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  Technical Material 43 AC Fans Sanyo Denki succeeded in the mass-production of AC fans in 1965. Sanyo Denki was the 󿬁rst Japanese manufacturer to have succeeded at this.  High performance  High reliability  Safety DC Fans Sanyo Denki succeeded in the mass-production of DC fans in 1982.  High performance  Low power consumption  Low vibration  Low leakage of 󿬂ux  High reliabilityA cooling fan is widely used to extend life of your system by cooling off heat of the system that many electrical components are mounted in a very high density and dissipating heat. Since we Sanyo Denki developed  San Ace  which is the 󿬁rst AC fan in Japan in 1965, we have increased fan motor lineup until now meeting customer  s needs rapidly based on our tremendous career. We Sanyo Denki will continue to develop new fans with high air 󿬂ow, low noise, low vibration, and energy - saving design. Overview Overview and characteristics of fan Characteristics The following example is a guideline regarding how to select an appropriate fan for cooling your system 1. Determining of your system speci󿬁cations and conditions Determine the temperature rise inside your system and obtain the total heating value inside your system on the basis of its inputs and outputs.   Example V : Total heating value of your system  W  =100  W     T : Inside temperature rise  K  =15  K  2. Calculating the Required Air 󿬂ow for Cooling After the equipment specifications and conditions of your system have been determined, calculate required air flow to meet the conditions.(Note that the formula shown below only applies when the heat radiation is performed only by cooling air from the fan.)   Example   Q': Motion air 󿬂ow  m 3  /min   V 100  W   Q  = 20  T = 20  15  K  0.33  m 3  /min  3. Selecting the Fan After the motion air 󿬂ow has been calculated, select an appropriate fan motor based on the value.The motion air 󿬂ow when the fan motor is actually mounted in your system can be obtained using the air 󿬂ow-static pressure characteristics curve and system impedance.However, the system impedance cannot be measured without a measuring equipment, so fan with 1.5 to 2 times higher air 󿬂ow than the actual maximum air 󿬂ow should be selected (operating air 󿬂ow is one-third to two-thirds of maximum air 󿬂ow).Example   Q: Maximum air 󿬂ow  m 3  /min   Q  =Q  2/3 Q=Q  3/2=0.33  3/2  0.5  m 3  /min  Next, In case that you select a fan having an air flow of 0.5 (m 3  /min.) or more and a appropriate size for the space inside your system.For example, If you need a fan of 80mm square, 25mm thickness and 100V, you should select is 109S030 (maximum air 󿬂ow = 0.55 3  /min.). 4. Con󿬁rming the Selected Fan Calculate the temperature rise inside your sysetem when your sysetem having 100 (W) of total heating value is forcefully cooled down by a 109S030 fan.   Example   Q  =Q  2/3=0.53  2/3  0.367  m 3  /min   T =V/20Q  =100  W   /20  0.367  m 3  /min  13.6  K  From the above, the temperature rise inside your system is calculated as 13.6  K  .Since the value obtained from the above equation is only a rough target, 󿬁nal fan selection should be based on your actual installation test.  How to select an appropriate fan Guideline in selecting a fan VTQ' SystemHeat sourceFan  Static pressureSystem impedanceAir flowOperating air flowPressure loss Characteristics of air flow versus static pressure and those of pressure losses of equipment We can roughly devide fan into two types which are AC and DC.Sanyo Denki currently has a wider variety of products like Long Life Fan, CPU cooler, Splash Proof Fan, and Oil Proof Fan etc to meet all customer needs.  44 A fan generally cools itself as well. The temperature rise of the motor is relatively low and the temperature rise of the grease in the bearings is also low, so expected life is longer than general some either motors. Since the service life of bearings is a theoretical value that applies when they are ideally lubricated, the life of lubricant can be regarded as expected life of the fan. The expected life of an AC fan used at an ambient temperature 60   is 25,000 hours. When the measurement conditions are: L10 (the remaining product life in the lifespan test is 90%), with an atmospheric temperature of 60 degrees, at the rated voltage and with continuous free air. The right table indicates the relationship between ambient temperature and expected life estimated on the basis of our life tests and same other tests conducted by Sanyo Denki. An accelerated life test is conducted on the basis of the concept that the expected life halves as the ambient temperature rises by about 15   (within the operating temperature range of lubricant.) Reliability and Expected Life Characteristics calculation method and description Expected life of AC Fans   201210  10 4  5406080100 Ambient temperature      E   x   p   e   c    t   e    d     l    i    f   e                H       Expected life25000h  L10, 60  Rated voltage, continuously run in a free air state, survival rate of 90% Noise characteristics Noise is average value that measured at 1 meter away from air intake side of fan that is suspended on special frame in anechoic chamber (as per JIS B 8330). FanNoise meterAIR FLOW   Acoustic radio wave anechoic chamberNoise characteristic measurement equipment Measuring air 󿬂ow and static pressure It is very dif󿬁cult to measure air 󿬂ow and static pressure. In fact, the performance curve may vary greatly according to the type of measuring equiment. The commonly-used type of measuring equipment is a wind tunnel using a Pitot tube. Sanyo Denki uses a very precise method using double chamber equipped with many nozzles. Q  60A v  ¯   A  whereQ = air 󿬂ow  m 3  /min  A = cross sectional area of nozzle    4 D 2  m 2  D = nozzle diameter v  ¯    = average air flow velocity of nozzle  2g  Pn  m/sec   : Air speci󿬁c gravity  kg/m 3     1.2kg/m 3  at 20  , 1 atmospheric pressure  g = acceleration of gravity = 9.8  m/sec 2  Pn= differential pressure  mm H 2 O  Ps = static pressure  mm H 2 O  The measuring equipment using double chanber is method to be calculated from air 󿬂ow goes through nozzle and differential pressure between pressure of inside of chamber (Ps) and atomospheric pressure by measuring differetial pressure between air intake and exhaust of nozzle (Pn). Conversion Table Static pressure 1mm H 2 O  0.0394inch H 2 O1mm H 2 O  9.8Pa  Pascal  1inch H 2 O  25.4mm H 2 O1Pa  0.102mm H 2 O1inch H 2 O  249Pa Air 󿬂ow 1m 3  /min  35.31ft 3  /min  CFM  1CFM  0.0283m 3  /min1m 3  /min  16.67   /sec1CFM  0.472   /sec1   /sec  0.06m 3  /min Chamber A Double chamber measuring equipment Chamber BThrottle device U-shaped tubeU-shaped tube  NozzleFan to be measured  Auxiliary blower    T  e  c   h  n   i  c  a   l   M  a   t  e  r   i  a   l  Technical Material 45 GND (Black) should be shared in case that power supply for sensor circuit (Brown) and that for sensor pull-up (Yellow) are separated. AC Fan Common Speci󿬁cations Protection FunctionsIf the fan blades are restricted, an overcurrent occurs and leads to a rise in the fan coil temperature. This can result in reduced performance, damage, or a 󿬁re. To prevent this from occurring, Sanyo Denki  s fans incorporate an overheating protection function. Burnout protection function at locked rotor condition  Impedance protection (60mm sq. 80mm sq. 92mm sq. 120mm sq.)This system is used for shading coil-type fans. When the blades are restricted, the current is reduced by the impedance of the coil itself to prevent a temperature rise in the coil. However, if the applied voltage exceeds the speci󿬁cation range, an overcurrent can occur and result in overheating, and so care needs to be taken.  Thermal protection (160mm sq.  172mm)This system is used for condenser phase-type fans. A temperature sensor is incorporated in the coil so that if the temperature exceeds the speci󿬁cation temperature, the current is cut off to prevent overheating of the coil. Overheating protection function Material    Frame:Aluminum,Impeller:Plastics Expected Life    Varies for each model (L10:Survival rate:90% at 60  ,rated voltage,and continuously run in a free air state) Motor Construction    Shaded coil motor (60mm sq. 80mm sq. 92mm sq. 120mm sq.) Capacitor motor (160mm sq.  172mm) Motor Protection System    Burnout protection at locked rotor condition Dielectric Strength    50/60Hz 1500VAC 1minute  (between input terminal and frame or between lead conductor and frame *For details, refer to the appropriate page.) Insulation Resistance    10M   or more at 500VDC megger (between lead conductor and frame) Sound Pressure Level(SPL)    Expressed as the value at 1m from air inlet side Operating Voltage Range    10% Storage Temperature    -30   to +70  (Non-condensing) Lead Wire    For details, refer to the appropriate page. Speci󿬁cations of sensor circuit Speci󿬁cations for AC fan sensor 5V  ITEM-20*  12V  ITEM-30*  Example of model.no109S405ULSystemSpeed detection, Auto-restart, Open collectorPower supplyDC5V  10%   At 5V, 6mADC12V  20%   At 12V, 10mA Recommend sensor circuit output At Vp  5V, I  100mA max.At Vp  12V, I  200mA max.Trip pointStandard speed  1,700min -1  10% Low speed  850min -1  10%Response speedStandard speed  Startup delay   18sec   Detection delay   1sec Low speed  Startup delay   36sec   Detection delay   2secInsulation resistance10 M   MIN. at a 500V DC megger   (Note)Dielectric strength50/60 Hz, 1,000V AC, 1 minute   (Note)Ambient conditionsTemperature:  10 to  60  , humidity: 90%RH MAX. (at 40  ) Note: Between one end that all sensor leads consisting of brown, yellow and black are tied together and the G terminal or power terminal of the fan. Sensor scheme Example 1: When the AC power for the fan and the DC power forthe sensor are turned on at the same time Sensor Output Circuit Example 2: When the AC power for the fan is turned on 󿬁rst,then the DC power for sensor is powered onExample 3: When the DC power for sensor is 󿬁rst powered on, then the AC power for the fan is turned on DC Power for sensor circuitSpeed for fanTrip pointSensor outputAC power for fanStartup delay Detection delayDetection delay Circuit voltage    Voltage between yellow and black leads DC Powerfor sensor circuit Fan speedTrip point Sensor outputAC power for fan motor Detection delayStartup delay DC Powerfor sensor circuit SpeedTrip point Sensor outputAC power for fan motor Detection delay  4.5V to  5.5VGND  0V     S  e  n  s  o  r  c   i  r  c  u   i   t BrownYellowBlack  27.6V MAX. 100mA MAX. Sensor output Pull-up resistor  9.6V to  14.4VGND  0V     S  e  n  s  o  r  c   i  r  c  u   i   t BrownYellowBlack  27.6V MAX. 200mA MAX. Sensor output Pull-up resistor 5V  ITEM-20*  12V  ITEM-30*  *[ITEM-20] and [ITEM-30] are printed on the fan nameplate. Nameplate  46 Tightening Torque This shows the recommended values for the tightening torque when installing the fans. If the tightening torque is higher than the recommended values, the fan can be deformed or damaged. Use care when tightening. Recommended screw torquesFans : 0.44N  m (4.5kgf  cm) MAX. (with M3 screws)Fans : 0.78N  m (8kgf  cm) MAX. (with M4 screws)(160mm  160mm  172mm) Handling precautions The fan motor is equipped with a precision ball bearing. Therefore, please handle the motors carefully in order not to shock the bearings. Installation There are no limitations on the installation direction. Fans have symbols on the fan indicating the air󿬂ow direction and blade rotation direction. When installing, use these symbols to check the air󿬂ow direction. Air Flow direction Symbols indicating the fan airflow direction and blade rotation direction Blade rotation directionSuction sideDischarge side Cautions for use of a cooling fan in the vicinity of a power switching circuit  (prevention of electrolytic corrosion) UPS, inverter, recti󿬁er, high-voltage power supply, etc. Storage temperature There is no performance problem when the system is used at between -30   and +70  . There is a possibility that same problem of lubricant and insulation inside motor might occur by condensing due to rapid surrounding temperature change. Therefore, please take care of non-condensing using desiccant or something during fan is in storage. Operating precautions Operating precautions If a fan is installed near a large-power or high-voltage switching circuit, the heavy electromagnetic noise resulting from electromagnetic induction in such circuits or the in󿬂uence of high-frequency noise imposed through the power line of the fan may induce current through the shaft bearing of the fan.Such current may damage the oil 󿬁lm on the bearing and even the friction surface of the bearing.This adverse effect is known as electrolytic corrosion of the fan. Electrolytic corrosion affects the smooth revolution of the fan and may reduce its service life. An audible symptom is unusual noise emitted from the fan.This adverse effect is often observed and may partly be explained by the practice of mounting high-density parts, which reduces the gap between the switching circuits and the fan and the use of higher switching frequencies apt to provoke induction. Data processing/communications devices that operate at low voltages are not liable to electrolytic corrosion since they generate less electromagnetic noise. A Case of Electrolytic CorrosionMeasures against Electrolytic Corrosion (1) Relocate fans far from all electromagnetic noise sources.(2) Use anti-corrosion fans equipped with ceramic bearings.  Refer to page 37 (3) As a power supply, the fan is wired from a circuit for which noise is not superimposed.*The EMC guard could be effective against electromagnetic noise caused by radiation, but against heavy electromagnetic noise (electromagnetic induction) and conductive noise from the power supply line for a fan, we recommend the use of an anti-electrolytic corrosion fan with ceramic bearing.Fans without anti-corrosion features installed near components that generate electromagnetic noise, such as inverter controllers, are liable to experience electrolytic corrosion.The curve shown in the graph below represents the relationship between the level of the electromagnetic noise induced by a fan and the distance from the fan to the noise source. Range in which electrolyticcorrosion is generated    L  e  v  e   l  o   f  n  o   i  s  e   i  n   d  u  c  e   d    b  y  a   f  a  n Distance from the noise source to the fan Range in which electrolyticcorrosion is not generated No.Use Period until the occurrence of unusual noise 1Switching power supply6 months to 2 years2UPS6 months to 2 years3General-purpose inverter1 to 1.5 years Custom ProductRefer to page 37 (1)The fan gets charged with high-frequency electricity by high-frequency noise (electric 󿬁eld/magnetic 󿬁eld) generated in the switching circuit.(2) Because of high-frequency electricity charged in the fan, an electric current 󿬂ows through the bearing of the fan. (3) The electric current breaks the oil membrane on the surface of the bearing and the bearing gets abraded (electrolytically corroded). (4) This symptom often occurs in equipment in which switching circuits are sped up and implemented in high density. (5) Countermeasure 1: To provide a shield plate  (Note 1)  inside the fan (The plate should be such that does not interfere with air 󿬂ow.) (6) Countermeasure 2: To use a fan with ceramic bearings. (1) High-frequency electricity 󿬂ows from the circuit board into the inside of the fan superimposed with the power line for the fan. (2)High-frequency electricity that has entered into the fan 󿬂ows through the bearing. (3) Oil membrane on the surface of the bearing gets broken and the bearing gets abraded (electrolytically corroded). (4) Countermeasure 1:  To remove high-frequency component between terminals a and b , a and e   and b and e of the power supply for the fan, or to insert a 󿬁lter  (Note 2)  into the power line for the fan. (5) Countermeasure 2: To use a fan with ceramic bearings   (6)Cables should be twisted in order to decrease induction to the power line for the fan. Switching circuit board of the equipment Power supply for the fanTerminal b Circuit board groundingFan cabinetMetal cabinet of the equipmentComponent parts of  the switching circuit e Wind Terminal a Electric field/magnetic field of  the high-frequency electricityPattern 1Shielding metalPattern 2 Mountingscrew High-frequency electricity is superimposed onto the power line for the fan. Return path of the high-frequency electricityPropeller  Grounding to the cabinet  Occurrence of electrolytic corrosion Pattern 1Occurrence of electrolytic corrosion Pattern 2    T  e  c   h  n   i  c  a   l   M  a   t  e  r   i  a   l Note 1  Shielding metal plate As an electromagnetic shield metal, EMC Guard is available from our company.  Certain shielding effect can be expected from mounting a general-purpose 󿬁nger guard inside the fan.In each case, grounding to the cabinet is required. Note2  Filter   Insert a common mode 󿬁lter when the high-frequency electricity is superimposed   on both lines a and b in the same phase and, if not, insert a normal mode 󿬁lter.
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