Dedication About the authors Preface Tools and Techniques Clinical Applications Molecular Evolution Supplements Supporting Biochemistry, Fifth Edition Acknowledgments

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Dedication About the authors Preface Tools and Techniques Clinical Applications Molecular Evolution Supplements Supporting Biochemistry, Fifth Edition Acknowledgments
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  DedicationAbout the authorsPrefaceTools and TechniquesClinical ApplicationsMolecular EvolutionSupplements Supporting  Biochemistry , Fifth EditionAcknowledgmentsI. The Molecular Design of Life 1. Prelude: Biochemistry and the Genomic Revolution 1.1. DNA Illustrates the Relation between Form and Function 1.2. Biochemical Unity Underlies Biological Diversity 1.3. Chemical Bonds in Biochemistry 1.4. Biochemistry and Human Biology Appendix: Depicting Molecular Structures2. Biochemical Evolution 2.1. Key Organic Molecules Are Used by Living Systems 2.2. Evolution Requires Reproduction, Variation, and Selective Pressure 2.3. Energy Transformations Are Necessary to Sustain Living Systems 2.4. Cells Can Respond to Changes in Their Environments SummaryProblemsSelected Readings3. Protein Structure and Function 3.1. Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids 3.2. Primary Structure: Amino Acids Are Linked by Peptide Bonds to Form Polypeptide Chains 3.3. Secondary Structure: Polypeptide Chains Can Fold Into Regular Structures Such as the Alpha Helix, the Beta Sheet, and Turns and Loops 3.4. Tertiary Structure: Water-Soluble Proteins Fold Into Compact Structures with Nonpolar Cores 3.5. Quaternary Structure: Polypeptide Chains Can Assemble Into Multisubunit Structures 3.6. The Amino Acid Sequence of a Protein Determines Its Three-Dimensional Structure SummaryAppendix: Acid-Base ConceptsProblemsSelected Readings4. Exploring Proteins 4.1. The Purification of Proteins Is an Essential First Step in Understanding Their Function  4.2. Amino Acid Sequences Can Be Determined by Automated Edman Degradation 4.3. Immunology Provides Important Techniques with Which to Investigate Proteins 4.4. Peptides Can Be Synthesized by Automated Solid-Phase Methods 4.5. Three-Dimensional Protein Structure Can Be Determined by NMR Spectroscopy and X-Ray Crystallography SummaryProblemsSelected Readings5. DNA, RNA, and the Flow of Genetic Information 5.1. A Nucleic Acid Consists of Four Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone 5.2. A Pair of Nucleic Acid Chains with Complementary Sequences Can Form a Double-Helical Structure 5.3. DNA Is Replicated by Polymerases that Take Instructions from Templates 5.4. Gene Expression Is the Transformation of DNA Information Into Functional Molecules 5.5. Amino Acids Are Encoded by Groups of Three Bases Starting from a Fixed Point 5.6. Most Eukaryotic Genes Are Mosaics of Introns and Exons SummaryProblemsSelected Readings6. Exploring Genes 6.1. The Basic Tools of Gene Exploration 6.2. Recombinant DNA Technology Has Revolutionized All Aspects of Biology 6.3. Manipulating the Genes of Eukaryotes 6.4. Novel Proteins Can Be Engineered by Site-Specific Mutagenesis SummaryProblemsSelected Reading7. Exploring Evolution 7.1. Homologs Are Descended from a Common Ancestor 7.2. Statistical Analysis of Sequence Alignments Can Detect Homology 7.3. Examination of Three-Dimensional Structure Enhances Our Understanding of Evolutionary Relationships 7.4. Evolutionary Trees Can Be Constructed on the Basis of Sequence Information 7.5. Modern Techniques Make the Experimental Exploration of Evolution Possible SummaryProblemsSelected Readings8. Enzymes: Basic Concepts and Kinetics 8.1. Enzymes Are Powerful and Highly Specific Catalysts 8.2. Free Energy Is a Useful Thermodynamic Function for Understanding Enzymes 8.3. Enzymes Accelerate Reactions by Facilitating the Formation of the Transition State 8.4. The Michaelis-Menten Model Accounts for the Kinetic Properties of Many Enzymes 8.5. Enzymes Can Be Inhibited by Specific Molecules 8.6. Vitamins Are Often Precursors to Coenzymes SummaryAppendix: V  max  and K  M  Can Be Determined by Double-Reciprocal PlotsProblemsSelected Readings9. Catalytic Strategies 9.1. Proteases: Facilitating a Difficult Reaction 9.2. Making a Fast Reaction Faster: Carbonic Anhydrases  9.3. Restriction Enzymes: Performing Highly Specific DNA-Cleavage Reactions 9.4. Nucleoside Monophosphate Kinases: Catalyzing Phosphoryl Group Exchange between Nucleotides Without Promoting Hydrolysis SummaryProblemsSelected Readings10. Regulatory Strategies: Enzymes and Hemoglobin 10.1. Aspartate Transcarbamoylase Is Allosterically Inhibited by the End Product of Its Pathway 10.2. Hemoglobin Transports Oxygen Efficiently by Binding Oxygen Cooperatively 10.3. Isozymes Provide a Means of Regulation Specific to Distinct Tissues and Developmental Stages 10.4. Covalent Modification Is a Means of Regulating Enzyme Activity 10.5. Many Enzymes Are Activated by Specific Proteolytic Cleavage SummaryProblemsSelected Readings11. Carbohydrates 11.1. Monosaccharides Are Aldehydes or Ketones with Multiple Hydroxyl Groups 11.2. Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed by Linkage of Monosaccharides 11.3. Carbohydrates Can Be Attached to Proteins to Form Glycoproteins 11.4. Lectins Are Specific Carbohydrate-Binding Proteins SummaryProblemsSelected Readings12. Lipids and Cell Membranes 12.1. Many Common Features Underlie the Diversity of Biological Membranes 12.2. Fatty Acids Are Key Constituents of Lipids 12.3. There Are Three Common Types of Membrane Lipids 12.4. Phospholipids and Glycolipids Readily Form Bimolecular Sheets in Aqueous Media 12.5. Proteins Carry Out Most Membrane Processes 12.6. Lipids and Many Membrane Proteins Diffuse Rapidly in the Plane of the Membrane 12.7. Eukaryotic Cells Contain Compartments Bounded by Internal Membranes SummaryProblemsSelected Readings13. Membrane Channels and Pumps 13.1. The Transport of Molecules Across a Membrane May Be Active or Passive 13.2. A Family of Membrane Proteins Uses ATP Hydrolysis to Pump Ions Across Membranes 13.3. Multidrug Resistance and Cystic Fibrosis Highlight a Family of Membrane Proteins with ATP-Binding Cassette Domains 13.4. Secondary Transporters Use One Concentration Gradient to Power the Formation of Another 13.5. Specific Channels Can Rapidly Transport Ions Across Membranes 13.6. Gap Junctions Allow Ions and Small Molecules to Flow between Communicating Cells SummaryProblemsSelected ReadingsII. Transducing and Storing Energy  14. Metabolism: Basic Concepts and Design 14.1. Metabolism Is Composed of Many Coupled, Interconnecting Reactions 14.2. The Oxidation of Carbon Fuels Is an Important Source of Cellular Energy 14.3. Metabolic Pathways Contain Many Recurring Motifs SummaryProblemsSelected Readings15. Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism 15.1. Seven-Transmembrane-Helix Receptors Change Conformation in Response to Ligand Binding and Activate G Proteins 15.2. The Hydrolysis of Phosphatidyl Inositol Bisphosphate by Phospholipase C Generates Two Messengers 15.3. Calcium Ion Is a Ubiquitous Cytosolic Messenger 15.4. Some Receptors Dimerize in Response to Ligand Binding and Signal by Cross-phosphorylation 15.5. Defects in Signaling Pathways Can Lead to Cancer and Other Diseases 15.6. Recurring Features of Signal-Transduction Pathways Reveal Evolutionary Relationships SummaryProblemsSelected Readings16. Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis 16.1. Glycolysis Is an Energy-Conversion Pathway in Many Organisms 16.2. The Glycolytic Pathway Is Tightly Controlled 16.3. Glucose Can Be Synthesized from Noncarbohydrate Precursors 16.4. Gluconeogenesis and Glycolysis Are Reciprocally Regulated SummaryProblemsSelected Readings17. The Citric Acid Cycle 17.1. The Citric Acid Cycle Oxidizes Two-Carbon Units 17.2. Entry to the Citric Acid Cycle and Metabolism Through It Are Controlled 17.3. The Citric Acid Cycle Is a Source of Biosynthetic Precursors 17.4. The Glyoxylate Cycle Enables Plants and Bacteria to Grow on Acetate SummaryProblemsSelected Readings18. Oxidative Phosphorylation 18.1. Oxidative Phosphorylation in Eukaryotes Takes Place in Mitochondria 18.2. Oxidative Phosphorylation Depends on Electron Transfer 18.3. The Respiratory Chain Consists of Four Complexes: Three Proton Pumps and a Physical Link to the Citric Acid Cycle 18.4. A Proton Gradient Powers the Synthesis of ATP 18.5. Many Shuttles Allow Movement Across the Mitochondrial Membranes 18.6. The Regulation of Cellular Respiration Is Governed Primarily by the Need for ATP SummaryProblemsSelected Readings19. The Light Reactions of Photosynthesis 19.1. Photosynthesis Takes Place in Chloroplasts 19.2. Light Absorption by Chlorophyll Induces Electron Transfer 19.3. Two Photosystems Generate a Proton Gradient and NADPH in Oxygenic Photosynthesis
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