Chapter 3. Effect of Reactive Power on Electrical Power Equipment

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Chapter 3. Effect of Reactive Power on Electrical Power Equipment
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   Chapter 3. Effect of Reactive Power on Electrical Power Equipment   • 3.1. Chapter Overview • 3.2. Generation and Equipment • 3.3 Power System Losses • 3.4 Generators • 3.5 Voltage Drop • 3.5.1 General • 3.5.2 Transferable Power of Lines and Voltage Drop • 3.5.3 Transformer Voltage Drop • 3.6 Available Power of Transformers 1 Prepared by surya Hardi, PhD  3 1 Chapter Overview In this chapter the effects of reactive power on power system performance and the design (rating) of equipment are described. The transmission of reactive power through lines and transformers as well as the supply of reactive power by generators in power stations require a higher rating of the equipment. The transmission of reactive power also causes an increased voltage drop in any equipment, which influences significantly the voltage control in power systems. 2 Prepared by surya Hardi, PhD  Generation: • An electric power generator’s primary function is to convert fuel into electric power. • Almost all generators also have considerable control over their terminal voltage and reactive-power output. • The ability of generator to provide reactive support depends on its real power production. • Like most electric equipment, generators are limited by their current carrying capability. Near rated voltage, this capability becomes an MVA limit for the armature of the generator rather than a MW limitation. • Production of reactive power involves increasing the magnetic field to raise the generator’s terminal voltage . •  Increasing the magnetic field requires increasing the current in the rotating field winding. 3 Prepared by surya Hardi, PhD  • Absorption of reactive power is limited by the magnetic-flux pattern in the stator, which results in excessive heating of the stator-end iron, the core-end heating limit. • The synchronizing torque is also reduced when absorbing large amounts of reactive power, which can also limit  generator capability to reduce the chance of losing synchronization with the system. • The generator prime mover (e.g., the steam turbine) is usually designed with less capacity than the electric generator, resulting in the prime-mover limit. The designers recognize that the generator will be producing reactive power and supporting system voltage most of the time 4 Prepared by surya Hardi, PhD  3 2 Loading of Generators and Equipment The oscillation of reactive power between generation or source (generators and/or capacitors) and consumption (motors and/or load) causes reactive currents and, from this, additional loading of any equipment (lines, transformers, switchgear) between the source and drain of reactive power. The apparent power and apparent current can be calculated from U is Line Voltage 5 Prepared by surya Hardi, PhD
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