Comparative Analysis of Development Aid Modalities and Institutional Architecture between the North-South and South-South Development Cooperation-Perspectives from Donor Recipients

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The modalities of development cooperation saw drastic changes over the last decades when fast-emerging economies of the global south entered the business. Therefore, aid no longer rests solely on the global north with the global south being the
  International Affairs and Global Strategy ISSN 2224-574X (Paper ISSN 2224-!"5# ($nline %ol.&#' 2#! #2 Comparative Analysis of Development Aid Modalities and Institutional Architecture between the North-South and South-South Development Cooperation-Perspectives from Donor Recipients Al)assan *aba #+  ,ang i)an #'2 #. /ollege of 01anities and e3elop1ent' /)ina Agriltral ni3ersity' 6ing)a ongl No #7 #!' 0aidian istrit' *ei8ing' P.9. /)ina 2. /ollege of 01anities and e3elop1ent Stdies' /)ina Agriltral ni3ersity' 6ing)a ongl No #7' #!0aidian istrit' *ei8ing' P.9. /)ina Abstract   :)e 1odalities of de3elop1ent ooperation saw drasti )anges o3er t)e last deades w)en fast-e1erging eono1ies of t)e global sot) entered t)e bsiness. :)erefore' aid no longer rests solely on t)e global nort) wit) t)e global sot) being t)e reipient. In t)is lig)t' at)ors o1pared t)e 1odalities of de3elop1ent aid of t)e nort)-sot) wit) t)e e1erging Sot)-Sot) de3elop1ent ooperation (SS/ based on t)e perspeti3e of donor reipients. :)e se1inar is titled ;/)ina-Afria Agriltral /ooperation Poliy < Afrian Agriltral :e)nology =>tension and :ransfer ?e)anis1s@'   )eld in *ei8ing' /)ina. elegates arged t)at donor spport fro1 t)e SS/ and NS/ (Nort) Sot) e3elop1ent /ooperation o1es wit) 3aried featres and si1ilarities Birstly' t)e NS/ is 1onetarists and )arateriCed wit) stringent onditionality of fisal disipline' t)s 1aintaining and sstaining 1aroeono1i stability in a gi3en ontry' w)ereas t)e e1erging SS/ aid is wit)ot strings and onditionalities' t)erefore' SS/ spports s1all s)e1es of soial prodti3e setors in t)e area of )ealt)' edation' infrastrtre' agriltre wit)ot strings of 1aroeono1i perfor1ane. Also' aid fro1 NS/ is )anneled t)rog) instittions s) as t)e Non-Go3ern1ental $rganiCations (NG$s' N' Bood and Agriltre $rganiCation (BA$' nited Nation e3elop1ent progra1 (NP' w)ereas aid fro1 t)e SS/ is reei3ed by t)e go3ern1ent 1inistries. Seondly' t)e stdy aDnowledged t)e leading role played by /)ina as an aid donor a1ong t)e *9I/S. /)ina pro3ides 3arios for1s of aids to de3eloping world espeially Afrian ontries in t)e for1 of onessional loans' grants' te)nology transfer' and apaity bilding a1ong ot)ers. Its trade and in3est1ent pro8ets are not wit)ot strings and onditionalities nor does it prse a neo-olonialis1 interest' nliDe t)e NS/' w)i) ses transpareny' good go3ernane' 1iroeono1i as basis for t)e Ealifiation or ot)erwise for aid. 0owe3er' bot) t)e NS/ and SS/ pts pre1i1 as regards to proper se of fnds by reipients' t)s strit 1e)anis1s for proper 1onitoring and e3alation. Non-interferene in reipientFs politial and do1esti isses is not a ondition for Aid for SS/' itFs a 1tal bsiness and friends)ip t)at at)orFs fond as an i1portant onsideration. Binally' t)e SS/ is e>peted to e1late t)e  positi3e side of t)e NS/ sine )as a lot to learn fro1 )ow aid and grants are disbrsed.  eywords! Sot)-Sot)' e3elop1ent' /ooperation' Nort)-Sot) e3elop1ent' Aid' Perspeti3e  "#$   Introduction :)e disorse on t)e 1odalities and effeti3eness of de3elop1ent aid )as reently ased proar a1ong s)olars. :)e pande1oni1 and debate tend to srge in t)e fae of t)e intensifiation of t)e Sot)-Sot) e3elop1ent /ooperation (SS/ as against t)e traditional Nort)-Sot) e3elop1ent /ooperation (NS/. /on3entionally' 1ost de3elop1ent aid were sored fro1 de3eloped eono1ies' partilarly t)e reglar donors' inlding t)e $rganiCation for =ono1i /ooperation and e3elop1ent $=/' nited States Ageny for International e3elop1ent (SAI and =ropean /o11issionsF International /ooperation and e3elop1ent (=rope-AI' nited ingdo1 epart1ent for International e3elop1ent (-AI et.' and were often direted to t)e de3eloping eono1ies 1ostly in Sb-Sa)aran Afria and =ast Asia. Hately )owe3er' so1e of t)e fast-e1erging eono1ies of t)e de3eloping ontries' liDe /)ina' *raCil' India' 9ssia' and Sot)-Afria (*9I/S started e>eting progra1s and pro8ets 1ainly designed to fasten t)e eono1i de3elop1ent in t)e poorer ontries wit)in t)e global Sot). :)e reason for t)is new paradig1 of de3elop1ent aid is assoiated wit) solidarity and o11on )istory. S ?o)anty (2#5 opined t)at t)e SS/ e1erged strongly bease 1ost of t)e partiipant s)ares si1ilar olonial ties' t)ey are generally po3erty striDen' and bede3iled wit) soial ills leading to nderde3elop1ent' )ene preferred to be alled de3elop1ent partnersF instead of donorsF as sed by t)e NS/.   ,)i)e3er way it is /)ristine' t)e Eestion on t)e 1odalities for effeti3e aid deli3ery )as always been pt forward. *arder (2" proposed t)at effeti3e aid an be a)ie3ed t)rog) transpareny and aontability a1ong t)e donors' inter1ediaries' and t)e reipients. :)is brings to lig)t t)e role of /i3il Soiety $rganiCations (/S$s aross t)e sb-region of reipient ontries ps)ing for transpareny fro1 t)e staDe)olders in )arge of aid disbrse1ent. :)e i3il soieties in t)e de3eloping ontries )a3e repeatedly ritiiCed t)e way aid is often  International Affairs and Global Strategy ISSN 2224-574X (Paper ISSN 2224-!"5# ($nline %ol.&#' 2#! # sed as a neo-olonial tool by t)e NS/ Ji1posing poliy onditional loans to de3eloping ontries and tying aid to o11erial' politial and 1ilitary interests of donors. In ontrast % SS/ is often pres1ed to be based on  priniples of o11onality rat)er t)an on ad8st1ent reipe. Bor instane' t)e Ara Agenda for Ation (AAA' a i3il soiety base in G)ana' affir1s dring t)eir :)ird 0ig) He3el Bor1 on Aid =ffeti3eness t)at' ;Sot)-Sot) ooperation on de3elop1ent ai1s to obser3e t)e priniple of non-interferene in internal affairs' eEality a1ong de3elop1ent partners' and a respet for independene' national so3ereignty' ltral di3ersity' identity and loal ontent@ (AAA' 2!. :)ese featres' t)e i3il soiety added' will ensre t)at t)e SS/ be allowed to  play an i1portant role in international de3elop1ent ooperation' 1aDing it a 3alable o1ple1ent to NS/. :)erefore' lots of efforts are being 1ade to spport t)e /S$s in t)eir Eest to ensring aid aontability and transpareny' and t)is e>plains w)y t)eir opinions are )ig)ly regarded. ?ore t)an a deade ago' t)ere was onsiderable fnding for pro8ets to strengt)en /S$s in de3eloping ontries. ?ore so' t)ere )as been 1) disssion on )ow to 1odify t)e -AIFs dri3ers-of-)angeF approa) (BI' 25. 9eently' t)e /)inese go3ern1ent t)rog) t)e /)ina-Afria e3elop1ent Bnd (/AB )as organiCed 3arios se1inars and worDs)op'  bot) in Afria and in /)ina to neart) and nderstand delegateFs pereptions and e>petation of t)eir de3elop1ent aids in Afria. ?ost of t)e topis disssed in t)ese onferene enters on nderstanding t)e natre' s)orto1ings' and t)e potential of t)e SS/ against t)e NS/. :)e onferene pro3ides opportnities for ideas s)aring and opinions on aid e>petations between t)e SS/ led by /)ina and donor reipient 1ostly fro1 Afria and Asia. :)is is done in order to strengt)en t)e /S$ ad3oay for better aid approa) and effeti3eness' w)et)er Sot)-Sot) or Nort)-Sot) ooperation. :)e paper e>a1ines t)e 1odalities and e>petations of SS/ and NS/' in t)e perspeti3e of Afrian delegates in *ei8ing onferenes on /)ina-Afria Agriltre :e)nology transfer' organiCed and )eld in /)ina Agriltral ni3ersity' *ei8ing' /)ina. &#$ 'he traditional (DA! 'he North-South Development Cooperation )NSDC* :)e International e3elop1ent /ooperation Poliy )as been an old age isse sine   e3elop1ent stdies first e1erged as a sb8et in t)e seond )alf of t)e twentiet) entry. After ,orld ,ar II' s)olars and pratitioners sog)t to nderstand t)e ases of po3erty and nderde3elop1ent in a 1ore syste1ati and sstained way. In t)is regards t)e ?ars)all plan and ?ars)all aid e1erged in order to find soltions to t)e sstenane of de3elop1ent and welfare of t)e poplae in relation to t)e de3eloping world wit) e1p)asis on po3erty redtion and i1pro3ing )1an de3elop1ent. Aidwat) (2! s11ariCed t)e )istory of t)e traditional de3elop1ent aid fro1 t)e global nort) to t)e sot). Aording to t)e1' aid is as old as olonialis1. At t)e early stage of oloniCation' aid 1oney fro1 t)e western go3ern1ents was in t)e for1 of loans. Alt)og) not enog) for genine eono1i de3elop1ent' de to laD of aontability and sinere ob8eti3es' t)ey sally benefited rban elites and olonial bsiness interest. *etween #"44 and #"4&' t)e nited Nations' ,orld *anD and International ?onetary Bnd (I?B were establis)ed to play an inter1ediary role in )elping de3eloping ontries to indstrialiCe liDe t)e ,estern ontries. :)is a1e wit) a lot of pro1ises fro1 t)e sesses a)ie3ed by i1ple1enting t)e ?ars)all Plan in =rope )owe3er' t)e plans were disastros for ontries in Afria. *etween t)e #"5s and #"&s' 1any Afrian ontries obtained t)eir independene. :)e laD of indstrialiCation in t)e newly independent ontries neessitated t)at po3erty redtion s)old )old greater i1portane in aid progra1s. *y #"7s' a 1ore )1an approa) was adopted. e3elop1ent aid t)en fosed on soial onsideration t)rog) t)e )1an de3elop1ent indies ()ealt)' edation' ino1e rat)er t)an on 1aroeono1i growt). 0owe3er' t)e reession of t)e #"!s and debt risis assoiated wit) it o1pelled t)e western donors to fore 1a8or eono1i refor1s (strtral ad8sted progra1s in SSA. :)is was a)ie3ed t)rog) a set of aid onditionality ditated by t)eir inter1ediaries (,orld *anD and I?B. ?any stdies )a3e fond t)at t)e strtral )anges did not lead to eono1i de3elop1ent in Afria rat)er it led to 1ore po3erty and )ards)ip a1ong t)e 1asses. ?any 1ore poliy )anges were i1ple1ented afterward. :)ese inlded t)e i1position of net $ffiial e3elop1ent Assistane ($A and t)at abot .7K of GNI of $=/ ontries s)old be de3oted to aiding. :)ere was also a Paris delaration in 25 w)ere abot "# ontries 1ade a 8oint agree1ent on aid effeti3eness. ?ost reently' 1a8or attention )as been on t)e sstainable de3elop1ent goal w)i) fosed on en3iron1ental  protetion and pro3ision of pbli goods. :)e poliy s)ift of traditional donors w)o trned attention to t)e  pro3ision of global goods de to li1ited bdget and resores )a3e led to t)e s)rinDing spport for do1esti  progress in partner ontries to spport for International ooperation. ,)ile t)e traditional Nort)-Sot) de3elop1ent paradig1 and t)eir parado>ial tendenies are seen. (Bes' 2#5 obser3ed t)at' t)e praties of traditional donors and rising powers see1 to be gradally on3erging wit) t)e 1odalities of t)e e1erging donors. 0e stiplates t)at 1e1ber ontries of $=/ are opening p to t)e notion of 1tal gain and are Eestioning t)e traditional onept of $A' a debate t)at old lead to t)e opying of t)e Sot)-sot) ooperation.  International Affairs and Global Strategy ISSN 2224-574X (Paper ISSN 2224-!"5# ($nline %ol.&#' 2#! #4 &#" +mer,in, Donors! 'he South-South Development Cooperation )SSDC* :)e e1ergene of Sot)-Sot) /ooperation was not srprising as it a1e w)en t)e o3er dependene of NS/ aid was not bringing t)e needed i1pro3e1ent in bot) )1an and eono1i de3elop1ent in Afria and Asia. It was born in t)e #"5s in t)e onte>t of t)e o11on strggle of for1er olonies to attain genine independene and de3elop1ent. :)e *andng onferene in #"55 brog)t toget)er 2" ontries fro1 Asia and Afria to  pro1ote eono1i and ltral ooperation in t)e Asian-Afrian region ;on t)e basis of 1tal interest and respet for national so3ereignty.@ :)is pioneering Sot)-Sot) onferene pa3ed t)e way for t)e rise of t)e  Nonaligned ?o3e1ent (NA? in #"&# and t)e Grop of 77 in #"&4. :)e 1a8or ontribtors of t)e SS/ are t)e newly for1ed *9I/s eono1ies J *raCil' 9ssia' India' and /)ina J wit) 4K of t)e worldFs poplation spread ot o3er t)ree ontinents. :)ey already aont for 25K of global gross do1esti prodt (GP. Gold1an Sa)s reDons t)at t)ese for e1erging eono1ies old olleti3ely srpass t)e otpt of t)e Grop of Se3en wealt)y nations by 22' wit) /)ina beo1ing t)e worldFs largest eono1y before 2. In ter1s of offiial de3elop1ent assistane ($A' t)e de3eloped ontries belonging to t)e $rganiCation for =ono1i /ooperation and e3elop1ent ($=/ e3elop1ent Assistane /o11ittee (A/ ontine to  be t)e sore of 1ost international de3elop1ent assistane ontribting abot SL#2#.5 billion in 2!. *t t)e s)ares of non-A/ ontribtors )a3e been rising' espeially fro1 1iddle-ino1e de3eloping ontries s) as /)ina and India. :)e aid pro8ets wit)in t)e *9I/S are oriented towards agriltre' indstry' infrastrtre' edation and 1edial )ealt) are. *y t)e end of 2"' /)ina alone )ad pro3ided aid to #&# ontries and 1ore t)an  international and regional organiCations' for t)e total 3ol1e of SL" billion in t)e for1 of grants (#&  billion' interest-free loans (#2 billion onessional loans (I$S/-P9/' 2##. /)ina is t)e )ig)est donor in t)e Sot)-Sot) /ooperation. 2.#.# /)ina e3elop1ent in perspeti3e /)ina )as long been an aid pro3ider sine t)e #"5s w)en t)e Sot)-Sot) /ooperation e1erged. Alt)og) t)e inrease in /)inaFs foreign aid )as a re1arDable i1pliation for t)e Global Aid Ar)itetre' its de3elop1ent finane generally di3erges fro1 an $=/ 1odel and standards in ter1s of nor1s' definitions' and priniples (0ang' 2##. :)e )istory of t)e /)inese aid syste1 an be di3ided into two p)asesM t)e first period between t)e fonding of t)e PeopleFs 9epbli of /)ina (P9/ and t)e age of eono1i refor1 (#"4"-7!' and t)e seond period is after /)inaFs opening to t)e rest of t)e world in #"7!. Bro1 t)e #"5s to #"7s ideology was t)e 1ost i1portant fator inflening /)inaFs aid poliy. It was dring t)is ti1e ontries were engaged in t)e Third World   war' t)s fig)ting against i1perialis1 and olonialis1' in t)ose periods' /)ina regarded t)e :)ird ,orld as an i1portant ally in an International nited Bront against i1perialis1 and olonialis1 (*rDe et al' 27. Speifially' t)e Afria ontries strongly spported /)ina bid for world power. Bor t)is reason' /)ina pro3ided 1ore aid to ot)er Afrian ontries and e>ported t)e ideology of soialist soiety as against t)e apitalist syste1 of t)e NS/ (Hi' 2!. In a swift de3elop1ent' t)e /)inese go3ern1ent )as started to instittionaliCe and professionaliCe t)eir de3elop1ent /ooperation' separating t)e1 fro1 prely politial and ideologial transfer to t)e o11erial transation s) as trade and foreign diret in3est1ent (S)lC' 2#. /)inese aid progra1s and ooperation ati3ities are now ai1ing at apaity bilding' de1onstration enters' e>pert te)nial gidane and onsltation' se1inars and sot)-sot) ooperation (:ang 2#&. $n t)e ot)er )and' despite on3erging praties' /)ina aid differs fro1 t)e traditional donor in t)eir preferenes and 8oint learning e>periene. ,)ile t)e $=/ 1e1bers and s1aller pro3iders otside t)e $=/' follows t)e Global Partners)ip for =ffeti3e e3elop1ent /ooperation 1odalities set p in 2#2' by ontrast' t)e i1portant ators fro1 t)e Sot) partilarly t)e *ig :)reeF (/)ina' India' and *raCil see1 to inline on t)eir own way' and t)ey )a3e reently establis)ed an infor1al networD na1ed t)e el)i proessF following t)e onferene )eld in t)e Indian apital in April 2#. &#& estern )North* and Southern )South* Development aid /)ina foreign aid is fonded on Bi3e Priniples for Peaefl /oe>isteneF as presented by O)o =nlai at t)e *andng /onferene in #"55. :)e pi3ot of t)ese priniples e1p)asiCes t)e entrality of 1tal non-interferene' Eality' 1tal benefit (win-win and Sot)-Sot) solidarity' )owe3er' western donors always i1pose 3arios onditions on reipient ontries w)en pro3iding aid (/abello et al' 2!. :)erefore' in t)e #"!s' t)is pratie a1e nder fire' as t)e aid fro1 t)e traditional donors lng to disredit onditionality )a1pering t)e pro1otion' oordination' and align1ent of eono1i de3elop1ent (,ood' 2!. Sine t)e #""s' A/ 1e1bers )a3e e1p)asiCed t)e protetion of 01an rig)ts and de1orati go3ernane as 3ital featres for a reipient ontry' and always )a3e asserted t)at t)eir aid wold bring abot  bot) politial and soioeono1i progress. Sot)ern pro3iders instittionaliCed and professionaliCed t)eir national syste1 for de3elop1ent ooperation' t)s separating t)e1 fro1 prely o11erial transations s) as trade and foreign diret in3est1ents (S)lC' 2#. et t)is onditionality ne3er pro1oted eono1i growt) or  International Affairs and Global Strategy ISSN 2224-574X (Paper ISSN 2224-!"5# ($nline %ol.&#' 2#! #5 good go3ernane' bt only reated 1ay)e1' politial nrest and instability as witnessed in Afria' a ase in point is t)e politial nrest in Hibya' =gypt' So1alia' Sdan' :ogo and 9. /ongo. In fat' it an be a great brden on t)e reipient ontries as esti1ates indiate t)at onditioned aid osts Afria abot SL#.& billion per year (Senyange' 2#. Binally' t)e BI/ (2#4 re3iewed and o1pared t)e featres of de3elop1ent aid fro1 t)e sot)-sot) ooperation and nort)-sot) ooperation. :)e re3iew )as s)own t)at t)e basi approa) sed by t)e $=/-led  NS/ is different fro1 t)e /)ina-led SS/. $t)er stdies )a3e s)own t)at t)e NS/ a1e as a 1eans to o1pensate t)e de3eloping ontries fro1 t)e eono1i redndany ased by olonialis1' and t)e 1a8or fos is po3erty eradiation' )1an de3elop1ent and 1ost reently sstainable de3elop1ent. ?ost of t)e loans are transfer t)rog) inter1ediaries s) as t)e ,orld *anD' I?B' N' et. 0owe3er' t)e SS/ led by /)ina is  based on solidarities and o11on )istory. A 1a8or fos is 1tal eono1i de3elop1ent and learning e>periene' and loans are sally awarded diretly to t)e go3ern1ent. :)e stdy of t)e BI/ and ot)ers on de3elop1ent aid )as fosed on offiial data and state1ents of t)e aid donors and t)e opinions of t)e i3il soieties' bt not on t)e perspeti3e of t)e aid reipients. :)e stdy' t)erefore' o1pared t)e 1odalities of de3elop1ent as perei3ed by t)e reipients and t)eir e>petations fro1 t)e Nort)ern and Sot)ern donors. :)e stdy will )elp edate' infor1 and frt)er strengt)en t)e ad3oay for better aid approa) and effeti3eness in de3eloping ontries. .#$   Methodolo,y :o a)ie3e t)e ob8eti3e of t)e stdy' a Ealitati3e resear) 1et)od was e1ployed. ata was olleted fro1  pri1ary and seondary sores. Seondary data was drawn fro1 rele3ant te>tbooDs' aade1i 8ornals and s)olarly artiles related to t)e topi. Pri1ary data was drawn fro1 in-dept) inter3iews to foreign delegates on t)ree-weeD Se1inar on /)ina-Afria Agriltral /ooperation Poliy < Afrian Agriltral :e)nology =>tension and :ransfer ?e)anis1sF in *ei8ing' /)ina. Partiipant obser3ation' fae-to-fae inter3iews' fos-grop inter3iews' Eestionnaires' and 1e1ber )eDing were sed as data olletion tools.   elegates )ailed fro1 Afrian ontries inlding ?alawi' Oa1bia' :anCania' ?oCa1biEe' Oi1babwe' and =t)iopia' w)o are 1ostly aid reipients fro1 t)e SS/ and NS/. :)e disssion was )eld at /)ina Agriltral ni3ersity' *ei8ing' /)ina in ?ar) 2#&. A total of #& delegates partiipated in t)e stdy and t)e data were analyCed sing t)e1ati interpretations. /#$ Results and Discussions /#" Dele,ates Perception of the Modalities of aid from South-South and North-South Cooperation 4.#.# Bor1s of Aid and Instittional Ar)itetre ?any of t)e delegates inter3iewed agreed t)at /)ina aid o1es in different for1s (bot) 1onetary and non-1onetary' and are transferred to go3ern1ent' 1inistries' depart1ents and agenies. :)e /)ina de3elop1ent aid inldes onessional loans' grants' apaity bilding and te)nology transfer' trade and in3est1ent pro8ets. 9epresentati3e fro1 Oa1bia onfir1ed t)at alt)og) )is ontry reei3es different for1s of aids fro1 /)ina' )owe3er' grants and loans are t)e biggest. In ter1s of instittional ar)itetre' all t)e delegates re3ealed t)at t)e aid to t)eir ontries fro1 /)ina passes t)rog) t)e go3ern1ent 1inistries' and are adited. 0owe3er' aids fro1 NS/ are nor1ally in t)e for1 of finanial spport of t)e tangible pro8et and are transferred t)rog) inter1ediaries. :)e :anCanian delegate obser3ed t)at aid fro1 t)e de3eloped ontries' are 1ostly in 1onetary loans and grants' and road onstrtion taDes t)e biggest s)are' bt fnds do not always pass t)rog) t)e go3ern1ent agenies. Oa1bian partiipant ited an e>a1ple of t)e =-AI ageny w)i) )as a lear preferene to paying o1panies to do road onstrtion to a3oid t)e brearay and 1istrst in t)e Go3ern1ent. 9espondents re3ealed t)at apan' being a 1e1ber of $=/ follows t)e 1odalities of t)e Nort) donors by releasing fnds and loans to Afrian ontries t)rog) t)e Afrian e3elop1ent *anD. :)e SAI spports ritial infrastrtral de3elop1ent in t)e Agriltre setor t)rog) t)e onstrtion of a1s and /anals' w)ile t)e Nordi ontries gi3e 1onetary spport in t)e onstrtion of )ealt) and edation failities. :)e inter1ediaries identified to play a 1a8or role in aid transfer in t)e delegate ontries inldes international  NG$s' t)e ,orld *anD' IBA' BA$' NP' A*' I?B' and t)ey worD wit) loal people. In so1e ases' 1ltilateral o1panies engage t)e loal people w)ile t)e responsible go3ern1ent 1inistry signs t)e finanial agree1ent. 0owe3er' in so1e ases' onsltants are being sed' bt t)is see1s to be reating operational  bottleneDs. 4.#.2 Aid Pro8et I1ple1entation and transpareny   6estions on )ow pro8ets arising t)rog) aids are i1ple1ented and )ow transparent t)ey )a3e been' was a foal point. Analysis s)ow t)at' 75K of respondents says' t)at in SS/' pro8et i1ple1entation often o1es wit) t)e infl> of labor fro1 t)e donor ontry. :)ese worDers are not e>perts' and t)ey do worDs t)at an be done by loals. A respondent fro1 =t)iopia opined t)at' t)ere is too 1) /)inese labor in3ol3e1ent in pro8et e>etion in )is ontry' bt t)e i1ple1entation is faster largely owing to less onsltation. e to  International Affairs and Global Strategy ISSN 2224-574X (Paper ISSN 2224-!"5# ($nline %ol.&#' 2#! #& 1is1anage1ent and Eestionable go3ernane' transpareny is always an isse. ?ost /)inese sponsored pro8ets are e>peted to be self-sponsoring after a brief period of ti1e )ene staDe)olders tend to engage in dbios ati3ities to start 1aDing a profit as soon as possible. /ontrarily' in t)e NS/ t)ere is a broader onsltation a1ong staDe)olders w)i) leads to delays in i1ple1entation. In 1any ases' e>perts fro1 t)e international NG$s are brog)t in to e>ete or sper3ise  pro8ets. Pro8ets sally )a3e t)e speifi ti1e span' bt fnding an be wit)drawn de to politial 1isnderstandings. In general' t)e NS/ is regarded to be 1ore transparent t)an t)e SS/' sine ob8eti3es'  bdget and ti1efra1es are learly artilated at t)e ineption of pro8ets. 4.#. Aid 1onitoring and e3alation :)e delegates were asDed abot t)eir pereption on pro8et 1onitoring and e3alation of t)e aid fro1 t)e two donors' abot &#K says pro8ets fro1 t)e SS/ fnds are gi3en diretly to t)e entral go3ern1ent do not often  perfor1 proper 1onitoring to ensring t)at fnds are sed for t)e intended prposes. ?ore so' only s1all sale  pro8ets are seleted. In =t)iopia' Oa1bia' :anCania' and ?alawi' delegates stated t)at t)e Sot)-Sot) ooperation selets a li1ited n1ber of distrits and t)e seletion riteria are only based on s1all-sale pro8ets at t)e e>pense of large-sale pro8ets' w)i) )as t)e needed eono1ies of sale. :)ey sggested t)at' large sale  pro8ets s)old be seleted at t)e e>pense of s1all sale sine t)e for1er an absorb a )nD of ne1ployed yot)' t)ereby leading to a redtion in po3erty and en)aning t)e li3es of loal people. ,it) regards to partiipatory 1onitoring and e3alation (P?<=' reslts s)ow "5K of respondents prefer t)e proedre of t)e NS/ pro8ets and posited t)at t)e SS/ an e1late. Brt)er1ore' so1e aspets fro1  NS/ s)old be onsidered by t)e SS/' s) as 1oney taDen diretly to loal leaders in t)e 3arios distrits instead of t)e entral go3ern1ent. :)ey ga3e an e>a1ple wit) t)e ase of Pea-Pea 3illage in :anCania' w)ere fnds go diretly to t)e de1onstration far1' t)s eli1inating delays assoiated wit) go3ern1ental brearati  bottleneDs w)i) 1aDe t)e pro8et 1ore sessfl t)an ot)ers w)i) reei3e fnds t)rog) t)e entral go3ern1ent. So1e western donors )a3e a)ie3ed greater sess t)rog) t)e P?<= ondted by t)e inter1ediaries. Bor instane' an e3ent was started by NP aEiring 1arDeting infor1ation wit) plans to onnet 1arDets to proders in :anCania. :)is e3ent was initiated long after t)ey diso3ered t)at 1arDet infor1ation and linDages are t)e 1a8or onstraints li1iting t)e sess of t)eir aid progra1. An Astralian ageny )ad also tried to establis) a storage faility after ondting a P?<=. :)erefore' t)e delegates onlded t)at t)ese positi3e 1odalities of t)e NS/ old ser3e as a learning e>periene for t)e SS/. 4.#.4 Aid and Neoolonialis1 ,)en asDed if t)ey perei3e t)e /)inese )a3e a neo-olonialist interest' t)ey were nani1os in t)eir response of a big no. 0owe3er' t)ey opined t)at ' /)ina being t)e largest donor fro1 t)e global sot) and i1ostly  bsiness oriented and profit dri3en by t)e pro1ise of 1tal gains (win-win wit) Afrian ontries. A delegate fro1 :anCania says ; Chinese led South-South Cooperation is about mutual benefits because both partners are developing countries and therefore knows each other strengths and weaknesses and are also “friends” having been colonized by the western superpowers they can analyze the socioeconomic position of their countries and try to improve them! The pro"ect ownership is higher for the target group and usually the implementation is done together with the local people also if any challenge arises they are also resolved together! #or e$ample in Tanzania the SS%C tried to involve farmers themselves to get different types of seeds which are available as well as assist with research in fields such as fishing in local areas and also to improve productivity! &ften researchers working with farmers know what the situation is and can make better recommendations which would create a higher profit” :)is is' )owe3er' nliDely for t)e NS/ w)i) t)e respondents perei3ed to be aid dri3en. It was obser3ed t)at in ontrast to t)e ;friend to friend@ ooperation of SS/' t)e NS/ is liDe ;1aster to ser3ant@ relations)ip. In general' t)e SS/ was perei3ed as a better aid t)an t)e NS/' sine it is based on 1tal benefits between donors and t)e reipients. It is not only 8st abot ditating and onditionality bt abot 1tal de3elop1ent and learning e>periene. It is' )owe3er' s)oDing t)at despite t)e irreglarities assoiated wit) t)e SS/ pro8ets' t)e respondents still prefer it to t)e NS/. :)is old i1ply t)at respet' friends)ip' and 1tal bsiness o11it1ent are )eld 1ore i1portant t)an aid transpareny and better 1anage1ent by t)e Afrian delegates. 0owe3er' t)e delegates e>pet 1ore i1pro3e1ent fro1 t)e SS/. /#& Dele,ates Perceptions of Aid +0pectations from Recipient Countries :)e delegates did not )ide t)eir e>petations fro1 bot) t)e SS/ and NS/ aid. 0owe3er' t)ey re-e1p)asiCed t)at t)e SS/ s)old learn t)e positi3e side of t)e NS/. A1ong all t)e ite1s pt forward dring t)e inter3iew session' isses on ltre inter)ange' inenti3es' onsltations' labor and apaity bilding were pointed to need 1ore i1pro3e1ent. A respondent fro1 ?alawi stated neEi3oal t)at t)e NS/ )as en)aned o11niation between donors and loal benefiiaries' for instane' donor ontries fro1 t)e western ontries' notably t)e *ritain and Brane )a3e ltral enters in ?alawi w)i) en)ane o11niation between t)e loal people and t)e donors. 0e'
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