Fish Protein Hydrolysates - FPH- enhance resistance of aquaculture species to different types of stress

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Aquaculture production is now exceeding fisheries production in total seafood supply. Aquaculture, through intensification and husbandry practices, generate numerous stressful events, which may result from water deterioration (acute or chronic exposure to reduced levels of dissolved oxygen and/or increased levels of carbon dioxide, ammonia, nitrite) and/or handling (vaccination, transfer, transport, grading, ambient noise).
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  International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 March | April 2012Feature title: Fish Protein Hydrolysates- FPH- enhance resistance of aquaculture species to different types of stress The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry  A quacultureproductionisnowexceedingfisheriesproductionintotalseafoodsupply.Aquaculture,throughintensificationandhus-bandrypractices,generatenumerousstress-fulevents,whichmayresultfromwaterdeterioration(acuteorchronicexposuretoreducedlevelsofdissolvedoxygenand/orincreasedlevelsofcarbondioxide,ammonia,nitrite)and/orhandling(vaccination,transfer,transport,grading,ambientnoise). Furthermore,environmentalstressors,suchastemperatureandsalinityvariations,mayalsohavedetrimentalconsequencesonaquaticcaptivepopulations.Improvementofhusbandrypracticesiscertainlytheeasiestwaytoreducestressfuleventsandtheirconsequencesonzootechni-calperformance,thatisreducedgrowthrate,bysparingenergyresourcesinhomeostasisandincreasedmortality,byimpairinginnateimmuneandanti-oxidativestatus.Besidehusbandrypractices,nutritionalsup-plementationisanotherwaytofine-tuneimmuneandanti-oxidativedefensesofaquaticspecies.Inthiscontext,nutrientslikefreeaminoacidsandderivatives,nucleotides,oranti-oxidantsareoftensupplementedasimmu-nostimulators,especiallyduringcriticalperiodssuchasweaning,wintering,seawatertrans-fer.Whenproducedunderhighlycontrolledconditions,ProteinHydrolysates(PH)andespeciallythoseofmarinesrcin(FPH),arenaturallyrichinthesenutrients.Furthermore,numerousstudiesdemon-stratedtheywererichinbioactivepeptidesofnutraceuticinterests(growthlikehormone,antioxidants,anti-stressandanti-microbialpeptides).Thepurposeofthisarticleis toreviewtheexperiencedbenefitsofPHonaquaticfarmedspeciesduringdifferentinducedstressfulevents. Variation of water temperatureaffects growth performances Temperatureandsalinityvariationsare themostexperiencedclimaticissues.Whilecoldweatherusuallyimpairsfeedintakeandgrowth,itusuallyhaslessadverseeffects thanwarmweatheronaquaticspecieshealthstatus(oxidativestress,oxygenavailability,resistancetoopportunisticpathogens).Atemperaturechallengetrialwasimple-mentedattheendofafeedingtrialonEuropeanseabass(Dicentrarchuslabrax)juve-niles(meanweight:16.3g).Fishwerefedwithisoproteic-supplement-eddiets(control,control+2.5percentFPH1andcontrolplusfivepercentFPH1)for29daysintriplicateflowtrough100ltanks.Attheendofthefeeding trial,10fishout40initialfishwerereplacedintheirrespec- tivetankforthethermalchal-lenge(duplicate).Therange33-35°Chadpreviouslybeendeterminedaslethalsotem-peraturewasincreasedfrom20°Cto33°Cwithintwohourswithoutanyobservedmorbidity(mortalityplusunbalancedfish).AsshowninFigure1observedmorbidityonlystart-edat34°C,afterfivehoursofchallenge.Thethermalchallengewasstoppedtwohourslaterwhen80percentofmorbiditywasobserved.FPH1supplementationdidn’treducefinalmorbiditybutitsignificantlydelayedit(p-val-ue<0.01,proportionalhazardsmodels).Thisdelayisespe-ciallyvisiblebetween5.5andsevenhours,anditdoesn’tseemtobedose-dependentfor2.5andfivepercentsup-plementations. Withoutanymetaboliteclues,wemayonlyassume thatFPH1hasdelayedthephysiologicalprocessresponsibleforfishmor-bidity,possiblythankstohormone-likeand/ortoanti-stresseffects.Thistrialmayfindcommercialapplicationsforpreventivefeedsupplementationbeforethesummerseason,especiallyforflow-throughorcagefarmingsystems. FPH enhance fish resistance towater quality deterioration Throughintensification,averagewaterqualityisoftenclosetothelimitstoleratedbyaquaticspeciesforanoptimalgrowth. Fish Protein Hydrolysates   FPH- enhance resistance of aquaculturespecies to different types of stress Figure 1: European seabass morbidity during athermal lethal challengeFigures 2 & 3: Respective Nile tilapia and TraCatfish survival rate during NH3 challenge trials(one way ANOVA/two way ANOVA) by M Herault, V Fournier, M Hervy, A Ngoc, Aquativ–Za Du Gohélis 56250 Elven, France 12 | IntentIon AquAFeed | March-pril 2012 FEATURE   Basedonthisstatement,anyperturba- tionofthewaterquality,resultingfromoverfeeding,overcrowding,waterrenewalshortageoralgaeblooming,mayhavecriticalconsequencesonhealth&growthstatusesoffarmedspecies.Twoammoniachallengetrialwereimple-mentedonTracatfish(Pangasiushypophthal-mus),andNiletilapia(Oreochromisniloticus), juveniles(meanweight=13g)inordertoassesstheimpactofFPHonoverallsurvivalrates.Basically,fishwerefedfor10weekswithcommercialdiets,formulatedwithdifferentlevelsoffishmeal–FM-,supplementedornotwithFPH2andFPH3(1.8percentintilapiadiets&threepercentincatfishdiets).After thosefeedingperiods,10tilapiaand20catfishweredistinctlyplacedinaquaria(n=4repli-cates)foranammoniachallengeconsistinginaconstant150ppmTANloadfor48hourswitha100percent/daywaterexchangerate.SurvivalresultsareillustratedwithFigure2andFigure3.BothFPH2and3hadapositiveimpactonfishsurvivaltohighammonialoadchallenge, thisbenefitbeingalsoobservedonfishmealfreediet.Astheendproductofproteinmetabolism,ammoniaisthemostcommon toxicantincultureandlive-transportationsystems.ItismoretoxicunderitsunionizedformNH3asiteasilydiffusesacrossthegillmembranereducingoutwardfluxofammoniaexcretion.Asaresult,ammonialevelinfishplas-maincreasescausingvariousphysiologicalresponses,inmanywayssimilartoanoxiasymptomsandfinallyleadingtoneurotoxicityandfishdeathinmostseriouscases.SeveralstudiesimplementedonFPHhavedemonstratedtheirbiochemicalfunctionali- ties,includingpotentanti-oxidativeproperties.Thus,itbecomespossibletoincreaseanimal’sownanti-oxidativedefensesthankstoFPHsupplementationand,asaconsequence,reduceexpectedadverseeffectsofexces-siveproductionofROS-ReactiveOxygenSpecies-resultingfromanoxialikestressesinducedbymanychemicalandphysicaldis- turbances. Restoring feed intake andgrowth during stressful events Itisacommonpracticetosupplementaquaticfeedwithpalatabilityenhancerduringcriticalandstressfulperiodssuchasspawning,weaning,wintering,oralantibiotictreatments. Improving growth rates AProteinHydrolysatewasformulated tomeetsuchneedsandserveasaninternalreferenceforassessingnewlydevelopedFPH.Atotalof28shorttermfeedingtrials(13-21days)wereimplementedwiththisinternalreference,coatedattwopercentdosageontoanutritionallybalancedPlantBasedFeed(PBF),withintwodistinctexperimentalfacili- tiesnamed‘C’and‘D’.Thesefacilities,consistingintwoserialsof24tanksof100lcapacitysuppliedwith thermoregulatedandfiltratedseawater;onlydifferbytheirtankheights.Fishintofacilities‘C’,duetolowertanks,aremoreexposedto technician’sworkandvisualcontacts.Basedonthesignificantdifferencesobservedforaveragezootechnicalperformanceindicators(seeFigure4),thisvisualdisturbancestressobviouslyimpactsfishbehavior.Thus,growthoffishrearedinfacilities‘C’isonlyat67percentoftheaveragepotentialgrowthobservedforfacilities‘D’.Thisgrowthretardationismostlyexplainedbyamuchlowerfeedintake,whichmayentirelybesolvedbyPHsupplementation.Inaddition,throughPHsupplementation,growthrateisfinallyimprovedbyalmost20percent,duetoacombinedimprovementof theFCR,by10percentonaverage.Thisbenefitcombinationresults,onaver-age,ina28percentgrowthrateimprove-mentundernormalconditionsandalmost80percentgrowthrateincreaseundervisualdisturbanceconditions.Atthismacroscopicscale,mostlikelyassump- tionsmaybethefollowings:FCRimprovementprobablyreflectsareductionofPBFinducedgutinflam-mationand/oranoptimizationofgutflorawhilethehigherfeedintakerecordedwithPHsupplementationiscertainlyduetofeedenhancedpal-atability. FPHimprove fishresistance toopportunisticpathogens Chronicstress,becauseofcon- tinuoussecretionofcortisol,isharmfulasitleadstoimmu-nosuppressionand therebyincreasesrisksofdiseaseout-breaks.Adiseasechal-lengewasiniti-atedonjuvenileNiletilapia(meanweight:37.7g±2.2)followinga42daysfeedingtrialimplementedwithcontrolcommer-cialfeed,withorwithoutFPHsupplementation(twopercentdosage).SeeFigure4.1.0mlofabacterialsuspensionconsistingin9x10 8 UFCofAeromonashydrophilawasinjectedintothefishabdominalcavity.Therewerefourreplicatesand15fishperreplicatewereinoculatedandthenmonitoredforAeromonashydrophilasymptomsfor10days.Attheendofthisperiod,averagesurvivalrateofinoculatedfishforcontrolfeedwasveryhigh,whichmeansthatinitialfishhealthstatuswasreallygoodbeforestartingthediseasechallengetrial.Despitethishighsurvivalrate,FPHsup-plementationsignificantlyimprovedoverallsurvivalratesfrom88upto98percent(p<0.02).Atthismacroscopicscale,itisdif-ficulttodiscusshowFPHhasimprovedfishresistancetoopportunisticpathogens. Wemay,however,proposetwodifferentandmaybecombined,patterns.First,FPH,thankstoitsbioactivefunc- tionalities(anti-stressandimmunostimulantmostly),mayhaveimprovedoverallfishhealthstatusbeforeand/orduringthechallengetrial.Second,FPHmayhavebeenanaturalsourceofAntiMicrobialPeptides,whichmayhavebeeneffectiveagainstAeromonashydrophila.Biochemicalstudieswouldbenecessarytocon-firmone,orboth,oftheseassumptions.  March-pril 2012 | IntentIon AquAFeed | 13   FEATURE                          SABETHA, KANSAS USA 785-284-2133 INFO@WENGER.COMUSA BELGIUM TAIWAN BRASIL CHINA TURKEY Inventing the new srcinal since 1935. Multiply extrusion capacities for smalldiameter aquatic feeds with patentednew Wenger technology.Multiply extrusion capacities for smalldiameter aquatic feeds with patentednew Wenger technology. Wenger’s innovation of diverging cone screw and oblique die technologies brings all the benefits of extrusion to high capacity micro aquatic feed  production. These new designs result infloating and sinking small diameter aquatic feeds that are:ãproduced at rates 3to 5 times greater   than previous technology.ãuniform in size and shape.ãon target for density and water stability.Request details now on high capacity, profitable production ofsmall diameter feeds at info@wenger.com.At Wenger, we innovate to solve customer challenges. And then we do it again.   2011/12OUT NOW  Meanwhile,thisassayconfirmsthisispossi-bletoenhancefishresistancetoopportunisticdiseasebyFPHsupplementation. Conclusions Despiteofcontinuouslyimprovedaqua-culturepractices,stressfuleventswillremaininherenttohusbandrybothbecauseofclimat-ichazards,fornonRecirculatingAquacultureSystems,andhumanoperations.Stressisanormalandadaptiveprocess(homeostasis)consistinginthreechronologicalresponses:1)primaryresponsesinvolvetheelevationofplasmacatecholaminesandcortisolhormone;2)secondaryresponsesrefertotheeffectsof thesehormonesat tissuelevel;3)tertiaryresponsesrefertoanimalzootechnicalperform-ancessuchaschangesingrowthandhealth.Minorpunc- tualstresswillmostlybelim-itedtoprimaryandsecond-aryresponseswhileacuteandchronicstresswillofteninducetheterti-aryresponse’sadverseeffects.Asprevi-ouslyillustrated,FishProteinHydrolysatesaretheidealnutritionalsolu- tiontoattenuatestressfulevent’sadverseeffectsonzootechnicalperformances.Thanksto theirnaturalhighcontentsoflowmolecularweightNitrogencompounds,whichincludenucleotides,aminoacidsandderivatives,andbioactivepep- tides,FPHwillactdirectly,orindirectly,onaquaticspeciesfeedacceptance,feedtrans-formation,innateanti-oxidativeandimmunedefenses,whichwillendupwithrestored,orenhanced,growthrateandhealthstatus.Besidetheirhighnutritionalvalue,FishProteinHydrolysatesarethereforeagoodalternativetopreventiveandgrowthpromot-ing,antibiotictreatments,especiallywiththeiranti-microbialpropertiesandtoanyotherfeedadditivesusedasimmune-stimulantsoranti-oxidativeagents.Lastbutnotleast,thebioactivepeptidesprofile,thereforethephysiologicalresponse,isdrivenbyhydrolysisprocessleveragessuchas typeofenzyme,temperaturextimescheduleandpH. ■ Referencesavailableonrequest Figure 4: Zootechnical performances observed on E. seabass juveniles (initial mean weight: 4.7-11.1g) over 28 trials implemented within twofacilities “C” and “D”Figure 5: Survival rate of Nile tilapia to an Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, 10 daysfollowing injection (one way ANOVA) f or    More   inforMation :  Aquativ  Z.A. de GohelisElven, 56250 France Tel:+33297938080Email:aquativ@diana-aqua.comWebsite:www.aquativ-diana.com 14 | IntentIon AquAFeed | March-pril 2012 FEATURE        S     P     A     N     I     S     H     L     A     N     G     U     A     G     E     E     D     I     T     I     O     N http://www.aquafeed.co.uk/edicion-espanola EDICION ESPANOLA   FEATURE    Improvementby nature Natural (hydrolyzed) proteinsfor aqua feed Whether you’re looking for a natural EU and USDA approved pellet binder for yourproduction of stable pellets or nature’s best alternatives for fish meal, you can contact Sonac.Sonac produces valuable and essential ingredients for the production of aqua feed. ã Pro-Bind Plus a nutritional, gelatin based pellet binder, especially for pelleted (shrimp) feed. ã Gelko an ideal combination of hydrolyzed proteins and fat (68% protein, 18% fat). ã MucoPro high content of hydrolyzed proteins, amino acids and peptides (>70% protein). ã Hemoglobin Powder high protein content and good digestibility, for better feed conversion.  March-pril 2012 | IntentIon AquAFeed | 15 AquaStar ® Fast growth inimproved environment! Probiotic strains to support gut health.Biodegrading strains and enzymesto stabilize water quality and pond bottom. aquastar.biomin.net   Naturally ahead ã I m p r o v e d g u t h e a l t h a n d p e r f o r m a n c e ã I m p r o v e d w a t e r q u a l i t y ã C o n t r o l o f p a t h o g e n i c b a c t e r i a   
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