Braman - Applying the Cultural Dimension of Indiv.doc

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  Individualism and Collectivism Running head: INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM Applying the Cultural Dimensin ! Indi idualism and Clle#ti ism t Eri$sn%s Thery ! &sy#hs#ial De elpmentO' Randall (ramanUni ersity ! &heni)* +a,aii CampusO' Randall (raman #urrently tea#hes Edu#atinal Cunseling n the !a#ulty ! the Uni ersity ! &heni)* +a,aii Campus' &re ius t this appintment* he ,as an Instru#tr ! Cunseling n the !a#ulty ! the Uni ersity ! -uam' 1  Individualism and Collectivism  A.stra#tEri$sn%s thery ! psy#hs#ial de elpment has .een applied .y #unseling pra#titiners and resear#hes in rder t understand and e)plain human .eha ir a#rss #ultures' +,e er* thrugh #lse e)aminatin ! resear#h and literature surrunding the #ultural dimensin ! indi idualism and #lle#ti ism* Eri$sn%s psy#hs#ial stages may nt .e rele ant t indi iduals !rm #lle#ti isti# #ultures' Thisarti#le re ie,s the indi idualism and #lle#ti ism literature and !!ers alternati e stages that are mre #ndu#i e t the #lle#ti isti# e)perien#e ! human de elpment' 2   Applying the Cultural Dimensin ! Indi idualism and Clle#ti ism t Eri$sn%s Thery ! &sy#hs#ial De elpment Sme animals* li$e ,l es* are gregarius* and thers are slitary* li$e tigers' The human spe#ies shuld n du.t .e #lassi!ied ,ith the gregarius animals* .ut di!!erent human s#ieties sh, gregariusness tdi!!erent degrees' +ere again* then* ,e ha e a !undamental dimensin n ,hi#h s#ieties di!!er: the relatinship .et,een the indi idual and the #lle#ti ity' /+!stede* 0123* p' 4056The Uni ersality ! Eri$sn%s TheryIn his 0114 ,r$* Theries ! De elpment: Cn#epts and Appli#atins* 7illiam Crain #ntends that stage theries must meet parti#ular #riteria* ne ! ,hi#h is that stages .e #ulturally uni ersal' Crain suggests that t sme degree*Eri$sn8s /01236 psy#hs#ial stages ! de elpment meet this #riteria' +e re!ers t Eri$sn8s ,r$ ,ith the Siu) Nati e Ameri#ans t illustrate his pint' +e #n#ludes*  All #ultures try t pr ide their #hildren ,ith #nsistent #are* regulate their e)treme ,ish t d e erything their ,n ,ay* and instill in#est ta.s'  And* as #hildren gr,* all #ultures as$ them t learn the tls and s$ills ! their te#hnlgy* t !ind a ,r$a.le adult identity* t esta.lish .nds ! intima#y* t #are !r the ne)t generatin* and t !a#e death ,ith integrity' /p' 496Stated generally* Eri$sn%s psy#hs#ial stages may appear t .e #ulturally uni ersal* .ut upn #lser e)aminatin* spe#i!i# #ultural di!!eren#es  suggest di!!eren#es in his prpsed stages ! de elpment' There are parti#ular dimensins ! #ultural di!!eren#es that must .e #nsidered ,hen addressing #nstru#ts ,hi#h are meant t .e uni ersally applied' One su#h dimensin is ;indi idualism and #lle#ti ism';Indi idualism and Clle#ti ism O er the past 0< years* the #nstru#ts ! indi idualism and #lle#ti ism ha e .e#me a ma=r dimensin ! #ultural di!!eren#es as determined .y therists !rm a ariety ! dis#iplines /+!stede* 0123> Mrisa$i and -udy$unst* 0115> Triandis* 01216' +!stede /01236* thrugh a study that in l ed  er 00?*333 emplyees ! a multinatinal #rpratin in 99 #untries* #ategri@ed !ur #ultural ariatin dimensins' These dimensins in#lude p,er distan#e* un#ertainty a idan#e* mas#ulinity!emininity* and indi idualism and #lle#ti ism';&,er distan#e; re!ers t the issue ! human ineBuality and addresses the e)tent ! s#ietal mem.ers8 a##eptan#e ! p,er ineBuality ,ithin rgani@atins' ;Un#ertainty a idan#e; re!ers t the degree ! tleran#e mem.ers ! a s#iety ha e #n#erning the presen#e r la#$ ! a ,ellde!ined s#ial stru#ture' The ;mas#ulinity!emininity; dimensin re!ers t a #ulture8s pre!eren#e !r steretypi#ally ;mas#uline; gals /e'g'* a#hie ement* asserti eness* and materialsu##ess6 as ppsed t steretypi#ally ;!eminine; gals /e'g'* relatinships* mdesty* and nurturing6' +!stede suggests that the dimensin ! indi idualism and #lle#ti ism has appealed parti#ularly t psy#hlgists ;.e#ause the relatinship .et,een the indi idual and ther indi iduals has traditinally .een a #entral #n#ern in
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