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An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (Janet Holmes) Chapter One: What do sociolinguists study? - Sociolinguistics: a term that refers to the study of the relationship between language and society, and how language is used in multilingual speech communities. Q what aspects of language are Sociolinguists interested in? Sociolinguists are interested in explaining why people speak differently in different social contexts. And the effect of social factors such as (soci
  An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (Janet Holmes)Chapter One: What do sociolinguists study?- Sociolinguistics : a term that refers to the study of the relationship between language and society, and how language is used in multilingual speech communities.  !hat aspects o language are Sociolinguists interested in? Sociolinguists are interested in explaining why people speak differently in different social contexts. And the effect of social factors such as (social distance, social status, age, gender, class) on language varieties (dialects, registers, genres, etc), and they are concerned with identifying the social functions of language and the way they are used to convey social meanings.  !hat do sociolinguists mean #y the term $ariety? A variety is a set of linguistic forms used under specific social circumstances, with a distinctive social distribution. !ormality increases between participants (  speaker and hearer  ) when the social distance is greater. nformality (Solidarity) increases when the social distance is little between participants (  speaker and hearer  ). Social status depends on a number of factors such as social rank, wealth, age, gender and so on# therefore the person with the higher social status has the choice of using formality or informality (solidarity) when addressing other persons of lower social status. $ut the person with the lower social status uses only formality when addressing a person of higher social status. Chapter %!o: &ultilingual speech communities-   'omains : domains of language use, a term popularised by an American sociolinguist, %oshua !ishman. A domain of language involves typical interactions between typical participants in typical settings about a typical topic. &xamples of these domains are family, friendship, religion, education and employment. - Setting : the physical situation or the typical place where speech interactions occur (code choice), settings such as home, church, mos'ue, school, office, etc. - 'iglossia : communities rather in which two languages or language varieties are used with one  being a high variety for formal situations and prestige, and a low variety for informal situations (everyday conversation). iglossia has three crucial features# two distinct varieties of the same language are used in the community, with one regarded as high () variety and the other as low (*) variety. &ach variety is used for 'uite distinct functions#  + * complement each other. o one usesthe  variety in everyday conversation.   Example : the standard classical Arabic language is the high variety in Arab countries, and it is used for writing and for formal functions, but vernacular (collo'uial) Arabic is the low variety used for informal speech situations. - olyglossia : basically polyglossia situations involve two contrasting varieties (high and low) but in general it refers to communities that regularly use more than two languages. - Code-s!itching: it is to move from one code (language, dialect, or style) to another during speechfor a number of reasons such, to signal solidarity, to reflect one-s ethnic identity, to show off, to hidesome information from a third party, to achieve better explanation of a certain concept, to converge or reduce social distance with the hearer, to diverge or increase social distance or to impress and  persuade the audience (metaphorical codeswitching) - e*ical #orro!ing : it results from the lack of vocabulary and it involves borrowing single words  / mainly nouns. 0hen speaking a second language, people will often use a term from their first language because they don-t know the appropriate word in their second language. 1hey also my  borrow words from another language to express a concept or describe an ob2ect for which there is no obvious word available in the language they are using. * Code switching   involves a choice between the words of two languages or varieties, but  Lexical borrowing   is resulted from the lack of vocabulary. Chapter %hree: anguage maintenance and shi t- anguage shi t : it happens when the language of the wider society (ma2ority) displaces the minority mother tongue language over time in migrant communities or in communities under military occupation. 1herefore when language shift occurs, it shifts most of the time towards the language of the dominant group, and the result could be the eradication of the local language  What actors lead to language shi t? &conomic, social and political factor 31he dominant language is associated with social status and prestige45btaining work is the obvious economic reason for learning another language61he pressure of institutional domains such as schools and the mediaemographic factors3*anguage shift is faster in urban areas than rural41he si7e of the group is some times a critical factor 6 ntermarriage between groups can accelerate language shiftAttitudes and values3*anguage shift is slower among communities where the minority language is highly valued, therefore when the language is seen as an important symbol of ethnic identity its generally maintained longer, and visa versa.8888888888888888888888888888888888888888  anguage death and anguage loss: When all the people who speak a language die, the language dies with them.  0ith the spread of a ma2ority group language into more and more domains, the number of contexts in which individuals use the ethnic language diminishes. 1he language usually retreats till it is used only in the home, and finally it is restricted to such personal activities as counting, praying and dreaming.  Ho! can a minority language #e maintained?+  A language can be maintained and preserved, when it-s highly valued as an important symbol of ethnic identity for the minority group. ,  f families from a minority group live near each other and see each other fre'uently, their interactions will help to maintain the language.   !or emigrate individuals from a minority group, the degree and fre'uency of contact with the homeland can contribute to language maintenance. .  ntermarriage within the same minority group is helpful to maintain the native language. /  &nsuring that the minority group language is used at formal settings such as schools or worship  places will increases language maintenance. 0  An extended normal family in which parents, children and grandchildren live together and use the same minority language can help to maintain it. 1  nstitutional support from domains such as education, law, administration, religion and the mediacan make a difference between the success and failure of maintaining a minority group language.8888888888888888888888888888888888888888 - anguage re$i$al: some times a community becomes aware that its language is in danger of disappearing and takes steps to revitalises it. 2*ample : n 39;, two thirds of the 0elsh people spoke Welsh , but by 3<9;, only 4;= of the population spoke Welsh , therefore the 0elsh people began a revival process of Welsh  language by using a Welsh-language  1> channel and bilingual education programs that used Welsh  as medium of instruction at schools. Chapter 3our: inguistic $arieties and multilingual nations - 4ernacular language:   t generally refers to a language which has not been standardised or codified and which does not have official status (uncodified or standardised variety). t generally refers to the most collo'uial variety in a person-s linguistic repertoire. - Standard anguage:  a standard variety is generally one which is written, and which has undergone some degree of regulation or codification (in a grammar and a dictionary). 5  1he development of Standard &nglish illustrates the three essential criteria which characterise a standard: t emerged in the 3? th  as a delicate of the *ondon area and it was influential or  prestigious  variety (it was used by the merchants of *ondon, it was codified   and  stabilised   (the introduction of  the first printing press by @axton accelerated its codification), and it  served  functions  in that it was used for communication at @ourt, for literature and for administration. - World 2nglishes:  world &nglish languages are classified into, inner circle &nglishes as in the B,SA (  English as a native or first language )# 5uter circle &nglishes as in ndia, Calaysia, 1an7ania (  English as a second language with an official status!,  and &xpanding circle &nglishes as @hina, %apan, Dussia (  English as a foreign language ).8888888888888888888888888888888888888888 - ingua ranca:  a language used for communication between different language users, for people whose first languages differ, such as pidgin between &uropean coloni7ers and African slaves (Swahili). - idgin:  it is a language which has no native speakers. Eidgins develop as a means of communication between people who don-t have a common language. - Creole:  when a pidgin becomes the language of newlyborn generations as a mothertongue or first language, and ac'uires additional vocabulary and grammatical structures to serve their various necessary communicative needs (referential and social functions) it becomes a @reole. Chapter 3i$e: 6ational languages and language planning- 6ational language : it is the main language of political, social and cultural practices, where peopleuse it as a symbol of their national unity 7  5fficial language is the language used by governments for formal functions 7   n a monolingual community, a national language is usually also the official language, but in bilingual or multilingual communities, it may or may not be the official language. !or example: &nglish and !rench are both official languages in @anada.  lanning or a national o icial language:+  Selection: selecting the variety or code to by developed. ,  @odification: standardising its structural or linguistic features.   &laboration: extending its functions for use in new domains. .  Securing its acceptance: acceptance by people in terms of attitude + prestige.8888888888888888888888888888888888888888 5 *inguists have played an important role at the micro level of language planning activates. Cany of them work as members of communities with a lot of influence on language planning, and especially on the standardi7ation or codification of a particular variety.  Example : Samuel %ohnson-s ;,;;;word dictionary was a landmark in the codification of &nglish. - Ac8uisition planning : sociolinguists can make a contribution to organi7ed efforts to spread a language by increasing the number of its users, by using it in the education system ( language-in-  Education planning  ) or in the media domains such as news papers, radio, etc. Chapter Si*: 9egional and social dialects- Accent:  accents are distinguished from each other by pronunciation.
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