Applied Mathematics

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Applied mathematics is using and applying mathematical methods in developing the modern science. Mathematical techniques can be applied to science and technology to study real-world problems by using mathematical equations. Applied mathematicians work on practical problems and study of mathematical models. Applied mathematics also deals with problem arising in the physical, life and social sciences. “In seventeenth century Europe the problems formulated by Ibn al-Haytham (965-1041) became known
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  Applied mathematics is using and applying mathematical methods in developing the modernscience. Mathematical techniques can be applied to science and technology to study real-world problemsby using mathematical equations. Applied mathematicians work on practical problems and study of mathematical models. Applied mathematics also deals with problem arising in the physical, life and socialsciences. “In seventeenth century Europe the problems formulated by Ibn al -Haytham (965-1041) became known as “Alhazen’s problem”. Again his work that was translated into Latin made Europeans aware of al- Haytham’s remarkable achievements in the field of  Optics ( Kitab al-Manazir  )(Meyers, 1964, p.32). Among his works were included a theory of vision and a theory of light, and was called by his successors of the twelfth century “Ptolemy the Second”. Furthermore by promoting the use of experiments in scientific research, al-Haytham played an important role insetting the scene in modern science. Al-Hay tham’s contributions to geometry and number theory went well beyond the Archimedean tradition. Al-Haytham also worked on analytical geometryand the beginnings of the link between algebra and geometry. Subsequently, this work led in puremathematics to the harmonious fusion of algebra and geometry that was epitomised by Descartesin geometric analysis and by Newton in the calculus. Al-Haytham was a scientist who mademajor contributions to the fields of mathematics, physics and astronomy during the latter half of the tenth century. John Peckham in the late-thirteenth century used al- Haytham’s Kitab al- Manazir  and Witelo’s Optics too has echoes of  Kitab al-Manazir  . Witelo work was used byJohannes Kepler. Roger Bacon, the founder of experimental science, probably used the srcinalArabic works of al- Haytham as well as Latin” ( Yasmeen Mahnaz Faruqi, 2006)The excerpt above had shown how Islamic scholar had used applied mathematics as a base that furthercontributed to the development of optics. In the modern sciences, the use of optics is crucial in astronomywhere it is being applied in the manufacturing of telescope. Not to forget how optics is being used in the manufacturing of microscope which have been the biggest contribution to the modern’s world of  biological sciences Without the invention of microscope, the science we have today will not be the same.The microorganism we use in many application of improving life and health will not be a reality withoutthe uses of mathematics technique.Other than that, in his kitab there are also the structure of the eye, binocular vision, atmosphericrefraction, comets, shadows, eclipse and camera abscura. These things are the bases of what modernscience are made of.  In addition, another branch of applied mathematics, algebra also contribute to the development of  the modern science. Although kids in schools nowadays whine about how they won’t be using algebra in real life and how unimportant algebra is, algebra is actually important in statistics and analysis of data. Indoing experiment in the lab for example, the data from the variability of volume of enzyme used forexample must be recorded. The recorded data is then must be analysed. This is where mathematics can beapplied in science. The plotting of graph and the analysis of graph included many mathematical formulassuch as the linear equation, the paraboMain discoveries of a mathematical nature occur in other sciences and will bearfruit in the next century. The Russian scientist Dmitri I. Mendeleev found order inthe chaos of chemical elements and proposed the Periodic Table in 1869, the basis of today’s physico -mathematical treatment of Chemistry. On the other hand, theAustrian monk, botanist and plant experimenter Gregor J. Mendel formulated therational laws of inheritance, thus laying the mathematical foundation of the scienceof Genetics37http://www.dam.brown.edu/documents/WhatisAppliedMathematicsPresentation_000.pdf     www.uam.es/personal_pdi/ciencias/jvazquez/reptmath.ps   http://www.preservearticles.com/201105246938/mathematics.html    http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/education/iej/articles/v7n4/Faruqi/paper.pdf   Høyrup, J. (1987) The formation of “Islamic mathematics” sources and conditions. Science in   Context  , 1(2), 281-329.Shuttleworth , M. (2009) History of scientific method. From experiment-resources.com
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