Bluetooth 5.0 Throughput Comparison for Internet of Thing Usability A Survey

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Bluetooth 5.0 Throughput Comparison for Internet of Thing Usability A Survey
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  Bluetooth 5.0 Throughput Comparison for Internet of Thing Usability A Survey Muhyi Bin Yaakop #1 , Izwan Arief Abd Malik  1 , Zubir bin Suboh 2 , Aizat Faiz Ramli 1 , Mohd Azlan Abu 1   1  Electronic Technology Section, University Kuala Lumpur British Malaysia Institute 2  Biomedical Electronic Section, University Kuala Lumpur British Malaysia Institute   muhyi@unikl.edu.my 1  Abstract   —   Bluetooth 5.0 is revolutionizing the Internet of Things (IoT), allowing design engineers to pioneer innovative solutions while advancing the field of design engineering itself. With up to 4 times the range, 2 times the speed, 8 times the broadcasting message capacity, and improved coexistence with other cellular and wireless technologies, the enhancements of Bluetooth 5 open more possibilities than ever before. However, this technology is relatively recent, this paper is steadfast to look at each of the acclaim enhancements that set the Bluetooth 5.0 beyond the previous version.  Keywords  —   Bluetooth Low Energy; throughput; Industrie 4.0 ; connection interval; I.   I  NTRODUCTION OF B LUETOOTH The invention of Bluetooth has reach its 20 years of expenditure, like all other technology the first few iterations served as draft versions for release of v1.0 the first version of Bluetooth. Since then the release of newer and improve versions of the technology keep on developing and till most recently in late 2016, the new and improve version brought significant enhancements and benefits. Most significantly, version Bluetooth 5.0 introduced Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) [15-17]. Originally, BLE was targeted for low power, low bandwidth state information, the effective data rate was a maximum of 250kbps for the BLE [6-7]. Along the way, the “Internet of Things” (IoT) also came to fame, as device OEMs looked to leverage increased short range wireless connectivity for a myriad of battery powered devices, all built around the smartphone / tablet as a remote display or data conduit device to the Cloud. This paper is a case study of the ability for the new Bluetooth 5.0 that The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) have claim delivers “ twice the speed, four times range and multiply by 8 data” in their specification document [6]. A series of small scale experiment is conducted in this paper to test the throughput  potential of the discussed technology and its actual potential in an everyday usage. . II.   O VERVIEW TO IOT APPLICATION  With yearly shipments of more than 10 billion microcontrollers that all can exchange information locally or through the Internet, a huge v ariety of so called “intelligent devices” are enabled. These devices include motion sensors,  pool pumps, gas/electric meters, street lights, and many other types of devices. All these devices can be accessed over the Internet thanks to the rapid increase in infrastructure coverage and Internet access. This evolution is often called the Internet of Things (IoT) [9]. Other names include Internet of Everything (IoE), Web of Things, Embedded Web and Industry 4.0. The goal is to establish an Internet connection for the small "things" you carry with you or use in a factory, hospital, in a city or in a home. The IoT vision is an easy-to-deploy and cost-efficient low  power wireless solution. Connecting all small devices and sensors directly to the fixed or cellular networks would be too costly. An easy-to-deploy, cost-efficient, and low power solution is a key requirement in IoT [2-4]. Radio technologies such as Bluetooth, Bluetooth low energy, 802.15.4 / ZigBee or similar may be used to connect widely distributed small devices. This paper will look into one of the many section of this IoT that is Bluetooth especially the version 5.0 connectivity and its possibility of use in IoT application especially in the home/ small office environment. Figure 1: an overview of the interconnection for IoT model from [6] III.   B LUETOOTH 5.0  APPLICATION   2017 International Conference on Engineering Technology and Technopreneurship (ICE2T)978-1-53861807-3/17/$31.00 ©2017 IEEE  The new Bluetooth 5 is now a single feature, instead of the previous version of the technology that separate Bluetooth and BLE and user can only select either Bluetooth or BLE for their application. This new feature is also disambiguation of all previous Bluetooth version before ver.5.0. In terms of numbers, the doubling refers to the new 2Mbps data rate achievable in BLE mode. That focus for things on the internet of things (IoT). Referring to Table 1 [11-12], Range are also claim to be double, can now hit 200m under the right circumstances compare to 50m in previous version. “8 x data” refers to bigger data packets and not the  physical size of the transmission itself as shown in figure 1  below. Figure 1: Bluetooth 5.0 and Bluetooth 4.2 physical transmission Table 1: Specification for Bluetooth 5.0 vs Bluetooth 4.2 comperison [6,14-16]. Bluetooth 5.0 introduces a new capability to increase the bandwidth to 2 Mbps. By doubling the amount of data that devices can transfer, Bluetooth 5.0 reduces the time required for transmitting and receiving data. Increased range for low energy enables whole-home, building, or location coverage Bandwidth can be decreased to achieve up to 4x longer range while maintaining similar power requirements. With quadruple the range over which their devices can transmit and receive data, product designers creating home automation and security solutions can provide coverage of an entire home, building, or locality as discuss in[14].The range can be tuned for a variety of environments. Not every application requires the same range, speed or broadcasting capability from the Bluetooth 5.0. The flexibility for a developer to make the best choice for their implementation of the range and data transmission will be tremendous. Verifying the claim stated in the introduction a series of testbed experiment is conducted to test the three feature mention speed, data and range. This paper will elaborate the testing done and discuss the collected data, however all the testing done are under the scenario of applying and deploying the Bluetooth 5.0 technology with the IoT solicitation for future development.  A.    Hardware Setup The hardware selected for the test bed is the nRF52840 development Board from NORDIC Semiconductor. This selection due to the fact that at the time this experiment was initiated this the only retail development board that support Bluetooth 5.0, and the fact that the version 4.3 Bluetooth of the same board was already in use from previous experiment. This have shorten the experiment setup time considerably. The nRF52840 PDK is a versatile single board development kit for Bluetooth 5, Bluetooth low energy, ANT, 802.15.4 and 2.4GHz proprietary applications using the nRF52840 SoC [12] refer to figure 2. This kit was selected due to its hardware compatible with the Arduino Uno Revision 3 standard, making it possible to use 3rd-party shields such as  battery power and serial protocol board to fetch data that are compatible to this standard for the experiment setup. 2017 International Conference on Engineering Technology and Technopreneurship (ICE2T)  Figure 2: NORDIC Semiconductor nRF52840 PDK development Board  B.    Firmware setup The selected firmware that were use are the software that was supply with the NORDIC Semiconductor nRF52840 PDK development Board, the ARM® CORDIO™ is a software use to test the throughput of the of the Bluetooth devices in sync. It can read the send and receive data packet and give the throughput for both way master to slave and vice versa. With this information a better aspect at the how the transmission will  be effected due to distance and obstacle can be collected throughout the experiment. Figure 3 : ARM® CORDIO™ is a software use to test the throughput of the Nordic development board. Table 2:Test status for the throughput using the ARM® CORDIO™  The ARM CORDIO is a firmware that is readily intergraded with the required tools to develop and test future develop IOT application making it a an applicable tool to use for the analysis, the ability to investigate the connection strength and signal losses in a various environments and the transfer rate of data with capability of maximum data packet is all the reason that make the software a must in the experiment. C.   Testbead setup The proposed experiment design adopted for this experiment comes from the method use in [1], a testbed in Figure 4. A standard home is used to represent a benchmark of common environment and obstacle that an average system will  be used upon its deployment. Figure 4: Testbed for representing a normal home benchmark. Setup the ARM® CORDIO™ softwareSync the master development board with the slave development board.Place the slave development board at the pre determent location. Collect the data for throughput for: · Master to slave · Slave to master · beacon modeAll location ?Change the location of slave board ENDSTART  Figure 5: block diagram for experiment protocol  D.   Connection topology: The Bluetooth specification included two network topologies for data transmission: connection and broadcast, each one with its own advantages and limitations. Bluetooth 4.2 [16] and 5.0 [17] maintain these topologies, which have  been improved by combining different roles. However, the 2017 International Conference on Engineering Technology and Technopreneurship (ICE2T)  later versions are not implemented in most IoT devices. And are not used in the experiment. These two available topologies in Bluetooth specification are described below: ·   Connection topology: Once a connection is established, by two BLE devices exchange packets in a permanent and periodical way. Two roles are used here: master and slave. A master device can connect with different slave devices. This operating mode allows the data exchange in both directions, between a slave device and the master device. In addition, a master device can use the notification and indication characteristics to read data immediately when they change. We will only focus on a pair connection, due to limitation on hardware availability. ·   Broadcast topology: a BLE device can transmit data using the BLE advertising mode to any BLE device in listening range, which uses the BLE scanning mode. This topology defines two roles: broadcaster (device which transmits data) and observer (device which receives data). In this case, data exchange is unidirectional, from the broadcaster to one or more. There are primarily 3 factors that determine maximum throughput with Bluetooth: 1)   Connection interval, 2)    Number of packets transmitted per connection event, 3)   Operation type, Practically event through the data commercially announce speed are declare 2Mbps, but physically the actual data transfer rate is in less than 80% of that claim, due to the background  protocol handshaking and security measurement use [3]. This is the same with the older version of the technology version 4.2 that also use in this experiment for comparisons, claim to have 1Mbps however in the free run test was only able top up to less than 800 kbps, in our previous test. IV.   RESULT   AND   FINDING   By setting up the Bluetooth following the placement shown in figure 4, series of testing was done and the finding is elaborated in here. Table 3: the average throughput result for series of testing done in accordance with the experiment setup. Figure 4 and Table 3 show the placement of censor in a normal three bed room home setting that is a common in city area, the transmitter master (represented by the hexagon dot) in figure 4 are place in an ideal location near a desktop computer for receiving and transmitting data, this setup are model upon an actual scenario of an average consumer usage. The square with number from 1 to 5 are representing the placement of the nRF52840 PDK development Board attach with an Arduino shield board in figure 2. Due to the size of the house the variance of the distance that are able to be gather are 3.5m,5m,9.2m,3.7, and 11.4m with respective wall obstacle show in Table 3, from the reading measure of the throughput an average reading from a sample size of 30 evaluation was sample and show in Table 3. The result were as predictable, seeing the increase of distance will affect the throughput however going thru with the notion that Bluetooth 5.0 are appealing that the technology is much more better and able to increase the transmission up to double this is tested and verify in this test. If the average data in Table 3 is observe the all the average throughput of Bluetooth 5.0 are almost showing double the result of the later version of Bluetooth 4.2, except for the case at point 5. This is possibly due to reflection and the type of wall the signal need to pass thru. To simplify the reading and not convoluted the result  processing the throughput used for references is from the average throughput result collected, throughput from BLE isn't quite straightforward, but given a number of packets per interval n  and a  connection interval T  ,  B  for bandwidth frequency the maximums throughput can be calculated using equation 1 below: n * 20 B * 1/T equation (1). By using the average value calculated using equation 1, a  baseline comparison are done, to see the performance of the Bluetooth signal. figure 6 show the combine throughput of master and slave data bits per seconds (kbps) plotted with the average value, with this scattering value of kbps show that the signal will loss an estimated value of 3% to 4% of its data bits during transmission for both way communication. 2017 International Conference on Engineering Technology and Technopreneurship (ICE2T)   Figure 6: the combine result of throughput for master slave. The next test is to determent if they is a differences  between the throughputs of the connection for single direction communication, for master only and for salve only, by separating the 2 signal we will able to determine source of the loss, the comparison is plotted in figure 6. Figure 7: comparison between the throughputs for master versus slave In visual assessment the result verify that the loss are from the slave to master side of the transmission, with an average drop of -7% compare to average throughput calculated for the signal. In this paper we also tested for comparison the throughput capability of Bluetooth 5.0 to pass thru obstacle such as brick wall, which was readily setup in our testbed procedure. Figure 8: With wall obstacle throughput comperison. In the result display in figure 7, a stable output in average of 5% to 6% throughput losses with a concrete wall obstacle in between a straight line communication setup was detected. And this result are show in other test with difference distance. V.   CONCLUSION   The output of the result suggested that the Bluetooth 5.0 does stay true to its claim of doubling the data rate, increasing its transmission speed and increasing the distance of coverage, however it partly comply to all this claim and certain claim are only thru with specific cases, the distance is further but the kbps drop to a lower rate, in the test conducted in an environment such as a home, the drop will average in 5% of its throughput average capacity, compare to the previous version of 7% to 12%. Overall the technology of Bluetooth 5.0 with previous Bluetooth versions, it is imperative that it will  become popular in the smart phone devices, Internet of Things (IoT) devices and Bluetooth Beacons application. R  EFERENCES   [1]   1. Aguilar, S.; Vidal, R.; Gomez, C. Opportunistic Sensor Data Collection with Bluetooth Low Energy. Sensors 2017, 17, 159. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [2]   Gomez, C.; Oller, J.; Paradells, J. Overview and Evaluation of Bluetooth Low Energy: An Emerging Low-Power Wireless Technology. Sensors 2012, 12, 11734  –  11753. [CrossRef] [3]    Nieminen, J.; Savolainen, T.; Isomaki, M.; Patil, B.; Shelby, Z.; Gomez, C. IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low Energy; RFC 7668; IETF: Fremont, CA, USA, 2015. [4]   Gomez, C.; Paradells, J. Wireless home automation networks: A survey of architectures and technologies.IEEE Commun. Mag. 2010, 48, 92  –  101. [CrossRef] [5]   Pie, Z.; Deng, Z.; Yang, B. Application-Oriented Wireless Sensor  Network Communication Protocols and Hardware Platforms: A Survey. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, Chengdu, China, 21  –  24 April 2008. [6]   Bluetooth SIG. Specification of the Bluetooth System, Covered Core Package; Version 5; Bluetooth Special Interest Group: Kirkland, WA, USA, 2016 2017 International Conference on Engineering Technology and Technopreneurship (ICE2T)
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