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ELECTRICAL SAFETYELECTRICAL SAFETYEM-385 SECTION 1129 CFR 1926 Subpart KNFPA-70 (NEC)NFPA-70 ENESC- National Electrical Safety CodeGovernmental Safety Requirements 013526SAFETY REQUIREMENTS PROTECTION OF PROPERTY PEOPLE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMSELECTRICAL VOLTAGES HIGH OVER 15,000 MED 601-15,000 LOW 600 VOLTS AND LESSMost voltages on job sites are <600 VHigher voltages usually worked by linemanWORKING WITH ELECTRICITY
  • Special training is required for work on electrical equipment.
  • EM-385 Section 11.A.01 Electrical work shall be performed by Qualified Personnel with verifiable credentials who are familiar with applicable code requirements. Verifiable credentials consist of State, National and/or Local Certifications or licenses that a Master or Journeyman Electrician may hold, depending on work being performed, and should be identified in the appropriate AHA
  • QUALIFIED ELECTRICAL WORKERSQualified Person (Electrical): One who has received training in and has demonstrated skills and knowledge in the construction and operation of electrical equipment and installations and the hazards involved. This includes the skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment, to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts, the clearance distances and corresponding voltages to which the qualified person will be exposed. ELECTRICAL SHOCK
  • Currents as small as 10 mA can paralyze or “freeze” muscles
  • A Person cannot release tool
  • Tool is held even more tightly,
  • resulting in longer exposure
  • to shocking current
  • An electric power drills uses 30 times as much current as what will kill.DO YOU KNOW?ELECTRICAL BURNS
  • Most common shock-related, nonfatal injury
  • Occurs when you touch electrical wiring or equipment that is improperly used or maintained
  • Typically occurs on the hands
  • Very serious injury that needs immediate attention
  • Electric shock can
  • also cause indirect or secondary injuries
  • Workers in elevated
  • locations who experience a shockcan fall, resulting in serious injury or deathSAFE WORK PRACTICESBEFORE STARTING WORK…
  • A sketch of proposed temporary
  • power distribution systems to be accepted by GDA before powerinstalled. Sketch shows the location, voltages, means of protection of all circuits, including receptacles, disconnecting means, grounding, GFCI’s, and lighting circuits.That is in COE11.EISOLATION OF CIRCUITSWorking on energized circuitsLots of advancenotice neededfor this work! ENERGIZED WORK REQUIRES COMMANDING OFFICER APPROVAL AND A COMPLETED ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL WORK PERMIT. SEE NFPA 70EISOLATION OF CIRCUITSAn AHA and written work procedures must be prepared for unusual or complicated work activities or any activity identified by the QUALIFIED PERSON. 11.B ARC FLASH11.B.01 Whenever it is necessary to work on energized parts greater than 50 volts to ground, a risk/hazard analysis/arc flash hazard analysis will be conducted in accordance with NFPA 70E Either Appendices or Tables may be used to conduct analysis. The flash protection boundary, approach distances, hazard/risk category and PPE requirements shall all be identified. This AHA is separate, distinct and in addition to the AHA required in Section 01.TEMPORARY ELECTRICAL POWERYep, right here in11.A.03 and theground resistance tobe 25 Ohms or less
  • Temporary electrical &
  • devices are to be checked for polarity, ground continuity & resistance before used & modification. GFCI shall be tested monthly& recorded & copy furnishedto the GDAGround Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI)An unintentional electric path between a source of current and a grounded surface is referred to as a "ground-fault." Ground faults occur when current is leaking somewhere, in effect, electricity is escaping to the ground. How it leaks is very important. If your body provides a path to the ground for this leakage, you could be injured, burned, severely shocked, or electrocuted Hey, check it out!lots of GFCIinformation!!GFCI RECEPTACLES ALL GFCI RECEPTACLESHAVE A TEST BUTTON TEMPORARY LIGHTING
  • All bulbs protected by guards.
  • Not suspended by wires
  • Empty sockets/broken replaced
  • Confined spaces 12 volts or less.
  • Temporary lighting circuits to be
  • separated from receptacles.
  • Circuits labeled "Lights only”
  • Tool circuits “Tools only”
  • TEMPORARY LIGHTINGWire holding fixture from bldg. TEMP. LIGHTING VIOLATIONELECTRICAL SAFETY QUESTIONAS YOU WALK AROUNDTHE JOB SITE YOUNOTICE THE LIGHTSGET DIMMER JUSTAS A WORKER STARTS UP HISELECTRIC SAW.IS THE A PROBLEM? WHY? SAFE WORK PRACTICESWe need to raise thesepower lines and thenre-submit our temporary power sketch too!Vertical clearance fortemporary wiring 600V less: 10 ft (3m) above finished grade, sidewalks, or from any platform.12 ft (3.6m) over vehicular traffic other than truck traffic.15 ft (4.5m) over areas for truck traffic.18 ft (5.4m) over public streets, alleys, roads, and drivewaysSAFE WORK PRACTICESWHAT IS THE CLOSEST DISTANCE A CRANECAN BE USED NEXT TO HIGH VOLTAGE LINES? SAFE WORK PRACTICESSAFE WORK PRACTICESWET LOCATIONSLOOK IN COE11.D.04 THE NEXTSLIDE HAS SOMEGREAT PHOTOS TOO!A receptacle in a wetlocation to be contained in a weatherproof enclosure the integrityof which is not affectedwhen an attachment plug is inserted.WET LOCATIONSPOWER CORD IN USECOVER IN PLACESAFE WORK PRACTICESRemove all conductive articles: jewelry andclothing, watchbands,bracelets, rings, keychains, necklaces, metal,cloth with conductivethread, or metal headgear.Conductive?TESTING OF A CIRCUIT
  • Verify system is de-energized.
  • Operate controls to verify equipment cannot be restarted.
  • Use test equipment to verify the circuits and electrical parts for voltage and current.
  • TESTING OF A CIRCUITTest the test equipment, usuallya voltmeter, on a known sourceof power of same rating, to insurethe test equipment is working.Test the test equipment alwaysbefore you verify the circuit to be worked on, then test theequipment again after!!ELECTRICAL SAFEY QUESTIONWHAT IS A MANDATORYREQUIREMENT BEFOREANY WORK ACTIVITY CAN BE DONE ON ANYOVERHEAD POWER LINES?11.F. 05ARC FLASH SAFETY 11.BWHAT IS AN ARC FLASH?A short circuit through the air when insulation or isolationbetween conductors is breachedor can no longer withstand theapplied voltage. Workers on or near energizedconductors or circuits, movementnear or contact with the equipmentor failure of the equipment maycause a fault resulting in Arc FlashARC FLASH SAFETYTemperatures 5000 F. Explosions Hot Gases Melting Metal Radiation BurnsSevere Eye DamageDeathARC FLASH SAFETY REQUIREMENTS50 Volts isnot very high voltageWORK OVER 50 VOLTS ON ENERGIZED PARTS:ARC FLASH HAZARD ANALYSIS IAW NFPA-70E TO DETERMINE SAFE BOUNDRY FROM HAZARDSYSTEMS 600 VOLTS AND LESS MINIMUM BOUNDRY IS 4 FEETSPECIAL TRAININGSPECIAL PPE FOR WORKERSARC FLASH SAFETYSPECIAL PPEARC FLASHCOVERALLSARE BASEDON ANTICIPATEDHAZARDRATED INCALORIESOF HEATARC FLASH SAFETYTRAININGCERTIFICATEFOR WORKERNote: This ARCflash suit israted at 11 Calories persquare centimeterFLEXIBLE CORDSSize & number of wiresInsulationtype printedon the cord!FLEXIBLE CORDSWhere does a person findinformation about theletters that would indicatetypes of insulation for "Hard Usageand Extra Hard Usage"requirements?FLEXIBLE CORDS HARD SERVICE CORD &EXTRA HARD SERVICES, SE, SEO, SO, SOO, STSTO, STOO, SJ, SJE, SJEOSJO, SJOO, SJT, SJTOSJTOOA complete listof all can be foundin NEC Art. 400FLEXIBLE CORDS IS THIS CORRECT USE OF A FLEXIBLE CORD?FLEXIBLE CORDS
  • Inspected before use:
  • Loose parts, missing
  • pins
  • Damage to insulation &
  • outer jacket
  • Properly protected at
  • the jobsite
  • Protected by bushings
  • or fittings if passing
  • through holes
  • Look at the examples on thenext few slides!!FLEXIBLE CORD VIOLATIONSFLEXIBLE CORD VIOLATIONSHAND-HELD ELECTRIC TOOLSPotential danger due to continuous contact with hands:To protect from shocks, burns &electrocution tools required tohave following:3 wire cord, with ground plugged into GFCI receptacle or be double insulated or powered by low voltage transformer So what doI look for now?HAND-HELD ELECTRIC TOOLSDOUBLE INSULATED ELECTRIC DRILLDOUBLE INSULATED MARKINGELECTRIC TOOL QUESTIONA WORKER IS USING ADOUBLE INSULATEDDRILL. SINCE IT ISDOUBLE INSULATEDDOES HE HAVE TO PLUG INTO A GFCIPROTECTED CIRCUIT? ELECTRICAL WORK FROM LADDERS Non-conductive side railsAt least 10 feetaway from allelectric linesPERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT HARD HATS Class "E" high voltage work Special High Voltage glovesEYE PROTECTIONFOOT PROTECTIONPERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT HIGH VOLTAGE GLOVES
  • A hole, tear, puncture,
  • or cut ozone cutting or
  • ozone checking the cutting
  • action produced by ozone
  • on rubber under mechanical stress into a series of
  • interlacing cracks
  • Special PPE& specialtesting too!Lock-out / Tag-outControl of Hazardous EnergyLock-out / Tag-outControl of Hazardous Energy
  • References
  • EM 385-1-1 Section 12 Control of Hazardous Energy
  • 29 CFR 1926.417 – Lockout and Tagging of Circuits
  • 29 CFR 1910.147 – Control of Hazardous Energy
  • UFGS 013526 – Governmental Safety Requirements
  • ANSI Z244.1 – Personnel Protection - Lockout/Tagout of Energy Sources
  • ANSI A10.44 - Control of Energy Sources Lockout/Tagout) for Construction and Demolitions Operations
  • Control of Hazardous Energy
  • Direct causes of mishaps:
  • Lack of notification prior to re-energizing.
  • Not verifying de-energized state.
  • Failure to adequately bleed pressurized system before disassembly.
  • Unauthorized work
  • Lack of communication between workers.
  • Worker ignoring safety procedures.
  • Control of Hazardous Energy
  • Indirect causes of mishaps:
  • Lack of Lock-out/tag-out program.
  • Workers not adequately trained or supervised.
  • Approved safety plan not implemented.
  • Regular site safety inspections not performed.
  • Lack of safety equipment and/or use.
  • Control of Hazardous Energy
  • 12.A.03 – When contractor work involving hazardous energy will be performed on a Government Operated Facility, the following coordination must occur:
  • a – The GDA and the Contractor shall fully coordinate all control activities with on another throughout the planning and implementation of these activities.
  • b – When contractors are planning the use of Hazardous Energy Control procedures, they shall submit their Hazardous Energy Control Plan to the GDA for acceptance. Implementation of the Hazardous Energy Control Procedures shall not be initiated until the Hazardous Energy Control Plan has been accepted by the GDA.
  • Control of Hazardous Energy
  • 12.A.04 – Systems with energy isolating devices that are capable of being locked out shall be locked out. If an energy isolating device is not capable of being locked out, the Hazardous Energy Control Procedures shall use tag out providing full personnel protection. See 12.A.11.c
  • 12.A.05 – Locks must always be used when the clearance involves equipment that is accessible to the public.
  • 12.A.07 – A preparatory meeting and inspection with the GDA and Contractor personnel shall be conducted to insure that all affected employees understand the energy hazards and the procedures for their control. This meeting/inspection shall be Documented.
  • 12.A.08 – Lock-out and Tag-out shall be performed by only Authorized employees.
  • 12.A.09 – All employees affected by Lock-out/Tag-out shall be notified, before and upon completion of the application and removal of locks and tags.
  • Hazardous Energy Control Program
  • 12.A.12 – Hazardous Energy Control Program
  • 12.A.12.a – HEC Procedures shall be developed in the Hazardous Energy Control Plan.
  • 12.A.12.b – The Hazardous Energy Control Plan shall clearly and specifically outline the scope, purpose, authorization, responsibilities, rules and techniques to be used for the control of hazardous energy.
  • To include:
  • Control of Hazardous Energy12.A.12.b cont…
  • Statement of intended use of the procedure;
  • Means of coordinating and communicating HEC activities;
  • Procedural steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking, and securing systems to control hazardous energy;
  • Procedural steps and responsibilities for the placement, removal, and transfer of lockout and tagout devices
  • Procedural steps, responsibilities and a means of accounting for placing and removing personal protective grounds,
  • Procedural steps, responsibilities and requirements for testing the system to verify effectiveness of isolation, lockout/tagout devices;
  • Procedural steps and responsibilities for transfer of clearances when and if necessary;
  • Procedures steps and responsibilities for Multi- Shift Safe Clearances;
  • A description of any emergencies that may occur and procedures for safely responding to those emergencies;
  • The means to enforce compliance with the procedures.
  • Breaker LO/TOSwitch Box LO/TOLock-Out/Tag-OutLock-Out/Tag-Out UFGS 013526
  • Contractors are required to apply for utility at least 15 days in advance.
  • Once approved and prior beginning, work contractor must attend a pre-
  • outage coordination meeting with the Contracting Office [and the]
  • [installation representative] [ Public Utilities representative] to review the
  • scope of work and the lock-out/tag-out procedures for worker protection.
  • No work will be performed on energized electrical circuits unless proof is
  • provided that no other means exist.
  • Contracting Officer will, at the Contractor’s request, apply lockout/tagout
  • tags and take other actions that, because of experience and knowledge, are
  • known to be necessary to make particular equipment safe to work on.
  • Lock-Out/Tag-Out UFGS 0135263.3.1 TAG PLACEMENT (3rd paragraph) When it is required that certain equipment be tagged, the Government will review the characteristics of the various systems involved that affect the safety of the operations and the work to be done; take the necessary actions, including voltage and pressure checks, grounding, and venting, to make the system and equipment safe to work on; and apply such lockout/tagout tags to those switches, valves, vents, or other mechanical devices needed to preserve the safety provided. This operation is referred to as “Providing Safety Clearance” Lock-Out/Tag-Out UFGS 0135263.3.2 TAG REMOVAL When any individual or group has completed its part of the work and is clear of the circuits or equipment , the supervisor, project leader, or individual for whom the equipment was tagged shall turn in his signed lockout/tagout tag stub to the Contracting Officer. That group’s or individual lockout/tagout tags on equipment may be removed on authorization by the Contracting Officer. Control of Hazardous Energy
  • 12.B – Training
  • 12.B.01 – Training shall be provided to ensure that the purpose and function of the Hazardous Energy Control procedures are understood by employees and that employees possess the knowledge and skills required for the safe application, usage and removal of Hazardous Energy Control Devices.
  • a Authorized Employee Training ……
  • b. Each affected employee……
  • c. All incidental personnel shall be informed……..
  • d. When only tagout systems are employees shall be trained in the limitations of tags.
  • 12.B 02 Employee retraining requirements.. 12.B.03 The supervisor shall certify and document all training and retraining.Periodic Inspections12.C
  • 12.C.01 – Daily inspections shall be conducted to ensure that all requirements of the Hazardous Energy Control procedures are being followed.
  • 12.C.02 – Periodic Inspections shall be documented and shall specify the system where the Hazardous Energy Control procedures were inspected, the date of the inspection, the names of employees performing and included in the inspections and any deficiencies in complying with the Hazardous Energy Control procedures.
  • Lock Out SafetyLock Out and Tag OutLock It and Tag It Before ServicingWORK AREA SAFETY
  • NO work on energized electrical
  • parts without adequate illumination.
  • If there is an obstruction that
  • prevents seeing your work area or
  • if you must reach blindly into areas
  • which may contain energized parts.
  • CIRCUIT IDENTIFICATION DISCONNECTS FOR MOTORS & APPLIANCES Legibly marked to identify SERVICE, FEEDER & BRANCH CIRCUITS &Disconnecting means or over-current device to belegibly marked to indicate its purpose.CABINETS, BOXES, AND FITTINGSPull and junction boxesand fittings must haveapproved coversUnused openings mustbe closed (no missingknockouts)That is easy to spot!!!HIGH VOLTAGE SAFETYWHAT IS THE CLOSEST DISTANCETHAT A MOBILECRANE CAN BE SET-UPNEXT TO HIGH VOLTAGE POWERLINES?ELECTRICAL PROBLEMSThis photo a violation of OSHA, EM-385 and/or NEC ELECTRICAL PROBLEMSThis photo a violation of OSHA, EM-385 and/or NECELECTRICAL PROBLEMSThis photo a violation of OSHA, EM-385 and/or NECELECTRICAL PROBLEMSThis photo a violation of OSHA, EM-385 and/or NECELECTRICAL PROBLEMSThis receptacle was mounted inside a soap bottle. It was used by a homeowner as an extension cord while floating around in a pool so he could save batteries while watching a portable television.Photo taken of an example of a "stupid persons" ingenuity
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