Biogeographic regions of india

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1. BIOGEOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF INDIA SUBMITTED BY: AKSHITA THAPA ROLL. NO.: CUHP18ZOO03 2. India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world. It Has most…
  • 2. India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world. It Has most biogeographic regions that have a wide range of topography from snow covered Himalayas ranges to deserts. From almost rainless areas to world’s highest rainfall areas etc. A variety of climatic and altitudinal variations coupled with various ecological habitats have contributed immensely to the rich vegetation wealth and varied flora and fauna generating a unique biodiversity in India. There are 10 biogeographic regions in India 1. Trans Himalayan zone 2. Himalayan zone 3. Gangetic plain 4. Indian desert 5. Semi-arid zone 6. Deccan Peninsula 7. Western Ghats 8. North east India 9. The islands 10. Coasts
  • 3.  1. TRANS HIMALAYAN ZONE a) Virtually this entire zone in India is in Lahaul Spiti distt. of HP and in Ladakh. b) Vegetation- sparse Alpine Steppe and Endemism is high. c) Mountains of this region have richest wild sheep and goat community in the entire world with 8 distinct species and sub-species. d) The herbivore community includes – wild Yak, Tibetan Ass, four horned Antelope, a Gazelle. e) Carnivore community – Snow Leopard, Tibetan wolf, fox, Royles Pika. f) The Black Necked Crane is the most distinctive bird.
  • 4. -Four horned antelope  -Royles pika -Tibetian yak
  • 5.  2. HIMALAYAN ZONE a) This region is an important natural resource of the country. b) Among endangered animals – the Sikkim stag may be lost soon, even the Tahr of Kashmir. c) There are altitudinal as well as East-West variations in the region. d) There are 3 distinct sub-zones with characteristic flora and fauna:- 1. Himalayan foothills 2. Western Himalayas 3. Eastern Himalayas 2.1. Himalayan foothills Extends from Eastern frontiers of Kashmir –Assam
  • 6.  2.2 Western Himalayas  Extends from North western regions of Kashmir – central region of Kashmir There are 3 zones of vegetation corresponding to 3 climatic belts:- A)Tropical/Sub montane region -Represents regions from 1000-5000ft above sea level -trees like; Shorea robusta, Dalbergia sisso, Ficus glomerata -in isolated patches of grasses, Acacia catechu are present -in dry belt towards west, Shorea robusta is replaced by xerophytes like zizyphus, Acacia -Pinus roxburghii begins to appear at 3000-5000ft B)Temperate/ Montane zone -Represents regions from 5000-11,675ft above sea level -Vegetation: coniferous pine forests, rhododendrons, dwarf hill bamboos, birch forests -e.g: Pinus longifolia, Quercus incana, Q. dialata, Rhododendron companulatum. - In dry areas (Punjab) wheat and barley are cultivated, while in wet areas like Kashmir rice is a common crop along with apples, peaches, walnuts etc. -Faunna: wild ass, wild goat (that, markhor, ibex types), blue sheep, hangul, snow leopard, wolf, chiru (tibetian antelope) - birds: morals, western tragophan, ravens, Himalayan white crested khalji.
  • 7.  c) Alpine zone  -Represents areas 12,000ft above sea level  -plants are generally dwarf, with cushion shaped shrubs and grasses.  -Above 15,000ft plant growth is almost nil  -lower zones have Rhododendrons and junipers & above this zone Primula, Polygonum Are present.
  • 8.  2.3. Eastern Himalayas  - It extends from Sikkim to NEFA  - Vegetation is similar to western Himalayas, but they have high tropical elements, greater variety of oak & rhododendrons but has less conifers.  - It is also divided into 3 zones: A) Montane zone -above 6000ft -Warm and humid -Weather is dense -Forests of Shorea robusta, Dalbergia sisso, Acacia catechu, Sterospermum, Cedrela toona. B) Temperate zone - Between 6000-12000 ft -Vegetation: Oaks, magnolias, junipers, dwarf bamboos, lichens, mosses. -Quercus lineata - Faunna: Red panda, crestless porcupines, goal antelope C)Alpine zone -Above 12,000ft -The vegetation here is devoid of trees, only shrubby growth of junipers and rhododendrons is found. - Rainfall is high
  • 9. - Shorea robusta - Dalbergia sisso
  • 10.  3. GANGETIC PLAINS  a) This region comprises U.P, Bihar, Bengal i.e. the most fertile region stretching from Yamuna river to eastwards U.P, Bihar, Bengal, and coastal plains of Odisha also in Nepal tarai, Bangladesh and coastal Myanmar.  b) It varies from great aridity in west (less than 50 mm of rainfall) to great moistness in the east(more than 2000 mm of rainfall)  c) Lack of endemism is the characteristic wildlife feature due to clearing of land for agriculture.  FLORA- Dalbergia, Madhuca indicia, Terminalia arjuna, Ficus religiosa.  •In Gangetic delta region- extreme swampy and halophytic vegetation is common where dominant species are Rhizophora conjugate, etc  FAUNA- Centuries ago the area was rich in wildlife but ,maximum of them have eliminated due to expansion of agriculture, increase in the density of human population etc  However the western area still hold population of Nilgai, Black Buck, Chinkara  The rhino, Bengal florican and Hispid Hare reman less in number in the tarai region.
  • 11. -Nilgai - Black buck
  • 12.  4.INDIAN DESERT  a) The Thar desert of western India and Eastern Pakistanis of relatively of recent formation.  B) Biogeographically it is the eastward extension of the Sahara-Arabian Desert System which spreads through Iran, Afghanistan and Baluchistan  c) It consists of parts of Rajasthan, Kutch, Delhi and parts of Gujarat.  d) Climate: very hot n summer and cold in winters.  e) Rainfall: less than 400mm.  FLORA: the plants are mostly xerophytic: thorny trees with reduced leaves- cactus etc. Acacia nelotica, Saccharum munja.  •Lack of cacti is the main feature of Indian desert  •Prosopia juliflora are becoming increasingly widespread.  FAUNA: mostly burrowing ones  Among mammals rodents are the largest group.  Desert lizards include agamids, lacertids, geckos  Birds: great Indian bustard.  The wild ass (a distinct sub sp.) is now confined to ran of kutch.  The desert fox, desert cat, honbara bustard are only found in Thar.  The desert cat is found all over Rajasthan & Kutch but extensive killing for its skin has made it rare and endangered.  Flamingos find breeding sites only in Rann of Kutch.
  • 13. - Great Indian Bustard - Desert cat
  • 14.  5. THE SEMI ARID ZONE  Occupies India’s 17% region  This area has some of the most productive agricultural areas in Punjab & Haryana also a large proportion of total livestock population.  One part of this zone surrounds desert zone of western Gujarat and Rajasthan.  Other part consist of rain shadow areas behind the western ghats.  The semi arid regions with their grasses and shrubs support generally the wild life with large biomass.  Endemism is low.  Pure Anogeissus pendula forest community occurs only in this zone.  Fauna : Asiatic lion, blackbuck, chowsingha, gazelle, caracal, jackal.
  • 15. - Asiatic lion - jackal
  • 16.  6. DECCAN PENINSULA  It is the largest in area covering 42% of india. Under Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa.  It contains a no. of south India’s main river system: Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Godavari.  It is home for deciduous forests, thorn forests, and degraded shrublands.  Evergreen forests occour in small areas.  Northern half is rich in precious timber species of India. E.g Sal (Shoea robusta) and Teak (Tectona grandis)  Southern half has generally drier thorn forests.  Faunna: Chital, sambar, nilgai, chowsingha, gharials.  Rusty spotted cat and wolf occour in some areas in low no.
  • 17. - Chital (spotted deer) - Nilgai - Sambar
  • 18.  7.WESTERN GHATS  One of the hotspots of India, extends from Kanyakumari to the hills south of river Tapti.  Moist evergreen forests are most extensive in western ghats.  This zone shows exceptionally rich biodiversity, with 4,000sp. Of higher plants (27% India’s 15,000sp.)  1,800 endemic sp. (i.e 2/3rd of India’s endemic sp.)  It has the highest verteberate sp. In India.  Rainfall is heavy i.e more than 2000mm & can exceed 5000mm in some areas.  On hill slopes, forests have been cleared for tea, coffee, cocoa, rubber, cardamom plantation.  Huge river system of peninsular India is used for hydroelectricity generation & irrigation schemes.  Some endangered species: Travancore tortoise, Cane turtle.  Other Faunna: Nilgiri langur, lion tailed macaque, the spiny dormouse, the grizzeled giant squirrel, Malabar civert, hornbills.
  • 19. - Nilgiri Langur - Malabar civert
  • 20.  8.NORTH EAST INDIA  It is also one of the hotspots of the country, richest in species and endemics.  About 40% of the land in Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura is dominated by forests.  It represents the transition zone between Indo-Malayan and Indo-Chinese region as well is also the meeting place of Himalayan Mountains and Peninsular india.  Botanically Khasi-Jiantia hills of Meghalaya have one of the richest sp. Diversity in Asia.  Only North East has full richness of large herbivore fauna: Rhino, Buffalo, Elephant, deer, Hog deer,Pygmy hog and Hispid hare.
  • 21. - One horned Rhino - Hispid Hare -Pygmy hog
  • 22. • 9.THE ISLANDS • It includes two different gps. Of Island: • THE LAKSHADWEEP ISLAND: on Arabian sea. • The Andaman & Nicobar Islands: on the Bay of Bengal, which is also one of the hotspots containing 348 islands. • Andaman and Nicobar islands are separated by shallow waters from the India coast. • They form an extension of the Arakan mountain range of Mayanmar therefore biogeographical affinity with mayanmar. • The tropical rainforest has high sp. Richness. • Because of isolation from the mainland, Endemism is high.  Mammal fauna is poor; has most of the sp. Of rodents, and some exotic mammals like Andaman pig have naturalized other native mammals; Nicobar macaque, tree shrew, Narcobium hornbill, salt water crocodile Fish and coral communities are very rich like dolphins and whales.
  • 23. - Andaman Pig -Salt water Crocodile
  • 24. 10.COASTS  a) Coastline-7000-8000 mts  b) India’s long coastline is poorly explored.  *Mangrooves with great variety of estuaries, lagoons and deltas.  * Sandy beaches including plant communities like casuarina calophylum pandamus.  * mud flats with a range of successional stages.  * raised coral and rocky coastlines.  * marine amgiosperms.  ANIMALS-Dungdong, humback dolphin of turbid estuarine water , the huge soft estuarine turtle.
  • 25. - Humpback dolphin of turbid estuarine water - Huge soft shelled estuarine Turtle
  • 26. THANK YOU.
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