Designing Motivation or Motivating Design? Exploring service design, motivation and behavioural change

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Designing Motivation or Motivating Design? Exploring service design, motivation and behavioural change
  touchpoint  | the journal of service design  1   Touchpoint the journal of Service Design Service Design and Behavioural Change •  Designing motivation or motivating design? Exploring Service Design, motivation and behavioural change Fergus Bisset and Dan Lockton •  Design and behaviour in complex B2B service engagements Ben Shaw and Melissa Cefkin •  Charging Up: Energy usage in households around the world Geke van Dijk volume 2 | no. 1 | 12,80 euro  May 2010 service design network  touchpoint  | the journal of service design  3 contents  May 2010 Service Design andBehavioural Change 06  From the editors 08  News  10  Setting the Frame How Service Design inuences the human behaviour  10 Where ‘outside in’ meets ‘inside out’ David Hicks  14 Designing motivation or motivating design? Exploring Service Design, motivation and behavioural change Fergus Bisset and Dan Lockton  22 On the design of standard and relational service encounters Carla Cipolla and Fernando Secomandi  26 Research in practice: Bringing behavioural change from lab to studio Nick Marsh and Dan Lockton  10 26  touchpoint  | the journal of service design  15 Designing motivation or motivating design? Exploring Service Design, motivation and behavioural change By Fergus Bisset and Dan LocktonFergus Bisset Designer and Researcher,Brunel University, London, UK Visualising motivation  Designers have historically tended to  view motivation as something that they cannot directly inuence: a complex component of human behaviour inu-enced by many diverse philosophical, social and physiological factors. More traditionally there has been a belief that if the aesthetic of the design were suf-ciently consistent with users' expecta-tions, people would be attracted to it and in turn change their behaviour. Motiva-tional research shows us that this analy-sis is largely self-fullling and that such ‘extrinsic’ or supercial design interven-tions do indeed motivate behaviour and encourage engagement with a product or service, but only in the short term. The same motivational research shows that such short term ‘aesthetic’ motivational pick-me-ups, much like a sugar-rush or a caffeine hit, quickly wear off. The challenge in designing for behav-ioural change is supporting users to internalise the values of a service so their engagement with the behaviour demanded is more than skin deep. Zap- Motivation researcher Edward Deci has suggested that if we want behavioural change to be sustainable, we have to move past thinking of motivation as something that we ‘do’ to other people and see it rather as something that we as Service Designers can enable service users to ‘do’ by themselves. In this article, Fergus Bisset explores the ways in which Service Designers can cre-ate more motivating services. Dan Lockton then looks at where motivating behaviour via Service Design often starts, with the basic ‘pinball’ and ‘shortcut’ approaches. We conclude by pro-posing that if services are to be sustainable in the long term, we as Service Designers need to strive to accommodate humans' differing levels of motivation and encourage and support service users' sense of autonomy within the services we design. Dan Lockton Designer and researcher, Brunel University, London, UK  16 touchpoint  | the journal of service design designing motivation or motivating design? By Fergus Bisset and Dan Lockton pos, the American clothing company has  been very effective in empowering their employees to embody their organisation-al values in this way, largely by employ-ing people who already embody the  values of the organisation. However, the concept of ‘design for motivation’ is per-haps something of a Catch-22 – design to control user behaviour too closely and  you'll constrain users' sense of autonomy. On the other hand, design with too many options or encourage responsibility in users too early and without sufcient support, and you'll create an equally demotivating experience. Models of the natural ‘motivational’ pro-gression of users throughout an experi-ence or service encounter, informed by research, might help guide our under-standing of what motivates us. Luckily, the motivational psychology literature doesn't let us down: Reeve (2005) sum-marises ways that we can conceptualise how best to energise behaviour, not just in the rst instance of a user-product interaction but throughout the lifespan of a user-service relationship:Let's explore these frameworks with reference to the artefact we hold in our hands. If our copy of Touchpoint fell through the letterbox in a way that grabbed our senses, visually or aurally, perhaps the increased salience of its arrival might increase the immediacy of our awareness – this is ‘the aesthetic’ we mention above – high on impact, but low on sustainability. Mobile phones are prime examples of service touchpoints that encourage engagement by giv-ing users a number of auditory, haptic and visual signals – such as ringtones,  vibrating alerts or the screen lighting up. Indeed, exploring sensory perception to increase engagement is very much the strength of Volkswagen's Fun Theory ( marketing campaign – a viral Internet phenom-enon, demonstrating how enhanced sen-sory interaction can positively energise  behaviour. For designers, who more tradition-ally have been responsible for shaping sensory experiences through manipula-tion of materials and form, this is an interesting point of reection. How we understand such sensory stimuli – cog-nitive representation of signals around us – determines both how we mentally organise the experience and our percep-tions of its relevance to us. Our ability to organise these signals and affordances also affects whether we can effectively internalise the experience – whether it resonates with us – and whether we are motivated to continue engaging. If we can't understand why our phone is making a noise or we can't make sense of our phone bill our experience becomes a demotivating one. In this instance we are more likely to take steps to distance ourselves from this negative interaction rather than continue to approach the challenges it presents us.Our ability to persist with a task requires that we can visualise the underlying cause and effect structure of the experi-ence, or that we adhere to the values of the experience sufciently to offset the interim negativity. As the above dia- »Designers have histori-cally tended to view motiva-tion as some-thing that they cannot directly inuence…«  touchpoint  | the journal of service design  17gram indicates, if you wish for users to interact cognitively at even a basic level with a service you are designing – that's to say, engage with the values, benets or knowledge structures of the service experience – sensory manipulation of affordances alone is not going to be enough. As Service Designers we need to help users see the underlying structures of the services they use. The underlying structure of your Touchpoint experience Indeed, how might the information contained in Touchpoint (or any service touchpoint) be organised to motivate our continued interaction? To engage users we need to help them understand the personal relevance of the services we design. When we pick up our copy of Touchpoint, colour coding directs our attention to the various groupings of content within the journal – thus gener-ating sensory awareness. But how do we assess the value of the content it presents us – progressing from left to right in the illustrated frameworks? Do we ick to people we know – relatedness – a social connection, the equivalent of the “other users who bought this item, also bought these …” feature on Or do we ick through the journal by subject,  based on our own interests? If this is the case then we might be motivated by the opportunity to assess our own levels of competence and how well articles chal-lenge or support our knowledge. With more time, do we simply start at the front of the journal and read from cover to cover as if the very concept of participating in this experience already resonates with our self-image and expec-tations? In this case it is possible to say that you are intrinsically motivated – in other words, not reliant on any extrinsic User behaviour “I don’t know and I don’t care about reading Touchpoint““I’m reading Touchpoint because I  just found it here ...““I’m reading Touchpoint because I have to ...““I’d feel guilty if I didn’t read this copy of Touchpoint ...““I’m reading Touchpoint because I think it’s important for me to do so ...““I love reading Touchpoint, it completely absorbs me ...“Line of service engagementLine of conditional personal engagementLine of unconditional personal engagement Casually observableDisengagedEngagedbehaviourMotivational stateAmotivatedExtrinsicallymotivatedIntrinsicallymotivatedFlow stateApathyAnxietySatisfiedConfidentARCS Model  U Unmotivated A Awareness R Relevance C Confidence S SatisfactionMotivational designSensoryCognitiveCompetenceAutonomyOrganisationalRelatedness Bisset (2010)Keller (1983)Stavou, (2009) from Csikszentmihayi, (1982) Frameworks of motivated behaviour from the motivational psychology literature. setting the frame
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