Allama Citation: Ali S. Women Objectification and Advertising: An Analysis of Sexually Objectified Portrayal of Women in Television Advertising in Pakistan

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This paper tends to highlight the grievance of women's sexual objectification in television advertising in Pakistan. As Martha Nussbaum calls it "instrumentality" of women in mass media advertising for commercial purposes, this paper
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  Women Objecfcaon  and Adversing:  An Analysis of Sexually Objecfed Portrayal of Women in Television Adversing  in Pakistan Sana Ali * Department of Mass Communicaon,  Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan * Corresponding author: Sana Ali, Masters of philosophy in Mass communicaon  (2017), Allama Iqbal open University, Islamabad, Pakistan, Tel:+0092 334 5776624; E-mail: sana_leo1990@hotmail.com Received date:  Oct 16, 2018; Accepted date:  Oct 22, 2018; Published date:  Oct 29, 2018 Copyright:  © 2018 Ali S. This is an open-access arcle  distributed under the terms of the Creave  Commons Aribuon  License, which permitsunrestricted use, distribuon,  and reproducon  in any medium, provided the srcinal author and source are credited. Citaon:  Ali S. Women Objeccaon  and Adversing:  An Analysis of Sexually Objeced  Portrayal of Women in Television Adversing  inPakistan. Global Media Journal 2018, 16:31. Abstract This paper tends to highlight the grievance of women'ssexual objeccaon  in television adversing  in Pakistan.As Martha Nussbaum calls it "instrumentality" of womenin mass media adversing  for commercial purposes, thispaper also aempted  to address this concern. Based onthe nature of this topic, beauty products adversements were selected by dividing them into two categories. The me  frame was limited and, seven most populartelevision channels were selected for data gatheringpurpose. Every observed television channel broadcasted afair number of product adversements  which werecarefully recorded and enlisted in their assigned category.The cross-tabulaon  method is used to display thefrequency record of adversements  whereas; Chi-squaretest is applied to test the relaonship  between womensexual objecon  and television adversing.  Resultsrevealed that there is no signicant   relaonship  foundbetween our postulated variables. However, several posive  responses are also documented which means,media adversing   parcularly,  television adversing  inPakistan does contain related content which promotesinequality and violates women rights in our society.Further, it is recommended that marketers and, adversers  should not exploit the image of women to gaintheir commercial interest. Rather, they should play theirrole to alter stereotypical convicons  of society aboutroles of women without liming   percepons  about theirintelligence and capabilies. Keywords: Television adversing;  Sexually explicitportrayal; Women objeccaon;  Instrumentality Introducon Markeng  is an integral part of mass media today togenerate revenue. For this purpose, media can have several adversers,  displaying and aracng  their potenal customers. Adversing  layout is purely based on thebenchmark set by adversers  and, media must exhibit these adversements  the way they are composed. The pressure of  adversing  is growing; a large sum of money is being spent to adverse   eecvely  so that companies may generate mul-billion   prots.  According to Rehman, Pakistan's adversing industry is rapidly growing. The share of digital adversing  inPakistan is up to $20 million and, this amount will increase to$50 million by the end of 2017 (Media Predicons  2017). Toearn revenue, there are certain strategies that, an adverser intends to use as, adversing  is not merely a simple representaon  rather, it adopts certain complex schemes toachieve the desired goal. Importance of these blueprints isundeniable as according to Bradley, an owner of a businessshould know about the markeng  and promoonal  strategies.These strategies can help you to ulize  your employee'sintelligence and, to develop the potenal  to achieve desiredgoals (The Importance of Promoonal  & Markeng  Strategies).Role of mass media to adverse  and engage customers is vital. Dierent  methods are used to persuade customers which leadto a sale and purchase goals. To adverse,  media involve manypeople, words, music and other related content which iscreated according to the demands of an adverser.  Roles aregiven to the people and they relate themselves to the productbeing adversed.  However, there are certain controversiesand, objecons  to mass media adversing.  According to astudy named "Media usage and self-objeccaon  in youngwomen" (2015), it is stated that portrayal of women in mediais sexually objecfying  as it focuses mainly on their appearancerather than their abilies.  Display of an unrealisc  image of women has raised self-objeccaon  among women and, asresult women are developing self-comparison tendency (SageInsight). Media scholars, researchers, social sciensts  and,public raised many concerns regarding mass media adversing. Gender objeccaon  is a demur which mass media are facingsince the 19th century and, feminists especially condemn adversing  as a prominent source of women objeccaon.  Inthis study, the objeccaon  of women in mass media adversing  in Pakistan will be scrunized  and, this concern willbe discussed in detail (Figure 1) . Research article Global Media JournalISSN 1550-7521  Vol.16 No.31:145 2018 This article is available from: globalmediajournal.com 1  Figure 1:  Women in Television Adversing. Problem Statement Gender objeccaon  in media is a subject of many invesgaons  from the past few years. Today, objeccaon  isconsidered as convenonal,  people have accepted it as a partof an adversement.  Both men and women are being objeced  for aracon  and persuasion purposes. Marn Dabney, states that that mass media content is objecfying both men and women. But shockingly, today famous programslike Magic Mike XXL, 50 shades of Grey and others are objecfying  men. He further claimed that we all are being objeced  today. Not only tradional  media, but social mediais also objecfying  us in a dierent  but adverse manner (Menare now objeced  more than women, 2015). The mainreason to objecfy  people of a certain gender, according tomass media adversing,  is to ence  and persuade theaudience for acon.  Gender objeccaon,  especially women objeccaon  is the bleakest aspect of mass media adversing.  Women are presented as an object that is sexually objeced  for encing  purposes. Unfortunately, media are notempowering women rather; they portray women as perfect,alluring, feminine but not capable and powerful enough tocomplete the challenges. This is harmful not only for girls butfor our society too (Not an Object: On Sexualizaon  and Exploitaon  of Women and Girls, 2016). Purpose of this studyis to scrunize  how closely television adversing  and, women objeccaon  is related to each other as several studies haveshown objeccaon  closely related to adversing  and markeng  purposes. Vaux, states that sexism is one of themost powerful movators  and, adversers  use objeccaon to sell their products. Women oen  appear as passive andlacking autonomy in adversing  and, it is really disturbing tosee how men treat women in real life situaons  as submissiveand inferior (The Negave   Eects  of Women's Adversements).  Therefore, this invesgaon  will bring outimportant aspects related to television adversing  in Pakistanand, it will help future studies to scrunize  other relatedaspects of adversing. Objecves  of the Study To invesgate  the relaonship  between sexual objeccaon  of women and television adversing  in Pakistan. Research Queson Whether and to what extent, there is a relaon  betweensexual objeccaon  of women and, television adversing  inPakistan? Literature Review Encing   potenal  customers by represenng  gender roles in adversements  is one of the most commonly pracced strategies used by adversers  now a day. Similarly, portrayingwomen in a manner is also considered useful for sellingproducts. To invesgate  this phenomenon Radzi and Musa [1]in their study explored gender representaon  in adversing. They invesgated  that how adversers  use language torepresent women and, how inuenal  this language is to aract  the consumers? Results of this study showed that therhetorical language is being used which draws aenon  butalso represents the stereotypical role of women. The gender dierence  was also shown and the concept of male dominance(patriarchy) was also prominent. Further, they suggested that adversing  need much improvement and awareness should bespread among consumers. Adversing  represents an ideal image of beaucaon  and perfecon;  using "less than perfect" technique raises a feelingof inadequacy and dissasfacon  among women in society.Malik [2] in his study named "Women's Objeccaon  byConsumer Culture" states that invenon  of "beauty ideology" aracts  a massive number of female consumers but womenwho are working in media, have become more vulnerable vicms  of this beauty ideology and thus, they get moreappealed by such adversements.  In her studies, she foundthat consumer culture has a perverted concept of beauty andhealth. Media profession and male dominant culture makethem feel "inadequate". This sense of inadequacy leads themtowards unhealthy beauty treatment and thus, this beaucaon  presents them as sexual objects for men.Today, the concept of beauty is commonly perceived as "essenal"  among females from dierent  parts of the world.The same standard is being considered as important byfemales. Warchal, Sosnowska and, Pawlicka, conducted a studyto compare the chosen aspects of body image and lifestyle infemales (Japan and Poland). This survey-based study, close-ended quesonnaires  were distributed among respondents. Quesons  were mainly about their percepon  regardingfemininity, their ideas about beaucaon  and, how toimprove their appearance? Findings revealed that their percepon  about beaucaon  and femininity are almost thesame. Both Polish and Japanese females have common beautystandards and they, equally consider that physical appearanceshould be improved, and beaucaon  can help them to look beer  and aracve  for the opposite gender. Global Media JournalISSN 1550-7521  Vol.16 No.31:145 2018 2 This article is available from: globalmediajournal.com  DiSalvatore, in her study "Portrayal of Women in Adversing"  conducted content analysis to explore thisphenomenon. Her study includes the history of women in adversing  as according to her "women are being exploited by adversements  and are represented as sexual objects that aract  consumers to buy and sell". Her main hypothesis gotneither approved nor disapproved as she found that womenare represented in a submissive and sexual manner but in avery limited number of adversements.  Therefore, shesuggests that more accurate and signicant  research studiesshould be conducted on this phenomenon to explore otherbasic aspects of gender representaon  in mass media adversements  (Portrayal of Women in Adversing). Sarkar [3] analysed the image of women in Indian mediathrough discourse analysis as she believes that physical imageof women has become an integral part of adversing.  Shestated that media is responsible for trapping of women imageby glamorizing woman body to gain commercial interest.Media present femininity to grab the aracon  of oppositegender which eventually, leads our society towards acceptanceof patriarchy as a common natural pracce  (Media andWomen: A Feminist Discourse). The physical appearance of women in adversing  is of great consideraon.  Reasons fordisplaying women in adversing  are addressed in mulpleplaorms  but, unfortunately, the answer is always dissasfying. Kumar [4] conducted a study to examine the portrayal of women in adversing.   Aer  doing a qualitave  analysis of dataresearcher found that using sexual appeals in adversing  is aracng  several audiences but, this blatant use of suchappeals leaves the negave  impact of the product in viewer'smind. Further, she stated that these adversements  can aract  young audiences as they have an open mindset and abroader perspecve   (Presentaon  of Women in Adversing). Portraying women as sexually objeced  manner has adverse eects  on our society. Women are being displayed in terms of "instrumentality" which leads to inequality and stereotypingamong masses. Somemes  the audience also condemns the objeccaon of women in adversing.  Due to recent trends, adversing now objecfying  both males and females but sll  women objeccaon  is vital. Nagi [5] examined the projecon  of women in adversement  and people's opinion about it. Thisstudy was conducted by using factorial analysis on thecollected data. Through results it was found that the majorityof people condemned that women should not be used forproduct selling adversement,  sex stereotyping role and,nudity is irrelevant in adversing.  Overall, respondentspreferred the posive  role of women and, condemned genderinequality and dierences  in adversements. Besides, physical objeccaon,  verbal objeccaon  is alsovery common. Catchy words, jingles and, phrases are used to aract  the customers. To scrunize  this aspect, Flynn, et al. [6]examined verbal objeccaon  of women in dierent  types of local music. Body objeccaon  was a concern of thisassessment. Findings of this study revealed that music lyricsare purely based on objeccaon  and, female singers as,compared to males are more likely to objecfy  them. 20 songsshowed that male arsts  are also objecfying  their ownbodies. Further, researchers give suggeson  to spreadawareness about the possible eects  of this objeccaon among young generaon. Out of two adversing  strategies, we have "gender appeal"that is used to aract  the member of opposite sex. This appealis widely used by objecfying  women to aract  men. Dua  [7]states that today media is a dominang  force to reshape ourdaily lives. In adversements,  marketers wisely use dierent images of both genders to get their commercial interest. In adversements  like men's aershave   loons,  deodorants andothers, women are presented in an inappropriate manner.Similarly, many marketers objecfy  women to increaseglamour and visual appeals in their adversements,  Authorfurther suggests that using both men and women in adversements  in an appropriate manner can help adversers to get audience aenon  and, reduce stereotypical images of women in our society.Sexual and submissive portrayals of women are prominentin mass media adversing.  This image of women is quite negave  as, it builds up negave   percepons  of women and,neglects their capabilies.  A study was conducted to invesgate   objeccaon  of women in television adversements.   Qualitave  analysis was done to examine howsexist and submissive role of females is being represented. Thestudy concludes that this stereotypical representaon  andsexism in adversing  is quite harmful to the public in generaland for women [8].Thompson and Krawczyk [9] in their invesgaon   eects  of exposure to sexually objeced  images of women. Resultsrevealed that dissasfacon  has increased among women andmen, on the other hand, exposed to adversements  thatsexually objeced  women consider women withinstrumentality (The eects  of adversements  that sexually objecfy  women on state body dissasfacon  and judgmentsof women: The moderang  roles of gender and internalizaon).  The feeling of inadequacy and dissasfacon is common today. Adversing  has portrayed femininity withbeauty and perfecon  but, women in real somemes  cannotachieve this unrealisc  standard of perfecon. In many sociees,  sexual objeccaon  has normalized rapeculture among men. People consider instrumentality of women as common and desirable which is quite thought-provoking. Vance and her colleagues [10] conducted a study toexamine media sexual objeccaon  and, acceptance of these objeced  images among society. Findings revealed thatmean, due to educaon  and awareness does not accept objeccaon  as normal rather, they responded an opposing reacon  towards sexual objeccaon  and rape likelihood(The Media's Sexual Objeccaon  of Women, Rape MythAcceptance, and Interpersonal Violence). Besides misrepresentaon,  women are also underrepresented on massmedia. Silencing and marginalizaon  is also part of massmedia-based gender representaon.  To scrunize  this concernPozzi [11] conducted a survey to explore the extent mediarepresent both men and women in Belgian media. In her Global Media JournalISSN 1550-7521  Vol.16 No.31:145 2018 3  ndings,  she revealed that French media do not have atendency to challenge or reinforce gender stereotypes. 82%media content contains gender-neutral content. 12% contentreinforces stereotypes whereas, 6% condemns it (Women andMass Media).Greening aempted  to examine the dismemberment and negave  consequences of women objeccaon  as shepostulated that objeccaon  is directly linked to pooroutcomes in a society. Findings revealed that adversements involve women body to aract  and sell products. Such adsindirectly compel women to consider their body partsindividually rather than a whole (The Objeccaon  andDismemberment of Women in the Media). Portraying womenas sexual objects is a problem not only for women but, foryoung girls too. Focusing body parts and the encing  audiencedoes raise stereotypical percepons  about women in society.Gomez [12] analysed the image and roles of women in an adversement  in western culture. Findings of her study showthat 21st-century adversing  contains sexual images and rolesof women, classical archetypes and, stereotypes. Further, it issuggested that such conclusions strictly suggest changing the adversing  strategy so that, nothing may aect  equality andother movements in our society (Women's roles and images in adversing:  A pragmac   perspecve).  Stereotyped images of women contain their gender roles and sexual objeccaon. Such portrayals limit our percepons  about their intelligenceand, capabilies.  Mass media needs to adopt modern trendsand embrace what women are capable of. Theorecal  Framework Conceptual background of this study is based on twoimportant concepts in mass media and feminism. First, it isguided by Objeccaon  theory by Barbara Fredrickson andTomi-Ann Roberts. As objeccaon  and gender roles representaon  is perturbed of this study so, objecon  theorygives it strong empirical substratum. This theory seeks toexplain objeccaon  as prevailing trend in culture. Accordingto Fredrickson and Roberts, this objeccaon  leads womento develop a primary view of beaucaon  and perfecon. This primary percepon  causes self-objeccaon  morecommon and, this objeccaon  of women is believed tobecome one of the most conspicuous reasons to inuence gender roles and inequalies   (Objeccaon  Theory, 1997).Secondly, this study is supported by the concept of  Objeccaon  by Martha C. Nussbaum. She postulates that objeccaon  is normalized in people's minds and they tendto accept it by resorng  to "moral implicaons  of  sexualizaon"  She in her project, indicated seven importantdimensions of sexual objeccaon  of women which include:Instrumentality, Lacking autonomy, lacking subjecvity, silencing, inertness, fungibility, violability and, ownership.According to Nussbaum (p, 41), instrumental treatment of human to full  one's desires in quite problemac.  If it does nottake place in a larger context, it is morally objeconable. Lacking autonomy, silencing and, denial of subjecvity  allrelate to male dominance and, ownership (Objeccaon, 1995). Media is sexually objecfying  women and, it is widelyfound that rape culture and stereotypical percepons  aboutgender roles are aributed  to the sexual objeccaon  of women in mass media (Alves, 2017). Methodology Content analysis Content analysis technique is applied in this study for data scrunizaon  process. Data is carefully gathered and,displayed in the form of frequencies and their percentages. Populaon  and sampling The populaon  of this invesgaon  consists of beauty adversements  on seven most popular television channels.Readings are taken from 8 p.m. to 9 p.m. during peak hours of drama serials. Based on their content, adversements  are thendivided into two categories (Table 1) : Table 1:   Adversements  categories. Hair ProductsShampoos, Hair colours, Hair conditionersSkin Care ProductsSoaps, Fairness creams, Hair removing creams Variables Independent variable Television adversing  on: •Geo Entertainment•ARY Digital•Hum Entertainment•Urdu1•Express•TvOne•APlus Dependent variables Objecfcaon: •Instrumentality•  Reducon  to Appearance•Lack of objecvity •  Irraonal  appearance Methods of Analysis Aer  data collecon,  the researcher entered gathered dataon Stascal  Package for Social Sciences (SPPS). Firstfrequencies are manipulated by using the cross-tabulaon method and then, hypothesis tesng  is performed by using theChi-square test. Data is shown in Pie chart and Bar graphswhich are created on MS Excel version 2016. Global Media JournalISSN 1550-7521  Vol.16 No.31:145 2018 4 This article is available from: globalmediajournal.com  Results and Discussion Total frequencies of required responses are stated in theabove-stated Figure 2 . However, it is also shown that everypostulated variable contained a fair number of relatedresponses Figure 2: Total frequencies of required responses. Figure 3:  Total frequency of adversement  on HUM TV is138.7% or 32.Total frequency of adversement  on HUM TV is 138.7% or32. ARY Digital showed 10 adversements  (43%), HUM TV hasa total recurrence of 138.7% (8), TV One broadcasted 33 or147.3% adversements,  the frequency of related adversements  on URDU1 is 68(251.1%). 147.3% adversements  were recorded on APLus. Geo Entertainmentand, Express Entertainment broadcasted 54(234.4%) and34(147.5%) adversements   respecvely. Total density of adversements  on all seven selectedtelevision channels is 1107.2% which means, all the observed adversements  were displayed 255 mes  on all channels.To nd  out the extent to which there is a relaon  betweenvariables of the study researcher applied Chi-square test. Thetest showed that the signicance  value of the relaonship  is0.747 and, the p-value is 0.05 which means there is no signicant   relaonship  found between sexual objeccaon and television adversing  in Pakistan.This study reveals the concern regarding television adversing  and sexual objeccaon  of women in Pakistan. Aswe have not found any signicant   relaonship  between ourvariables, it is noceable  that variables like the image of aperfect woman, sense of envy, inadequacy and dissasfacon,seducon  and, exaggeraon  did show 99.7% frequency of  posive  responses. Similarly, verbal taccs,  the appearance of a female model to gain aenon  and, irraonality  among adversements  also showed that there is a relaonship between some of our response variables and, television adversements.  With overall P value of 0.05, however, we didnot nd  any relaon,  but it is percepble  that repeon  of thesame content, does aract  the audiences and, percepons  dobuild up. According to Vogt, the psychology of adversement includes dierent  aspects but, major element while creang an adversement  is "Percepon".  He further states that percepons  are formed by exposure, which means the moreaudience, get exposed to an adversement,  the more it aracts  them. The audience gets exposed to the contentaccording to their taste, desires and, fantasies which makethem alter their percepons  (What Is Percepon  in Adversing?).   Addionally,  dress color aribuon,  verbal, non-verbal objeccaon,  unnecessary appearances, use of malemodels and some other related variables did not show any fair relaon  with objeccaon  factor. To explore the relaonship between variables, the researcher did not formulate anyhypothesis, as this study is, mainly guided by one research queson.  For data representaon,  one Bar chart (represenng frequencies of responses) and, one Pie chart (represenng total percentages of frequencies) are created that representthe ndings  of our invesgaon.  Therefore, variables areindividually manipulated, invesgated  and, thus results arestated. As Figure 2 containing bar chart is displaying the totalfrequencies of every response variables. Whereas Figure 3 is represenng  the total percentages of our independentvariables. Summary and Conclusions According to Kumar [4] today basic intent of adversing  is togain the aenon  of their customers, but the queson  is, towhat extent an adverser  should use taccs  to gain thismomentary aracon?  Though not universally embraced andaccepted as normal by people, sexual objeccaon  hasconsiderably increased in adversing   (Representaon  of Women in Adversements).  The aim of this study was toexplore "Whether and, to what extent there is a relaonship between sexual objeccaon  and television adversing  inPakistan? With a Chi-square value of 0.747 and P value 0.05,we found that there is no signicant   relaonship  between ourstated variables. Results of the study show that there is no relaonship  found between women sexual objeccaon  and,television adversing  in Pakistan. To bring more clarity inresults, charts are used so that total frequencies of allresponses and, total percentages of responses related to ourmanipulated independent variables may be displayed in anelaborate but, brief manner. Although the relaonship  is notfound but, while data gathering procedure. The researcherrecorded many observaons  that somehow, were represenng how women are being objeced  in adversements. According to Zimmerman, due to the reputaon  of an objeced  image of women in mass media, people might not Global Media JournalISSN 1550-7521  Vol.16 No.31:145 2018 5
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