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TITLE : Comparison for different radar sat sensor RADAR SATELLITE SENSOR RADAR stands for Radio Detection and Ranging by virtue of sending out pulses of microwave electromagnetic radiation this type of instrument can be classified as an active sensor where it is measures the time between pulses and their reflected dielectric constant). Radar and infrared sensors are complimentary instruments and are often used together to study the same types of earth surfaces. SEASAT Seasat was the first Earth
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  1 TITLE : Comparison for different radar satsensor RADAR SATELLITE SENSOR RADAR stands for Radio Detectionand Ranging by virtue of sending out pulsesof microwave electromagnetic radiation thistype of instrument can be classified as anactive sensor where it is measures the timebetween pulses and their reflectedcomponents to determine distance. Differentpulse intervals, different wavelengths,different geometry and polarizations can becombined to roughness characteristics ofthe earth surface. Radar wavelengths rangeless than 1 millimeter to 1 meter. All photoscan be called images but not all imagesshould be called photos. Images areacquired digitally are usually not referred toas photographs there is no such thing as aradar photograph.Radar uses relative long wavelengthwhich allows these systems to see throughclouds, smoke, and some vegetation. Also,being an active system, it can be operatedday or night. There are disadvantages, suchas the non-unique spectral properties of thereturned radar signal. Unlike infrared datathat help us to identify different minerals orvegetation types from reflected sunlight,radar only shows the difference in thesurface roughness and geometry andmoisture content of the ground (the complexdielectric constant). Radar and infraredsensors are complimentary instruments andare often used together to study the sametypes of earth surfaces. SEASAT Seasat was the first Earth-orbitingsatellite designed for remote sensing of theEarth's oceans and had on board the firstspace borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR).The mission was designed to demonstratethe feasibility of global satellite monitoring ofoceanographic phenomena and to helpdetermine the requirements for anoperational ocean remote sensing satellitesystem. Specific objectives were to collectdata on sea-surface winds, sea-surfacetemperatures, wave heights, internal waves,atmospheric water, sea ice features andocean topography. APPLICATIONS OF SEASAT 1. SEASAT was able to detect thewakes of submerged submarines.2. The conspiracy theory holds thatonce this was discovered, themilitary shut SEASAT down, with acover story of a power supply short.  GEOSAT The Geodetic Satellite (GEOSAT)was a dedicated US Navy military  2 oceanographic satellite consisting of a radaraltimeter designed to obtain closely spaced,precise mapping of the earth's geoid overthe ocean. GEOSAT featured an altimeterdesigned to measure the marine gravityfield as accurately as possible. APPLICATIONS OF GEOSAT 1. Geosat is an advanced satellitedata technology transfer programfor geological applications.2. To produce geological maps andthematic maps for mineralexploration in environmental orhazardous areas study. ERS-1 ERS-1 carried an array of earth-observation instruments that gatheredinformation about the Earth such as land,water, ice and atmosphere using a variety ofmeasurement principles. To accuratelydetermine its orbit, the satellite included thePRARE (Precision Range and Range-RateEquipment) and a laser retroreflector. ThePRARE was non-operational since launch.The retroreflector was used for calibratingtheRadarAltimeterto within 10 cm. ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellite having similarinstrumentation and allowing applications toprofit from the operation of both satellites. APPLICATIONS OF ERS-1 1. Radar remote sensing has thepotential to play an important role inagricultural crop monitoring due toits independence from solarillumination and cloud cover, besidesits sensitiveness to canopy geometryand moisture content.2. The ERS-1 Wind Scatterometer haspotential for the monitoring of soilfrost and the retrieval of soilmoisture/vegetation water content.3. The ERS-1 also used for measureocean surface temperature andwinds at sea.  3 Radar Altimeter Characteristics forVarious SatellitesREFERENCES 1. lrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/satellite_missions/list_of.../seas_general.html2. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SEASAT3. NASA JET PROPULSIONLABORATORY4. http://www.fas.org/spp/military/program/nssrm/initiatives/geosat1.htm5.http://earth.esa.int/ers/satconc/ 6. http://www.esa.int/esaEO/SEMGWH2VQUD_index_0_m.html7. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=516410&tag=1 Satellite   Frequency(Ghz)   Bandwidth   Wavelength(m)   RangeResolution(m)   PulseCompression   WaveHeight  ERS-1 13.50 400.00 0.02 0.10 8000.00ERS-2 13.50 0.02 0.1 58000.00 .13 mGeos-3 13.90 80.00 0.02 0.50 30.00±25%(4-10 m)GEOSAT 13.50 320.00 0.02 0.10 30000.00±10%(1-20 m)GEOSATFollow-On13.50 0.02 0.018 58000.00 .035 mSEASAT 13.50 320.00 0.02 0.10 1000.00± 10%(1-20 m)Skylab 13.90 100.00 0.02 1.00 13.00 1-2 mTOPEX/ Poseidon5.3&13.6 320.00.0566*amp;.022050.03 58000.00 .13 m
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