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1. Digital Technologies and the Future of Work #BEM2034 (Streatham) #BEP2120 (Penryn) Professor Mark Thompson 2. Cambridge Judge Business School 3. Cambridge Judge…
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  • 1. Digital Technologies and the Future of Work #BEM2034 (Streatham) #BEP2120 (Penryn) Professor Mark Thompson
  • 2. Cambridge Judge Business School
  • 3. Cambridge Judge Business School
  • 4. …With thanks to Simon Wardley 
  • 5. …With thanks to Simon Wardley 
  • 6. …With thanks to Simon Wardley 
  • 7. …With thanks to Simon Wardley 
  • 8. …With thanks to Simon Wardley 
  • 9. Structure 1: Internet technology and business: an introduction Infrastructure & open standards Containerisation Fourth revolution Web 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 2: From Pipes to platforms Deverticalisation Servitisation Efficiency & consumption Business model evolution Externalities & APIs Service architecture 3: Five Challenges Culture New entrants Legacy Speed Thinking differently
  • 10. Part 1: Internet technology & business: An introduction
  • 11. The internet (stupid) 1: Internet
  • 12. 1: Internet
  • 13. 1: Internet Velocity Breadth & Depth Systems Impact: economic, social & political Detroit 1990, 3 largest companies: • $36bn combined market cap • $250bn revenues • 1.2m employees Silicon Valley 2014, 3 largest companies: • $1.09trn market cap • $247bn revenues • 137,000 employees “The concentration of benefits and value in just such a small percentage of people is exacerbated by the so- called platform effect, in which digitally-driven organizations create networks that match buyers and sellers of a wide variety of products and services and thereby enjoy increasing returns to scale”. (2016:13)
  • 14. 1: Internet
  • 15. 1: Internet
  • 16. 1: Internet
  • 17. 1: Internet Game-changer Price comparison websites Mobile internet transactions Telematics/IoT Blockchain/distributed ledger Social brokers P2P models Sharing models AI/robotics Cloud Analytics Voice/image recognition 3D Printing Industry Media Telecom Consumer financial services Retail Technology Insurance Consumer products Nonprofit Professional services Education Healthcare Industrial Automotive Public services Connective Intelligence
  • 18. 1: Internet Game-changer Price comparison websites Mobile internet transactions Telematics/IoT Blockchain/distributed ledger Social brokers P2P models Sharing models AI/robotics Cloud Analytics Voice/image recognition 3D Printing Industry Media Telecom Consumer financial services Retail Technology Insurance Consumer products Nonprofit Professional services Education Healthcare Industrial Automotive Public services Connective Intelligence
  • 19. Moore’s Law is a law of demand as well as supply
  • 20. Moore’s LawAmazon Snowmobile: 100 petabytes (100 million GB - (or 5 complete copies of the internet archive) Moore, Gordon E. (1965-04-19). "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits". Electronics. Retrieved 2016-07-01.
  • 21. 1: Internet Potential data sources Social network analysis Web-logs/search strings Sensors and devices (IoT) Imagery data GPS trails CRM records Contact Centre call recordings Business process data Data exhaust
  • 22. Selection bias Reporting bias… Also confirmation bias in training Try Google Images for: “Chief Executive” “House-Cleaner”
  • 23. 1: Internet Web 1.0 (static infrastructure)
  • 24. 1: Internet
  • 25. Web Internet
  • 26. 1: Internet Web 2.0 (User-generated content)
  • 27. 1: Internet
  • 28. 1: Internet
  • 29. 1: Internet
  • 30. 1: Internet
  • 31. 1: Internet Yoo (2012)
  • 32. Internet
  • 33. 1: Internet SMAC Convergence of 4 dimensions: Social networking Harnessing ‘timelines’ of customer base (eg Datasift) Mobile devices Users update profile, inform themselves of deals & promotions, & track locations Analytics New-generation ‘graph’ databases spot links between entities, informed by social networking Cloud Business capability to spin up huge capacity, consumed by the hour. No data warehouse: just spin up a cluser in cloud, consume it, & turn it off
  • 34. 1. Internet
  • 35. 1: Internet: Key points New ‘shared plumbing’ of infrastructure disrupts Arrival of shared infrastructure privileges adoption of standards & containerisation Mobile ubiquity Web 2.0: Shift to the user SMAC
  • 36. Take a fresh sheet of A4, fold into 8 squares You will generate ideas rapidly – 1 idea per square 1 minute per square
  • 37. Think of 8 goods or services have you bought or consumed recently, where the internet must have been essential. 1 per square. Write down: • The name of the good/service • The way this was provided before (who has been disrupted?)
  • 38. Part 2: Pipes to Platforms
  • 39. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 40. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 41. A platform is a set of common components, assembly methods or technologies that serve as building blocks for a portfolio of products or services • Internal platforms (common internal structure; stream of derivative products): eg Rolls Royce engine family, HP printer components • Supply chain platforms (replicates the above across interfaces): eg automotive (Renault Clio & Nissan Micra) • Industry platforms (intended to foster ecosystems of innovation) eg Apple’s IOS, Google’s Android, internet, payment cards, standard electricity voltages, etc Gawer, A. (2010) ‘Towards a general theory of technological platforms’, paper presented at Summer Conference, Imperial College London Business School, June 16-18, http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/viewpaper.php?id=501981&cf=43 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 42. A platform is a set of common components, assembly methods or technologies that serve as building blocks for a portfolio of products or services. • Internal platforms (common internal structure; stream of derivative products): eg Rolls Royce engine family, HP printer components • Supply chain platforms (replicates the above across interfaces): eg automotive (Renault Clio & Nissan Micra) • Industry platforms (intended to foster ecosystems of innovation) eg Apple’s IOS, Google’s Android, internet, payment cards, standard electricity voltages, etc Gawer, A. (2010) ‘Towards a general theory of technological platforms’, paper presented at Summer Conference, Imperial College London Business School, June 16-18, http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/viewpaper.php?id=501981&cf=43 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 43. A platform is a set of common components, assembly methods or technologies that serve as building blocks for a portfolio of products or services. • Internal platforms (common internal structure; stream of derivative products): eg Rolls Royce engine family, HP printer components • Supply chain platforms (replicates the above across interfaces): eg automotive (Renault Clio & Nissan Micra) • Industry platforms (intended to foster ecosystems of innovation) eg Apple’s IOS, Google’s Android, internet, payment cards, standard electricity voltages, etc Gawer, A. (2010) ‘Towards a general theory of technological platforms’, paper presented at Summer Conference, Imperial College London Business School, June 16-18, http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/viewpaper.php?id=501981&cf=43 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 44. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 45. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 46. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 47. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 48. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 49. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 50. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 51. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 52. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 53. 3 Phases of Platformization EFFICIENCY: Digitizing key interactions in the marketplace EVOLUTION: Adopting new, platform- enabled business models enabled by digitization EXTERNALITIES: Inviting third parties to engage with and innovate on the platform 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 54. EFFICIENCY
  • 55. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 56. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 57. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 58. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 59. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 60. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 61. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 62. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 63. EVOLUTION
  • 64. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 65. Digital Capabilities will come FIRST Is Sainsburys a grocer? Is Amazon a bookstore? Is Uber a taxi firm? What’s Google’s business model? How does Ryanair make money? What’s the role of a financial regulator? How will the digital economy underpin your career in 10 years’ time?
  • 66. EXTERNALITIES
  • 67. Value/supply chains are fluid & require situational awareness 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 68. Steve Yegge Jeff Bezos vs in “The Amazon Rant”, 2011 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 69. Steve Yegge Jeff Bezos vs in “The Amazon Rant”, 2011 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 70. Steve Yegge Jeff Bezos vs in “The Amazon Rant”, 2011 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 71. What can we all learn from THIS MAN?
  • 72. Each piece of Amazon is being built with a service-oriented architecture, and Amazon is using that architecture to successively turn every single piece of the company into a separate platform — and thus opening each piece to outside competition. Amazon has replaced useless, time-intensive bureaucracy like internal surveys and audits with a feedback loop that generates cash when it works — and quickly identifies problems when it doesn’t. Fulfillment By Amazon (FBA):
  • 73. 2: Pipes to platforms
  • 74. 2. Pipes to platforms: Key points We can conclude that: • New organizing logic underpinning digital business • Unbundling service processes & tech stacks via modularisation • Organisations/industries are becoming necessarily modular and subject to the inertia of their service components • They are dynamic, entwined and increasingly constructed from modular service platforms
  • 75. The Challenges: #1: Culture
  • 76. Example: Creative media, distribution
  • 77. The Challenges: #2: New entrants
  • 78. Example: Financial services
  • 79. The Challenges: #3: Legacy
  • 80. Example: Government
  • 81. The Challenges: #4: Speed
  • 82. Example: Professional services Just plugging stuff together…!
  • 83. The Challenges: #5: Thinking differently
  • 84. Example: Healthcare
  • 85. Example: Healthcare
  • 86. The Challenge for YOU
  • 87. Can YOU talk about where the digital economy is going at YOUR job interview? Financial services Medicine Consulting Startup Public / Third sector The arts Hospitality Energy Transport FMCG….. …??
  • 88. Remember…it’s all about… the INTERNET!
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