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1. Thermochemical Process “Boronizing” 2. Introduction Surface Hardening Thermal Method Flame Hardening Induction Hardening Thermochemical Methods Carburizing…
  • 1. Thermochemical Process “Boronizing”
  • 2. Introduction Surface Hardening Thermal Method Flame Hardening Induction Hardening Thermochemical Methods Carburizing Nitriding Boronizing
  • 3. Introduction  Boronizing also called boriding.  Iron alloys, especially steels, were the first materials which were subjected to boronizing.  It was possible to produce the hard and wear resistant surface layers by diffusion of boron into the steel.  Originally, the term “boronizing” was defined as an enrichment of the material surface with boron by means of the thermochemical treatment.  Using thermal energy and chemical reactions, boron atoms were adsorbed on the surface and introduced into the lattice of base material, and then diffused into the core direction to form borides with the atoms of the substrate.
  • 4. Process  Process is usually carried out in the range of temperature 850–1000 °C (1123–1273 K) for 2-8 hours.
  • 5. Process Parameters  Microstructure depending on the boriding conditions  Temperature,  Time,  Boron activity,  Chemical composition of substrate material.
  • 6. Observations  In general, the process resulted in formation of needle-like microstructure (also called saw-tooth microstructure) consisting of,  FeB iron borides  Fe2B iron borides Fig : Morphology of formation of boride layer Ref: Akshay A. Josihi et al., tribology transactions, 2014
  • 7. Iron Boride Sr .No. Properties Fe2B FeB 1 Micro Hardness 1650-2000 HV 1900-2100 HV 2 Modulus Of Elasticity (GPa) 285-295 590 3 Density 7.43 g/cm³ 6.75 g/cm³ 4 % Boron 8.83% 16.23% 5 Lattice Structure Body-Centered Tetragonal Orthorhombic 6 Behaviour Relatively Ductile Relatively Brittle 7 Melting Point 1390ºC 1540ºC
  • 8. Properties  The unique advantage of boronized steels consisted in their high resistance to abrasion  The advantageous profile of  Residual stresses,  High heat resistance  High corrosion resistance in alkaline and acid solutions
  • 9. Applications Ball Valve Burner Nozzle Automotive Parts Compressor Wheel Pump Part
  • 10. Future Scope  The boride layers could be produced on high-alloy steels or on titanium and its alloys.  In recent years, the hybrid layers were also often produced using boronizing. Such layers offered the new advantageous properties which were difficult to attain by the simple method of boriding.  The formation of boride coatings was also taken into account as a special technique of boriding.
  • 11. Thanks….!
  • 12. Referance  Aneta Bartkowska et al., “Microstructure, chemical composition, wear, and corrosion resistance of FeB– Fe2B–Fe3B surface layers produced on Vanadis-6 steel using CO2 laser”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2018, Volume 95, 1763–1776.  A. joshi et al., “ Pack-Boronizing of AISI 4140 Steel: Boronizing Mechanism and the Role of Container Design”, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 29 (2014 ), 1062–1072.  Book : Current Trends in Boriding Techniques by Michal Kulka.
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