Coastal Hinterlands. Site patterns, microregions and coast-inland interconnections by the Corinthian Gulf, c. 600-300 BC

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Coastal Hinterlands. Site patterns, microregions and coast-inland interconnections by the Corinthian Gulf, c. 600-300 BC
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  Coastal Hinterlands Site patterns, microregions and coast-inland interconnections by the Corinthian Gulf, c . 600–300 BC   Anton Bonnier BAR International Series 26142014  Published byArchaeopress Publishers of Brish Archaeological Reports Gordon House 276 Banbury Road Oxford OX2 7ED England bar@archaeopress.comwww.archaeopress.com BAR S2614 Coastal Hinterlands Site paerns, microregions and coast-inland interconnecons by the Corinthian Gulf, c. 600–300 BC  © Archaeopress and A Bonnier 2014ISBN 978 1 4073 1245 3Printed in England by Informaon Press, OxfordAll BAR tles are available from:Hadrian Books Ltd122 Banbury Road OxfordOX2 7BP England www.hadrianbooks.co.uk The current BAR catalogue with details of all tles in print, prices and means of payment is available free from Hadrian Books or may be downloaded from www.archaeopress.com  3 Contents List of figures .......................................................................................................................................................... 6   Preface................................................................................................................................................................... 10   1.   Introduction  ..................................................................................................................................................... 11   Methodology and Sources ............................................................................................................................................................. 12   Material Remains and Dating ........................................................................................................................................................ 13   Written Sources ............................................................................................................................................................................. 14   Ethnographic Information .............................................................................................................................................................. 14   Analytical Concepts ....................................................................................................................................................................... 15   Landscape ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 15    Networks and Connectivity ........................................................................................................................................................... 16   Site hierarchies .............................................................................................................................................................................. 18   Central Place Sites ......................................................................................................................................................................... 18   Geographical Setting ..................................................................................................................................................................... 19   Outline of the Study ....................................................................................................................................................................... 20   2.   Regional Site Patterns and Site Hierarchies  ................................................................................................. 21   Criteria for Site Classification ....................................................................................................................................................... 21   Harbours ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 21   Habitation Sites ............................................................................................................................................................................. 21   Cult Sites and Sanctuaries.............................................................................................................................................................. 22   Burial Sites .................................................................................................................................................................................... 22   Military Sites ................................................................................................................................................................................. 22   Towers ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 22   Central Place Sites ......................................................................................................................................................................... 23   The Southeastern Region ............................................................................................................................................................... 23   Regional Site Patterns .................................................................................................................................................................... 23   Site Classifications ........................................................................................................................................................................ 24   Central Place Sites ......................................................................................................................................................................... 27   The Southwestern Region .............................................................................................................................................................. 28   Regional Site Patterns .................................................................................................................................................................... 29   Site Classifications ........................................................................................................................................................................ 29   Central Place Sites ......................................................................................................................................................................... 32   The Northwestern Region .............................................................................................................................................................. 32   Regional Site Patterns .................................................................................................................................................................... 33   Site Classifications ........................................................................................................................................................................ 33   Central Place Sites ......................................................................................................................................................................... 34   The Northeastern Region ............................................................................................................................................................... 35   Regional Site Patterns .................................................................................................................................................................... 36   Site Classifications ........................................................................................................................................................................ 36   Central Place Sites ......................................................................................................................................................................... 38   Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 39   3.   Lines of Communication and the Impact of the Physical Landscape  ......................................................... 41   Physical Routes ............................................................................................................................................................................. 41   River Valleys and Valley Systems ................................................................................................................................................. 42   Mountains, Uplands and Communication ...................................................................................................................................... 44   Visibility ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 46   Roads and Road Networks ............................................................................................................................................................. 48   Central Place Sites and Physical Routes ........................................................................................................................................ 51    4 The Southeastern Region ............................................................................................................................................................... 51   The Southwestern Region .............................................................................................................................................................. 52   The Northwestern Region .............................................................................................................................................................. 54   The Northeastern Region ............................................................................................................................................................... 55   Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 56   4.   Imports, Trade and Coast-Hinterland Interconnections  ............................................................................. 59   The Distribution of Imports ........................................................................................................................................................... 59   The Southeastern Region ............................................................................................................................................................... 60   The Southwestern Region .............................................................................................................................................................. 63   The Northwestern Region .............................................................................................................................................................. 67   The Northeastern Region ............................................................................................................................................................... 69   Modes of Transfer ......................................................................................................................................................................... 73   Imported Pottery and Trade ........................................................................................................................................................... 74   Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 77   5.   Regional Economies and Connectivity  .......................................................................................................... 80   Regional Economies ...................................................................................................................................................................... 80   The Southeastern Region ............................................................................................................................................................... 80   The Southwestern Region .............................................................................................................................................................. 83   The Northwestern Region .............................................................................................................................................................. 86   The Northeastern Region ............................................................................................................................................................... 88   Economic Growth and Connectivity .............................................................................................................................................. 90   Visible Growth .............................................................................................................................................................................. 90   Subsistence and Connectivity ........................................................................................................................................................ 93   Mountain Economies and Connectivity ......................................................................................................................................... 96   Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................................................... 102   6.   Coast-Hinterland Interconnections and Political Landscapes  .................................................................. 105   Site Patterns, Routes and Territories ............................................................................................................................................ 105   The Southeastern Region ............................................................................................................................................................. 105   The Southwestern Region ............................................................................................................................................................ 108   The Northwestern Region ............................................................................................................................................................ 110   The Northeastern Region ............................................................................................................................................................. 113    Ethne , Federal States and Coast-Hinterland Networks ................................................................................................................ 116   Military Aspects of Interconnections ........................................................................................................................................... 119   Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................................................... 122   7.   General Conclusions  ..................................................................................................................................... 124   Site Patterns, Site Hierarchies and Coast-Hinterland Interconnections ........................................................................................ 124   Economic Networks and Connectivity......................................................................................................................................... 125   Political Dimensions of Coast-Hinterland Interconnections ........................................................................................................ 127   Multiple interconnections and the History of the Corinthian Gulf ............................................................................................... 129   Appendix 1: Gazetteer of Archaic and Classical-Early Hellenistic Sites  ..................................................... 130   1.   The Southeastern Region ......................................................................................................................................................... 131   2. The Southwestern Region ........................................................................................................................................................ 162   3. The Northwestern Region ........................................................................................................................................................ 182   4. The Northeastern Region ......................................................................................................................................................... 202   Appendix 2: Archaic and Classical poleis   in the study regions recognised by the Copenhagen Polis Centre  ............................................................................................................................................................................ 240   Appendix 3: Figures  .......................................................................................................................................... 243   Bibliography  ...................................................................................................................................................... 327  
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