Chapter 17 Outline

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I. Exploration of the New World  The 15th century was an age of exploration and discovery, not only of the New World but of the Far East as well o It's important to remember that in 1400, Europeans knew little more of the world's surface than had the ancient Romans o In 1350, it took the same amount of time to sail from one end of the Mediterranean to the other as it had 1000 years before o As late as 1325, there was still no regular sea traffic between northern and southern Europe by way of th
  I. Exploration of the New World    The 15th century was an age of exploration and discovery, not only of the New World but of theFar East as well o   It's important to remember that in 1400, Europeans knew little more of the world'ssurface than had the ancient Romans o   In 1350, it took the same amount of time to sail from one end of the Mediterranean to theother as it had 1000 years before o   As late as 1325, there was still no regular sea traffic between northern and southernEurope by way of the Atlantic. By 1500, all this had changed    Why did Europeans begin exploring at this time? o   Population not a factor    Europeans were not motivated by demographic pressures to leave Europe in the15th century as they would be in the late 19th    The European population had not yet recovered from the Black Death, nor would   it do so until at least 1500 o   The role of national governments    the explorations were encouraged by national governments which were the only   ones wealthy enough to finance such exploration    Countries that lacked such national governments, like Italy and Germany, werecut out    Some believe the Europeans might actually have reached the new world earlierhad not they been held back by economic depression and political upheavals      After all, the Portuguese had found the Azores in 1350 and these islands wereone-third of the way to the new world o   Scarce items    Europeans were encouraged to search the world because they were looking forthe things they could not produce themselves    These included spices, silk, cotton cloth, and precious stones      The Venetian monopoly in spices set very high prices    Between 1495-99, the price of pepper doubled in Venice      Da Gama of Portugal found pepper costing 80 ducats in Venice could be   had for a mere three in Calicut in India    John Cabot of England was looking for cod; cod from the Grand Banks off thecoast of Newfoundland had bigger and fattier livers that produced more oil fromwhich a huge profit could be made o   the Renaissance    during the Middle Ages, Europeans had no burning desire to look beyond theboundaries of Christendom    but with the Renaissance and the ideas of human improvement, people becamecurious as to what lay beyond their known world    they also looked back at the knowledge of the ancients and learned    One major reason for the explorations was the rediscovery of Ptolomy's   Geography recovered in 1409    Ptolomy accepted the idea of the world as a sphere, but heexaggerated the size of known territory making continents seemcloser together than they really were    The result was that Ptolomy had underestimated thecircumference of the globe by 5000 miles    This misinformation is what led Columbus to sail west to get toChina    New inventions     exploration was made possible by new inventions    The sandglass was the basic timepiece of the period, good enough to   measure the difference in four hour watches on a ship, but not nearlygood enough to calculate longitude    Not until the 18th century would there be chronometers accurateenough to calculate longitude    Instead, the naval explorers of the 14th and 15th centuries usedlatitude sailing    This meant they would find the right latitude by measuring thedistance of the sun from the horizon, sail so many days on thatcourse, change to another, etc. until they reached theirdestination    The magnetic compass first developed around 1300 helped sailors   determine their position at sea, and the astrolabe permitted the plotting of latitude    Better maps also aided seamen    The Beginnings of Exploration o     Portuguese take the lead    The Portuguese took the lead in exploration, feeling their way along Africa,   hoping that the two known oceans, the Atlantic and Indian, were connected   somehow    This was done under the influence of Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)    Portuguese ships found the Gold Coast of Africa      by 1500, Portugal controlled the flow of gold into Europe    The Golden Age of Portugal had begun    As they worked their way around Africa searching for a passage, the Portuguesealso founded the slave trade which they also soon controlled    In 1487, Bartholomew Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope in Africa, but   storms and a threatened mutiny obliged him to turn back     But before the Portuguese could venture around Africa and on to India,further information would be required about conditions in eastern Africa      To that end, Pero da Cavilha was sent overland to India to find ports inIndia and Africa hospitable to the Portuguese      He identified a sultan in Malindi who would be willing to provide the   Portuguese with pilots across the treacherous Indian Ocean    The Portuguese then concerned themselves with their other main rival, Spain      The Treaty of Torsedillas in 1494, divided the world between Spain and   Portugal, giving most of the new world as it turned out to the Spanish,except for Brazil, but preserving the Portuguese monopoly over the   African coast    Vasco Da Gama in 1497 set sail and eventually reached India    He found the pilot promised him and made the 2300 mile trip across the   Indian Ocean in only 27 days, with the wind at his back and a skilledpilot who maneuvered around the islands and reefs    But, having reached India and taken on his goods, Da Gama was obligedto leave in a hurry    Worse, his pilot was killed      The trip back to Africa took 3 months      By the time he returned to Portugal, he had lost two ships, and only 59 of the 170 men he had began with were left     The cargo he carried, however, was worth 60 times the cost of theexpedition      In time, the Portuguese set up trading posts in India to the discomfort of theArabs there    Christianity spread as well with them, with missionaries reaching Chinain 1516    Jesuits reached Japan in 1549, delivering hundreds of converts in a fewyears o   The Spanish enter the race    the Spanish had not found anything that paid such dividends    early Spanish explorations      Columbus    Columbus was dispatched with the support of Ferdinand and   Isabella in August, 1492, landing in October at San Salvadorwhich he believed to be India    Columbus was not the first to discover the New World,but the last      Earlier European explorers to the New World    The Vikings in 982 under Eric the Red hadfound Greenland, and about 1000 under Lief Erickson had found the what we now know asCanada    Lacking stable political institutions in   Scandinavia, they had no governmental forms toimpose on these distant countries, and their   settlements collapsed    Irish sailors led by a monk named Brendan mostlikely sailed across around the same (or evenearlier time) in a boat made from leather    Columbus ultimately located all the major islands in theCaribbean    He also found new souls to win over to Catholicism, and of course, he found new land to settle the restless young hidalgoswho had expected the Spanish crown to give them land and   wealth following the fall of Granada when in fact the crown hadnone to give    Columbus also found gold that was cultivated by placer mining,that is washed from gravel    The work was tedious and the indians had no immunityto most European diseases    What with disease and overwork, the population of Hispaniola fell from one million in 1493 to 100,000 by   1510    Black slaves would be imported from Guinea to do themining    But the amounts of gold found were tiny and still thevoyages had not paid off       In 1513, Balboa sighted the Pacific Ocean after crossing the isthmus of Panama    Magellan     following Balboa's discovery, Spain dispatched FerdinandMagellan to find a sea route to the new ocean    He found the straits at the bottom of South America which stillbear his name    Sailing between huge mountains and through narrow passages, ittook 38 terrifying days to make it through    The ocean he found on the other side was so calm, he named itthe Pacific    Still thinking Ptolomy's calculations were correct, and the victimof extraordinary bad luck, Magellan crossed the Pacific, missingTahiti, the Marquesas, and every other major island group,   arriving finally in the Philippines    There he was killed and the rest of his expedition finally returned   to Spain in 1518 after running the gauntlet of hostile Portuguese   settlements in Africa and India    Magellan's crew had proven the earth was indeed round andconsiderably larger than Ptolomy thought it was, but they hadnot yet found the wealth the Portuguese had enjoyed for decades    The Conquistadors      Thus the conquistadors were sent inland looking for treasure      Cortes in 1519 captured the Aztec empire and Pizarro captured Perubetween 1531 and 36, finding the richest silver mines in the new world    Finally, the Spanish exploration had paid off, and the Spanish began   exploiting this new found wealth    But this money did not stay in Spain: she had destroyed her own middle   class made up of Jews and Muslims when the latter were expelled in1492    Thus, the wealth passed through Spain to create raging inflation in therest of Europe.II. Social Results of Imperialism    Technology o   Technology aided imperialism that in turn had a major impact on European social life,   primarily through new developments in ship building      Before the Renaissance, the ships that plied the Mediterranean were narrow openboats called galleys    Such ships were frequently rowed and sometimes used a small mast which did   not catch the wind efficiently    Such delicate, slow-moving craft were acceptable for the relative calm of the   Mediterranean Sea which was well mapped, but they would have sunk quickly inthe rough seas of the Atlantic, most of which remained unexplored    It was the Portuguese who developed the caravel in the 15th century, a three   masted ship which, though physically smaller than a galley, could actually holdmore cargo, and could be sailed by as few as 12 men if need be    This more efficient use of manpower was absolutely necessary following the   massive population loss caused by the Black Death o   While technology made Renaissance imperialism possible, especially the caravel and and   new cannons, this imperialism itself had a huge economic impact on Europe o     Almost unimaginable amounts of gold and silver came in from the Spanish possessions o   This influx of bullion led to major price increases
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