Environmental Engineering Lab report

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Report on EVE lab submitted during our 5th semester at Tezpur University
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  ENVIRONMENTALENGINEERINGLABORATORYREPORT Azaz Ahmed, Roll No- CIB_09_015, B. Tech 5 th Semester, Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Tezpur University, Assam, India, Pin-784028Email: azazahmed@live.in  EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Instrument : Turbidity meter  Introduction :Turbiditymeter operates on the nephelometric principle of turbidity measurement.It is used tomeasure how much light is either absorbed or scattered by suspended matter in water.Fig.: Digital Turbidity Meter (Image source:http://www.ei-instrument.com/digital-turbidity-meter-341-331.htm) Turbidity: Turbidity is an optical characteristic or property of a liquid,which in general terms describes theclarity, or haziness of the liquid.Accordingto EPA- “The cloudy appearance of water caused by the presence of suspended and colloidal matter.In the waterworks field, a turbidity measurement is used to indicate the clarity of water. Technically, turbidity is an optical  property of the water based on the amount of light reflected by suspended particles. Turbidity cannot be directlyequated to suspended solids because white particles reflect more light than dark-colored particles and many small particles will reflect more light than an equivalent large particle .” Principle of instrument :When particles are suspended in water and a light is shined through the sample, notall of the light will pass straight through the sample. Instead, the light will reflect off of the suspended particlesand some of the light will exit at a right angle tothe direction of entry into the sample.The turbiditymeter usesa laser pointer as a light source, and two photodiodes as detectors for the intensity of the transmitted andrefracted light. The basic setup is shown in figure 2.  Fig:By measuring the voltages off of both ofrom the ratio of the voltage across the 9 Light scattering/transmission method  the suspended substances in the sampldifference between the two values is inUsing this relation, the turbidity is obtai chematic conceptof turbidity meter.the photo diodes, we can derive a function whi0 degree sensor to the voltage across the 180 de:Lightradiated to the sample cell andthe scatteplusthe light which passes through the sa proportion to the concentration of suspended sed.ig.:Principle of Turbidity Meter  ch calculates turbiditygree sensor.   ered light resulting fromple are measured. Thebstances in the sample.   EXPERIMENT NO. 2 Instrument:  pH Meter  Introduction :A pH meter utilizes voltage to measure the acidity or alkalinity of chemical substances. Most pHmeters operate in a straightforward manner, with a digital screen that displays the pH value. Somehaveadditional functions such as conductivity and temperature measurement.A pH meter generally has three parts: the cell electrode, the reference electrode and a resistance thermometer.The cell electrode measures the pH of the substance, while the reference electrode serves as the standard or reference range of pH. The resistance thermometer compensates for temperature changes to ensure a precisemeasurement. A pH reading below 7 indicates acidity. Solutions that measure above 7 are alkaline, andsolutions that measure 7 such as pure waterare neutral.Fig.3: A pH Meter 
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