fatality rate in the construction industryin Malaysia was of more than 3 times of all workplaces. Whereas, compensationcosts paid out by SOCSO for industrial accidents and diseases accounted for almostRM650 Million[1]. As the hidden or indirect cost of an accident is eight to 33 timesmore than direct costs, the total cost of accident can run into billions of ringgit.In the field of occupational safety and health, Malaysia is now moving awayfrom the traditional approach whereby it is believed that all occupational hazardscan be controlled through detailed regulations. On 25 th February 1994, OccupationalSafety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA) came in force providing protection on safetyand health for work activities in all economic sectors including public services andstatutory authorities, except those subjected to Merchant Shipping Ordinance andthe armed forces [2]. Under Section 15 (1) and (2) Occupational Safety and HealthAct 1994, employers have a duty to ensure, as far as practicable, that employees arenot exposed to any hazard at the workplace [2].   Even though there has been a marked reduction in the number of industrialaccidents and the rate of accidents per 1,000 workers since the introduction of theOSHA 1994, there has not been a credible improvement over the last five years. Therate per 1,000 workers has been at a pleateau of 9.5 to 10.5 persons, while fordeveloped nations, it is three to four persons per 1,000 workers[1].   Even thoughregulations on occupational safety and health in Malaysia are quite comprehensive,the level of awareness and practicability of such regulations within the society of construction industry are generally lower than what supposed to come in force.   There is a popular belief that the construction site is unsafe and the risks that theworkers are subjected to are usual. The accidents happen may cause physical injuriesor health illness in long term. The term hazard in this study is defined as anythingthat can cause harm such as scaffold, excavation, roof work, working from laddersand etc.There are two major categories of hazard in construction sites namely: -i.   the risk of physical injury or physical injury hazardThe agents to the above mention hazard are normally associated with process of works or equipment used and climatic conditions such as scaffolds, poweraccess equipment and manual handling, ladder, roof work, plant and machinery,excavation, etc [3].ii.   the risk of ill health or health hazardHealth hazards in construction work may be grouped under chemical, physicalandbiological hazards[4].- 96 -    Proceedings of the 5 th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (APSEC 2003)26 – 28 August 2003 Johor Bahru, MALAYSIA   Hazard that has risk of physical injury can cause direct injury to our worker atsite and if severe can cause death. However, hazard that has risk of ill health canonly be notified after long term of period and shall cause sickness or death aftercertain period of time [5]. In order to ensure a safe and conducive working conditionthere are three basic steps that should be taken namely identifying the hazard,assessing the risk and controlling the risk.Therefore, this study was performed in order to identify and highlight the typeof hazards that are most commonly found at construction sites in Malaysia. 2. Study Methodology 2.1   Data Collection Data collection is the utmost important stage in this study in order to achieve thedesired objectives within the scope of work. Substantial data for this project paperwas obtained through structured checklist. Checklist was design to assist in theinvestigation during the site visit to the construction sites within several states inMalaysia. Types of site being investigated are mainly infrastructure works, housingdevelopment, high-rise building, industry building and institutional building. Otherparameter like cost of the project, project duration and number of worker at sites arealso being identified to determine the significant of each parameter to the types of hazards being identified. 2.2   Checklist Design The checklist was structured in three (3) sections. ã   Section A capture the background data of the respondents such as gender, age,position, employment and experiences. ã   Section B require the respondents to evaluate the significant of the hazardsfound in the work place environment whereas section C require the respondentsto evaluate the significant of the specified hazards found in the constructionsites. The significant of the hazards is scale from 1 to 4. The score of 1demarcate “unacceptable”, 2 as “acceptable with major changes”, 3 as“acceptable with minor changes” and 4 as “acceptable”. Table 1 shows theranking criteria from 1 to 4. Table 1   Ranking criteria  Rank Definition 4 Original specification or statutory regulatory are met or satisfied.3 Additional work required to satisfy specification2 Extensive work required to satisfy specification1 No way to satisfy specification or acceptable variation of it.- 97 -    Proceedings of the 5 th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (APSEC 2003)26 – 28 August 2003 Johor Bahru, MALAYSIA   2.3   Size Of Sample The checklist are assessed during the site visit to 140 construction sites aroundKlang Valley, Selangor, Perak, Penang, Kedah, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang andTerengganu area. The types of works involve are infrastructure works (15 sites),housing development (45 sites), high-rise building (45 sites), industry building (15sites) and institutional building (20 sites). 2.4   Analysis Of Data The identification process for most common hazards was evaluated from thechecklist assessed during site visit as follows:-1.   The frequency for each group of hazard was determined. The highest frequencyobtained for any of the hazards identified shall be concluded as the mostcommon hazards.2.   The score for each of the criteria of assessment for each individual hazardsidentified should be sum up.3.   The score obtained shall be averaged out with the frequency to obtain theranking of the hazards. 2.5   Limitation Of Study The sample only represent the localized scenario. The hazards identified correspondto the work in progress at the time of the survey being performed. 3. Result and discussion This section discusses the findings based on the results from the data collectedthrough structured checklist during site visit. The discussion of the findings is basedon the ranking of rating through responses ranging from 1 to 4 and the total scoringpoint accumulated. For the purpose of discussion only the first three of the mostcited hazards which receive the lowest score are discussed as the main findings. 3.1 Work Place Environment Checklist for work place environment cover item such as access, guard rail,condition of opening, temporary structures, site tidiness, waste disposal andvisibility. From the survey it can be concluded that the following items require a lotof improvement: -- 98 -
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