5.1. Report on the analysis and critical assessment of EU engagement in UN bodies

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1. Fostering Human Rights among European Policies Large-Scale FP7 Collaborative Project GA No. 320000 1 May 2013-30 April 2017 Report on the analysis and critical…
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  • 1. Fostering Human Rights among European Policies Large-Scale FP7 Collaborative Project GA No. 320000 1 May 2013-30 April 2017 Report on the analysis and critical assessment of EU engagement in UN bodies Work Package No. 5 – Deliverable No. 5.1 Due date 30 November 2014 Submission date 30 November 2014 Dissemination level PU Lead Beneficiary Adam Mickiewicz University Authors Grażyna Baranowska, Anna-Luise Chané, David D’Hollander, Agata Hauser, Jakub Jaraczewski, Zdzisław Kędzia, Mariusz Lewicki, Anna Połczyńska http://www.fp7-frame.eu
  • 2. FRAME Deliverable No. 5.1 i Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the Grant Agreement FRAME (project n° 320000). The research carried out at AMU was co-financed from funds for international co-financed projects for the years 2014-2017 issued by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, agreement no. 3156/7.PR/2014/2. The authors are grateful to Dr. Axel Marx, Prof. Jeffrey Kenner, Prof. Beáta Huszka, Nicolas Hachez, Ana Sofia Freitas de Barros, Katrien Meuwissen, Dr. Kolja Raube and Pierre Schmitt for their insightful comments on earlier versions of this report. All errors of course remain the authors’ own. The authors are equally thankful to the EU, EU Member States and third states officials and other human rights scholars and practitioners who agreed to share their expertise with a view to this report. The authors finally acknowledge the invaluable research assistance of Mr. Gavin Synnott and editorial assistance from Ms. Lucy Strang and Ms. Iwona Grenda.
  • 3. FRAME Deliverable No. 5.1 ii Executive Summary The first deliverable of Work Package No 5 (WP 5) presents the outcome of the analysis and critical assessment of EU human rights engagement in UN bodies. The EU has committed itself in the Treaty on the European Union to ‘promote multilateral solutions to common problems, in particular in the framework of the United Nations.’ In light of this provision, and taking into account the considerable challenges the EU-UN cooperation encounters, the present report aims at four goals. Firstly, to map the long-standing and multifaceted engagement of the EU within and towards UN human rights bodies. Secondly, to critically assess the EU’s engagement in the UN from the perspective of both its policy and institutions. Thirdly, to identify specific and structural flaws in the EU’s approach to human rights at the UN. Fourthly, to find creative ways of enhancing the EU’s position, role, inclusion in and impact upon these UN bodies. The deliverable consists of seven chapters. The first chapter presents the aims of the report and the methodology of the research. It also explains the key concepts of the deliverable, such as coherence, leadership or mutual influence between the EU and the UN. The second chapter explores two of the guiding principles of the EU’s external policy: human rights and multilateralism. In particular, it contains an analysis of the Union’s commitment to ‘effective multilateralism’ and consistency of specific human rights priorities throughout the EU legislation and other documents. The third chapter presents the institutional framework of the EU-UN relations. As both, the EU and the UN, share a common trait – a high complexity of their organisational structure, chapter III begins with a detailed mapping of both organisations. It also explains the role of different stakeholders in the EU-UN cooperation. This chapter also tackles the relationships between stakeholders and the coordination of the EU’s position at the UN. The status of the EU in the UN is also explored from the point of view of the legal framework of both organisations. The fourth chapter presents the processes and dynamics behind the formulation of EU human rights aims, objectives and priorities at the UN. It indicates the critical factors, relevant actors and their roles as well as the overall characteristics of the process. The chapter also provides a detailed analysis of the EU’s specific goals and objectives at the UN as well as their consistency. The report focuses on the Union’s priorities with regard to (i) thematic human rights issues, (ii) its country-specific priorities, and (iii) its aims and objectives relating to the institutional architecture of the UN. The fifth chapter concerns the tools and methods deployed by the EU at the UN. Particular attention has been paid to the issue of the EU’s resolution initiatives in UN human rights fora: the UNGA Third Committee and the HRC. The analysis focuses on resolution initiatives tabled by the Union, but also tackles the national initiatives of the EU Member States and the co-sponsoring of resolutions by the EU/Member States. It also explores the EU’s involvement in the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) process. Taking into account that the EU does not formally participate in the UPR, the involvement of its Member States is analysed, also from the point of view of realisation of EU human rights priorities. This section also explains the notion of light-coordination. Finally, the fifth chapter explores the EU’s
  • 4. FRAME Deliverable No. 5.1 iii financial contribution to UN human rights activities, in particular to the Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights. The deliverable is supplemented by four case studies included in chapter six of the deliverable. They are related to EU’s engagement in specific thematic topics at the UN covering the areas of: economic, social and cultural rights, human rights defenders, the right to development and counterterrorism. The final chapter presents the conclusions of the research. Due to the comprehensive nature of the analysis of the various dimensions of EU-UN interaction, the report seeks not only to advance the existing knowledge on the topic, but also to create a broad base for future research. In particular, the findings of this study will constitute the background for next deliverables of this work package on the Union’s engagement with regional multilateral organisations.
  • 5. FRAME Deliverable No. 5.1 iv List of abbreviations AL Arab League AMU Adam Mickiewicz University Art Article ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations CARICOM Caribbean Community CAT Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment CED Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women CERD Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination CFSP Common Foreign and Security Policy Ch Chapter CHR Commission on Human Rights CJEU Court of Justice of the European Union CMW Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families COAFR Africa Working Group of the Council of the European Union COASI Asia-Oceania Working Party of the Council of the European Union COHOM Human Rights Working Group of the Council of the European Union COMAG Mashreq/Maghreb Working Party of the Council of the European Union CONUN United Nations Working Party of the Council of the European Union COREPER Permanent Representatives Committee CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child CRPD UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities CSDP Common Security and Defence Policy CSO Civil society organisation CSR Corporate Social Responsibility DEVCO Commission’s DG Development and Cooperation – EUROPAID Doc Document DPKO Department of Peacekeeping Operations DPRK Democratic People’s Republic of Korea DROI European Parliament Subcommittee on Human Rights ECOSOC United Nations Economic and Social Council EctHR European Court of Human Rights Ed/eds Editor/editors EEAS European External Action Service EEC European Economic Community EIDHR European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights EMRIP Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples EP European Parliament ESCR Economic, social and cultural rights ESS European Security Strategy EU European Union EUSR EU Special Representative for Human Rights FAC Foreign Affairs Council FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
  • 6. FRAME Deliverable No. 5.1 v FREMP Working Party on Fundamental Rights, Citizens Rights and Free Movement of Persons GGS Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies GRULAC Latin American and Caribbean Group HoDs Heads of Delegations HoMs Heads of Missions HR/VP High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice- President of the European Commission HRC Human Rights Council HRCAC Human Rights Council Advisory Committee HRD Human rights defender ICC International Criminal Court ICCPR International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICESCR International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross ICT Information and communications technology ILO International Labour Organisation IPU Inter-Parliamentary Union KUL Katholieke Universiteit Leuven LGBTI Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex LMG Like Minded Group MDG Millennium Development Goals Mio Million MRM Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism N/No Number NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NGO Non-governmental organisation NHRI National Human Rights Institution OAS Organization of American States OHCHR Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights OIC Organization of the Islamic Conference OPT Occupied Palestinian Territories OSCE Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OUP Oxford University Press PHRC Poznan Human Rights Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences Para Paragraph PSC Political and Security Committee REIO Regional economic integration organisation R2P Responsibility to Protect Res Resolution RG Regional groups RtD Right to development SMEs Small and medium-sized enterprises SP Special Procedures SPT UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture SuR State under Review TEU Treaty on European Union TFEU Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union UDHR Universal Declaration of Human Rights UK United Kingdom UN United Nations
  • 7. FRAME Deliverable No. 5.1 vi UNCAT UN Committee against Torture UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNGA United Nations General Assembly UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UNIFEM UN Development Fund for Women UNSC United Nations Security Council UNSG United Nations Secretary-General UNWOMEN United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women UPR Universal Periodic Review US United States WEOG Western European and Others Group WHO World Health Organisation WTO World Trade Organisation
  • 8. FRAME Deliverable No. 5.1 vii Table of Contents Acknowledgements..................................................................................................................................i Executive Summary.................................................................................................................................ii List of abbreviations............................................................................................................................... iv Table of Contents.................................................................................................................................. vii Tables and Figures ................................................................................................................................ xv Authors..................................................................................................................................................xvi I. Introduction ....................................................................................................................................1 A. Aim..............................................................................................................................................1 B. Conceptual Framework...............................................................................................................3 1. Coherence, consistency, effectiveness...................................................................................3 2. Leadership...............................................................................................................................5 3. Mutual influence.....................................................................................................................6 C. Methodology...............................................................................................................................7 D. Structure ...................................................................................................................................10 II. The place of human rights and multilateralism in European Union’s external policy..................11 A. The EU’s Commitment to Effective Multilateralism .................................................................11 1. The concept of multilateralism in general............................................................................11 2. The EU’s commitment to effective multilateralism..............................................................12 a) Emergence and endorsement of the concept of effective multilateralism......................13 b) The notion of ‘effective’ multilateralism ..........................................................................14 c) Effective multilateralism in EU human rights policy.........................................................16 3. Conclusions ...........................................................................................................................16 B. Human rights in the EU’s external policy..................................................................................17 1. European Union Treaties ......................................................................................................17 a) General principles of the EU’s external actions................................................................17 b) Principles in the matters of Common Foreign and Security Policy...................................19 2. EU Guidelines on Human Rights ...........................................................................................19 3. EU Strategic Framework and Action Plan on Human Rights and Democracy.......................20 4. Conclusions ...........................................................................................................................22 III. Institutional Framework of EU-UN relations ............................................................................24 A. Mapping the United Nations.....................................................................................................24 1. Introduction ..........................................................................................................................24 2. United Nations – General Information .................................................................................24
  • 9. FRAME Deliverable No. 5.1 viii 3. Regional Groups....................................................................................................................26 4. Political Divisions...................................................................................................................26 5. UN venues.............................................................................................................................27 6. Legal instruments of the UN human rights system ..............................................................28 7. United Nations General Assembly........................................................................................30 8. United Nations Security Council ...........................................................................................32 9. United Nations Human Rights Council..................................................................................33 a) Universal Periodic Review (UPR).......................................................................................34 b) Special Procedures (SP).....................................................................................................35 c) Complaint Procedure ........................................................................................................36 d) The Human Rights Council Advisory Committee ..............................................................36 10. Treaty Bodies ....................................................................................................................37 11. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights................................38 12. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)...................................................39 13. International Labour Organisation (ILO)...........................................................................39 14. Other UN bodies, agencies, programmes and mechanisms.............................................41 15. Conclusions .......................................................................................................................42 B. Mapping the European Union: Major EU Human Rights Stakeholders involved directly or indirectly in cooperation with the UN ..............................................................................................43 1. European Council..................................................................................................................43 2. Council of the European Union.............................................................................................46 a) Foreign Affairs Council......................................................................................................46 b) COREPER ...........................................................................................................................47 c) Political and Security Committee......................................................................................48 d) CONUN..............................................................................................................................48 e) COHOM .............................................................................................................................48 f) FREMP...............................................................................................................................50 3. EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice President of the Commission...................................................................................................................................50 4. EEAS ......................................................................................................................................52 5. EU Special Representative for Human Rights .......................................................................54 6. European Commission ..........................................................................................................55 7. European Parliament ............................................................................................................56 8. Member States......................................................................................................................57 C. External representation............................................................................................................58
  • 10. FRAME Deliverable No. 5.1 ix 1. Status of the EU in the UN and the UN system.....................................................................59 a) EU legal framework..................................................................................................
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