A Comparative Study Between Silicon, Metals and Some Biodegradable Materials in the Gate Fabrication Process of the Voltage Controlled Switch Transistor Experimentally and Theoretically

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Recently, sustainable issues are the significant subject of the environmental attributes which encourage manufacturers to look for biodegradable and bio-sourced products in any application besides lower costs and improved performance.In this paper a comparative study between using the silicon material instead of metal in the formulation of the gate of the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) has been presented. Substitution of traditional materials to manufacture the gate of the voltage controlled switch (MOSFET) by alternative polymers to meet environmental requirements and understood the need for sustainable issues are also introduced.A theoretical review was involving mathematical calculations to realize the difference in employing the silicon and other metals such as copper in fabrication process. The experimental test process in this approach was focused on the characteristics of the selective material to provide the required electrical properties with respect to specific layout dimensions of the sheet of the gate.
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   Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development    Vol. 22, No. 2 (part-2), March 2018 www.jeasd.org (ISSN 2520-0917) The Fourth Scientific Engineering and First Sustainable Engineering Conference 64   A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN SILICON, METALS AND SOME BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS IN THE GATE FABRICATION PROCESS OF THE VOLTAGE CONTROLLED SWITCH TRANSISTOR: EXPERIMENTALLY AND THEORETICALLY * Munaf Fathi Badr  P 1 P , Suhad Dawood Salman P 2   1)   Asst. Prof., Mechanical Engineering Department, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq. 2)   Lecturer, Mechanical Engineering Department, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq. Abstract: Recently, sustainable issues are the significant subject of the environmental attributes which encourage manufacturers to look for biodegradable and bio-sourced products in any application besides lower costs and improved performance.In this paper a comparative study between using the silicon material instead of metal in the formulation of the gate of the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) has been presented. Substitution of traditional materials to manufacture the gate of the voltage controlled switch (MOSFET) by alternative polymers to meet environmental requirements and understood the need for sustainable issues are also introduced.A theoretical review was involving mathematical calculations to realize the difference in employing the silicon and other metals such as copper in fabrication process. The experimental test process in this approach was focused on the characteristics of the selective material to provide the required electrical properties with respect to specific layout dimensions of the sheet of the gate. Keywords :  MOSFET transistor, fabrication process, silicon material, biodegradable material, electrical conductivity, ﺔﺳ ﺭﺩﻧﺭﺎﻘﻣﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋﻭ   ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧ   ﻰﻠﻋﻥﻮﻜﻠﻴﺴﻟ ﺓﺩﺎﻣ   ﻡ ﺪﺨﺘﺳﻌﺑﻭ   ﻥﺩﺎﻌﻤﻟ ﻭﻟ ﻮﻴﻌﻴﺒﻄﻟ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺑ ﻮﺑ   ﻊﻴﻨﺼﺗﺡﺎﺘﻔﻣﺮﻄﻴﺴﻟﻠﻋﻴ ﺎﺑﺮﻬﻜﻟ ﺔﻴﺘﻟﻮﻔﻟﻮﺘﺳﺰﻧ ﺮﺘﻟ : ﺔﺻﻼﺨﻟ ﻓﺕﺎﺒﻠﻄﺘﻣ   ﺖﺤﺒﺻﺍ   ﺓﺮﻴﺧﻻﺍ   ﺔﻧﻭﻻﺍﺍﺫ   ﺭﻮﻣﻻﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺔﻣﺍﺪﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺪﻨﻬﻴﻤﻫﻻﺍﻊﻴﺠﺸﺗ   ﻰﻟﺍ   ﺕﺩﺍ   ﺚﻴﺤﺑ   ﺕﻻﺎﺠﻤﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺮﻴﺜﻛ   ﻲﻗﺔﻳﻮﻴﺤﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻄﻟﺍ   ﻞ ﺍﺪﺒﻟﺍ   ﺩﺎﺠﻳﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻦﻴﻌﻨﺼﻤﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺮﻴﺜﻛ .  ﺍﺩﻻﺍ   ﻲﻓ   ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺗ   ﻊﻣ   ﺔﺌﻁﺍﻭ   ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ   ﺔﻔﻠﻜﺑﻭ   ﺕﺎﻘﻴﺒﻄﺘﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺮﻴﺜﻛ   ﻲﻓ   ﺎﻬﻣﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﻻ   ﻲﻓﺚﺤﺒﻟﺍ   ﺍﻢﺗﻮﺣ   ﺔﻧﺭﺎﻘﻣ   ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ   ﻢﻳﺪﻘﺗﻴﻧﺎﻜﻣﺍﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍﻳﻮﻴﺤﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻄﻟﺍ   ﺩﺍﻮﻤﻟﺍ   ﻯﺪﺣﺍﺣﺮﺘﻘﻣ   ﻞ ﺍﺪﺒﻛﻲﻓﺔﺑﺍﻮﺒﻟ   ﻊﻴﻨﺼﺘﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋﻉﻮﻧ   ﺭﻮﺘﺳﺰﻧﺍﺮﺘﻟﺍ )(MOSFET ﺘﻟﻮﻔﻟﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺓﺮﻄﻴﺳ   ﻭﺫ   ﺡﺎﺘﻔﻤﻛ   ﻡﺪﺨﺘﺴﻳ   ﻱﺬﻟﺍﻠﻋ   ﺎﻀﻳﺍ   ﺖﻠﻤﺘﺷﺍ   ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ  . ﺔﻴ ﺎﺑﺮﻬﻜﻟﺍﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧ   ﺐﻧﺍﻮﺟﺎﺑﺎﺴﺣ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻱﻮﺤﺗﻴﻘﻴﺒﻄﺗ   ﻯﺮﺧﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﺿﺎﻳﺭﻴﻨﺼﺘﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ   ﻲﻓ   ﺱﺎﺤﻨﻟﺍ   ﻞﺜﻣ   ﻯﺮﺧﻻﺍ   ﻥﺩﺎﻌﻤﻟﺍ   ﻭﺍ   ﻥﻮﻜﻴﻠﺴﻟﺍ   ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ   ﻲﻓ   ﻕﺮﻔﻟﺍ   ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟﻦﻣ . ﺔﻴ ﺎﺑﺮﻬﻜﻟﺍ   ﺺ ﺎﺼﺨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﺣﺎﻧﻠﻋ   ﺕﺰﻛﺭ   ﻲﺘﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﺮﺒﺘﺨﻤﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﺻﻮﺤﻔﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ   ﺏﺭﺎﺠﺘﻟﺍ   ﺍﺮﺟﺍ   ﺎﻀﻳﺍ   ﻦﻤﻀﺗ   ﺚﺤﺒﻟﺍﻓﻮﺗ   ﻯﺪﻣﻟﺍﺺ ﺎﺼﺔﺑﻮﻠﻄﻤﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴ ﺎﺑﺮﻬﻜﻟﺍﻓﺭﻮﺘﺳﺰﻧﺮﺘﻟﺍ   ﺔﺑﺍﻮﺑ   ﻊﻴﻨﺼﺘﻟ   ﺓﺩﺪﺤﻣ   ﺔﻴﺳﺪﻨﻫ   ﺩﺎﻌﺑﺎﺑﻭ   ﺓﺭﺎﺘﺨﻤﻟﺍ   ﺩﺍﻮﻤﻟﺍ .   1.   2T Introduction  In the last decades the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) was considered as one of the most important types of the transistors that could be used   * munaf _67@yahoo.com   Vol. 22, No. 2 (part-2), March 2018 ISSN 2520-0917 www.jeasd.org   Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development    Vol. 22, No. 2 (part-2), March 2018 www.jeasd.org (ISSN 2520-0917) The Fourth Scientific Engineering and First Sustainable Engineering Conference 65   in several electronic applications such as amplifying electronic signals or voltage controlled switching devices. It represents the basic element in the design of the most complex integrated circuits because of its simplicity in structure and eases to integration as well as consumed low electrical power [1],[2]. An integrated circuit or (IC) is simply defined as a combination of several electronic circuits that constructed in very small plate made of silicon named as chip which represent the basic semiconductor material. This formulation process of integrated circuit can be produced as much as smaller size than a discrete circuits made from separately or independent electronic components [3]. Historically, the first semiconductor chips consists of two transistors but the rapid advances leads to add more transistors and more functions or systems were integrated over time. Although bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) was invented first, but it can be seen today that all microprocessors use the MOSFET transistors instead of bipolar  because it can be operated at low level of voltages in comparison with the bipolar (BJTs) [1,3]. The manufacturing of MOSFET has been done by patterning multiple layers of semiconductor materials, metals in addition to dielectrics. All these layers are patterned according to the specified design. Fabricating a particular design requires wafers which usually made of silicon to go through all processing steps under control of a full set of lithographic photo masks. Wafer or also called substrate can be defined as a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as crystalline silicon that it was used in electronic applications of the fabrication process of integrated circuits [4]. Consequently the traditional MOSFET is obtained by growing a layer of silicon dioxide (SiO R 2 R ) on the top of a silicon substrate and then depositing a layer of metal or  polycrystalline silicon material. The older technology was used metals such as Aluminum (Al) to formulate the gate of the MOSFET while the newer technology uses  polysilicon material as a conductive region that electrically isolated from the substrate of the transistor by a layer of gate oxide. It can be noticed that the industry which deals with MOSFET technology had moved away from metals in forming the gate material due to the complex fabrication process of the metals [4]. In this work, a comparative study was made between the current materials that used in fabrication process of the voltage controlled switch (MOSFET) and alternative  polymers like low-density polyethylene (LDPE), Polypropylene (PP), Polystyrene (PS), Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinyl butyral (PVB). In addition, experimentally evaluating of the electrical conductivity tests for polymers was done to identify the resistivity or specific resistance (  ρ ) [5-7]. This paper was organized as in the following, the brief review of the MOSFET conduction states and its fabrication process was introduced in sections two and three respectively while the results of the experimental work has been presented in section four followed by conclusions in section five.   Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development    Vol. 22, No. 2 (part-2), March 2018 www.jeasd.org (ISSN 2520-0917) The Fourth Scientific Engineering and First Sustainable Engineering Conference 66   2. Basic Configuration of MOSFET The MOSFET transistor is represented as a four terminals device that has source denoted by (S), gate (G), drain (D), and body (B) as shown in figure (1) [1]. The body or substrate of the MOSFET is usually connected to the source terminal, making it a three terminal device like other types of field effect transistors. Because of these two terminals are internally connected to each other, so it can be considered the MOSFETs as a three terminals device with a gate, drain and source and classified into P-channel (PMOS) and N-channel (NMOS) as shown in figure (1) [1-3].   As mentioned in figure (1) the substrate of the MOSFET is denoted by (B) or bulk contact and bulk (body) in which the charge carriers could travel through the semiconductors and not just at the surface. Physically the substrate of the (MOSFET) is normally made of silicon that doped to formulate either p-type or n-type. Actually the (MOSFET) can be worked in three operation regions depending on the differences in the voltages existing at the three terminals of the transistor as shown in figure (2). The states of operation of MOSFET transistor as a voltage controlled switch is either (OFF) state and in this case there is no electrical current will pass or the second state in which the current will flow and the transistor is (ON). The states of conduction of MOSFET can be subdivided into linear, cut off and saturation regions according to the level of the applied voltages across the terminals of the transistor as well as the threshold voltage ( Vt  )) [1]. Mathematically the equations that govern the operation of the transistor are written in terms of current that passing between the drain and source Figure 2. The Voltages across the MOSFET Transistor Figure 1. The Symbols of MOSFET Transistors     Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development    Vol. 22, No. 2 (part-2), March 2018 www.jeasd.org (ISSN 2520-0917) The Fourth Scientific Engineering and First Sustainable Engineering Conference 67   (  I  R  D R ). This equation involves the gain factor of the transistor (  β  ) which depends on both the physical parameters and the important dimensions of the transistor layout as shown figure (3) [3]. Hence the mathematical equation that describes the gain factor of the MOSFET transistor was formulated as in the following [3]:- )(( ) ε  β µ  = oxox t W  L   (1)  where  β =  the gain factor of the MOSFET, (A/V P 2 P ).  µ = a measure of the mobility of the charge carriers, (m P 2 P /V.s). Ɛ  R ox R  = the electric permittivity of the gate oxide material, (F/m). t  R ox R = the thickness of the gate oxide,(µm). W   = the actual width of the poly gate, (µm).  L  = the length of the transistor gate, (µm). 3. Fabrication of MOSFET As mentioned previously the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) acts as a voltage-controlled switch with three terminals named source, drain, and gate. In fact the name of metal-oxide-semiconductor comes from the three layers of material that make up the transistor. The symbol “n” refers to the negative charge and represents the electrons, while the symbol “p” refers to the positive charge and represents the holes that flow through a channel in the semiconductor material  between the source and the drain of the transistor [3]. At the current fabrication technology of (MOSFET) the process has been done in a manner which allows transistors to be formed in the semiconductor material. Basically the fabrication steps of the MOSFET start with blank silicon wafer covered with layer of silicon dioxide exposed with ultra-violate (UV) light to formulate the and positive and negative regions (p-type and n-type) of the transistor [1]. the Polycrystalline silicon or (Poly) has been used to formulate the gates of the MOSFET transistor. Polysilicon gate, which is patterned before the doping process Figure 3. The Basic Layout of the MOSFET Transistor 
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