Found Object, Recycled Art, Readymade or Junk Art- Ambiguity in Modern African Art.pdf

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  Arts and Design Studies www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6061 (Paper) ISSN 2225-059 (!n ine) #o .12$ 201% 41 Found Object, Recycled Art, Readymade or Junk Art? Ambiguity in Modern African Art & e'ent 'ea Apang S*+oo o, Art and Design$ niersit/ o, ed,ords+ire$ 1 %$ uton nited 3ingdo'  -'ai o, *orresponding aut+or * e'entapang/a+oo.*o'  Abstract 7+e p+eno'enon o, ,ound o8e*ts and waste trans'utation into wors o, art$ do'inates *onte'porar/ A,ri*an art ostensi8 / as t+e new *ontinenta *reatie identit/. :aorit/ o, *onte'porar/ A,ri*an artists e;peri'ent wit+ waste as t+eir pre,erred artisti* 'ediu' and ,ind in t+e' (waste)$ potent 'etap+ors ,or *reatie e;pressionis'. <oweer$ a t+oug+ t+is art ,or' is rapid / gaining pro'inen*e and internationa a** ai'$ it is surrounded 8/ e=uio*ations e'anating ,ro' aai a8 e iterature sour*es. Dis*ourses +ae e'erged w+i*+ atte'pts to t+eori>e t+is genre o, art 8ut su*+ dis*ourses +ae on / *reated ar/ing ee s o, a'8iguities w+i*+ i'pedes understanding o, its +istor/$ *on*eptua it/ and *onte;t in *onte'porar/ art-spa*e. 7+is paper reiews re*ent iterature dea ing wit+ ,ound o8e*t appropriation in A,ri*a$ to e;pose t+e o8s*urities in+erent in su*+ studies. sing dis*ourse ana /sis$ t+is reiew indi*ates t+e e;isten*e o, a'8iguities ranging ,ro' ter'ino og/ deising and * assi,i*ation to issues o, +ege'oni* e;* usiit/ and pro8 e's o, *onte;tua i>ation. !n t+e pre'ise o, t+ese e;isting gra/ areas$ I propose an in-dept+ stud/ into t+is 'odern A,ri*an art t/pe$ su*+ stud/ s+ou d adopt a  parti*u ari>ed s/ste' to inestigate t+e 'et+odo og/ o, A,ri*an ,ound o8e*t art$ its ideo og/ and *u tura 'otiation as 8asi* *riteria to ena8 e our understanding and esta8 is+ing o, t+is 'odern art ,or' as traditiona to A,ri*a in ,or'$ *ontent and *onte;t and su8se=uent / di,,erentiate it ,ro' t+ose o, uropean art *onentions to w+i*+ it is *urrent / erroneous / iened to. Keywords: ?ound !8e*t$ @ead/'ade$ A'8iguit/$ un Art$ p*/* ing$ Surrea isti* !8e*t$ ri*o age. ! ntroduction In*orporation o, 'ateria s ,ro' pop *u ture into A,ri*an isua pra*ti*e 'a/ +ae e;isted sin*e t+e *ontinents en*ounter wit+ t+e west during s ae trade and een ear ier$ as eiden*ed in t+e use o, uropean spirit 8ott es asse'8 ed to 8ui d deities and s+rines (S+iner 1994). ut er/ itt e is ,ound in iterature t+at proides an a**ount o, an/ in-dept+ inestigation into t+e +istoriograp+/ o, t+is A,ri*an art *onention. 7+is art genre (waste and ,ound o8e*ts appropriation) +as pro i,erated a*ross t+e entire *ontinent and now do'inates *onte'porar/ art  pra*ti*e. As o8sered 8/ S/ a and erte sen (199B)$ C,ound o8e*t art do'inates 'odern A,ri*an isua pra*ti*e and er/ ,ew are t+ose w+o +ae not pra*ti*e ,ound o8e*t appropriation art in t+e *ontinent. Nu'erous reasons are responsi8 e ,or t+e ,ast propagation o, t+is art t/pe and su8se=uent adoption o, E bricolage’   *reatie 'et+odo og/ 8/ A,ri*an artists$ 8ut t+e 'ost noti*ea8 e ,a*tor is g o8a isation (S+iner 1994$ S/ a F :erte sen 199B). G+i e t+roug+ 21 st  *entur/ adan*es in te*+no og/ and innoations t+e wor d is 8e*o'ing a g o8a i age$ it *onerse / eads to in*reased *onsu'ption and a**o'pan/ing generation o, arieties o, waste. 7+ese waste and ,ound 'ateria s o**asioned 8/ 'odernit/$ 8e*o'e 'ateria s ,or artisti* use (3art 2009). :odern waste (t+e 8/e produ*ts o, 'odernit/ and *ii isation) are e'p o/ed 8/ A,ri*ans as e,,e*tie isua 'etap+ors ,or *reatie e;p orations and e;pressionis'. 7+is inter*onne*tiit/ 8etween g o8a isation$ 'odernit/ and waste generation$ a**o'panied 8/ te*+no ogi*a adan*e'ents in *onte'porar/ A,ri*a$ resu ts in waste uni=ue / adapted into art to a +ig+ ee it +as een 8een argued t+at$ dis*arded o8e*ts in*orporation into art srcinated ,ro' A,ri*a. ans (2010$ p.1) posited t+at$ Ct+roug+ ,ound o8e*t trans,or'ation$ A,ri*an artists +ae *reated a tru / uni=ue art ,or' and +ae 8e=ueat+ed a new art *onte;t to t+e wor d. @easons 8eing t+at$ ,or 'an/ *onte'porar/ A,ri*an artists trained in western art edu*ation s/ste's and e=uipped wit+ su*+ artisti* *on*eptua is'$ interrogating t+e ri*+ 'eanings o*ed in waste and ,ound o8e*ts is *onsidered =uintessentia ,or artisti* se , e;pressionis' and *reation o, +eig+ten 'u ti,arious a/ers o, 'eanings sin*e a**ording to Aniaor (201%)$ Ci'ages and o8e*ts are p aited wit+ 'eanings and on / 8/ interrogating t+e'$ t+at now edge is e;tended and *ertain 'essages and ideo ogies e;pressed. 7+us$ su*+ artists tai or t+eir *reatie e;peri'entations towards a*+ieing artisti* se , e;pressionis' and +ig+er *odi,ied 'eanings. 7+is is 8e*ause as o8sered 8/ !.&onnor$ ,ound o8e*t artwors are 8e ieed to 8e enri*+ed wit+ super atie dou8 e , uidit/ o, 'eaning (!p *it 201%). It is per+aps a*+ieing t+at , uidit/ o, 'eaning w+i*+ +as drien 'odern A,ri*an artists to position t+e'se es as 'ateria e;peri'enta ist to *reatie / interrogate waste and ,ound o8e*ts$ e;p oring t+eir artisti* =ua ities and 'eanings$ as we as using su*+ wors to re, e*t so*ieta *ir*u'stan*es and issues in *onte'porar/ A,ri*a$ as t+e 8asis ,or t+eir art. 7+e/ do so 8e*ause$ a**ording to ?ontaine (2010$ p5H)$ C8/ engaging wit+ read/-'ades ,ro' pop *u ture$ t+e artist 8e*o'es an agen*/ t+roug+ w+i*+ t+e in+erent 8eaut/ and art =ua ities trapped in ,oundwaste 'ateria s are 8roug+t to i'e ig+t ia trans'utation. ?ro' an A,ri*an  Arts and Design Studies www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6061 (Paper) ISSN 2225-059 (!n ine) #o .12$ 201% 42 trae*tor/$ not ust t+e 8eaut/ in waste is *onsidered 8ut t+e *ir*u'stan*es *reating t+ese waste (g o8a isation$ 'odernit/ and *onsu'ption) ,or's t+e ideo ogi*a *on*eptua ,ra'ewor ,or waste trans,or'ation into new art *onentions. G+i st t+is genre o, art is gaining pro'inen*e and widespread internationa re*ognition$ it +as stirred up s*+o ar / interest ,ro' 8ot+ A,ri*anwestern art +istorians and *riti*s. Aai a8 e iterature wit+ regards to t+is *onte'porar/ A,ri*an art ,or'$ *onsist o, nu'erous a'8iguities w+i*+ i'pedes understanding o, its *onte;tua artisti* e;isten*e. Su*+ iteratures +ae sprang up in t+e 21 st  *entur/ 8/ s*+o ars JA,ri*an and westernK w+o$ ignoring t+e +istoriograp+/ o, t+is A,ri*an art ,or'$ on / pro8 e'ati*a / treat ,ound o8e*t trans'utation into art in A,ri*a as a re*ent artisti* endeaour. A ot o, +ast/ genera isations and *on,used *onte;tua i>ations e;ist$  pointing to t+e ,a*t t+at no in-dept+ resear*+ +as 8een *ondu*ted to proide * arit/ to e;isting gaps in t+is 8od/ o, now edge. So'e s*+o ars +ae strugg ed wit+ deising a ru8ri* ,or t+is art ,or' t+at wi de,ine and *ategorise it as A,ri*an. !t+ers +ae adopted w+at 'a/ 8e *onsidered a pro8 e'ati* dis*ourse o, iening t+is art ,or' in para e 'orp+o ogi*a and ideo ogi*a ter's wit+ uropean  Readymade $  Dadaism, Surrealism and  Found Object Art,  indi*ating t+e e;tent to w+i*+ s*+o ars +ae grapp ed wit+ t+is su8e*t. 7+e ru8ri* ‘Recycling in Contemporary African Art’   +as 8een pro8 e'ati*a / adopted 8/ s*+o ars to +o isti*a / des*ri8e t+is A,ri*an art ,or' in t+e past two de*ades$ a ru8ri* w+i*+ inder (200B) argues t+at is C'is eading. inders iew point is supported 8/ #an-D/ w+o o8sered t+at CA ot o, artists +ae 'ade art out o, ,ound 'ateria s 8e,ore t+e word Ere*/* e was een nown in our so*iet/... t+e ter' @e*/* ing in A,ri*an Art t+ere,ore is a 'is*on*eption (#an-D/$ 201%. P2). 7+is paper reiews re*ent arti* es and *ata ogues w+i*+ dea s wit+ waste trans'utation into art$ in order to reea t+e a'8iguities surrounding t+is 'odern art genre in A,ri*a$ it goes ,urt+er to posit t+at ,or proper understanding to 8e attained$ an in-dept+ resear*+ into ,ound o8e*t art is e;igent. Proiding so utions to t+ese e;isting gaps is 8e/ond t+e s*ope o, t+is paper$ +oweer$ in t+e *ourse o, t+is dis*ourse$ insig+ts wi 8e  proided into wa/s t+roug+ w+i*+ studies *an 8e e,,e*tie / dire*ted using *u tura perspe*tia is' o,  parti*u arised 'et+odo ogi*a inestigation w+i*+ wi ena8 e t+e possi8 e esta8 is+ing o, t+is *onte'porar/ art *onention as A,ri*an in ,or'$ *ontent$ and *onte;t and$ distinguis+ it ,ro' t+ose o, western art *u ture. #! Articles, $ubmissions and %ray Areas on waste ‘Upcycling’ into contem&orary Africa art:  ?our iterature sour*es (t+ree papers and a 8oo) are reiewed in t+is se*tion to 8ring to i'e ig+t gra/ areas and gaps in t+e 8od/ o, now edge wit+ regards to ,ound o8e*t appropriation in *onte'porar/ A,ri*an art. 2.1 Globalizing East African Culture: From un! to ua ali Art. 'y Margaretta $wigert(%ac)eru #*  Swigert-La*+erus paper ,o*uses on waste trans,or'ation into art pra*ti*ed in ast A,ri*a$ using 3en/a as *ase stud/. 7+e 'ain idea ,ro' an e*ono'i* and innoatie iew point purported 8/ t+e aut+or is t+at$  Jua ali  Ingenuit/ w+i*+ *u 'inates into 3en/an un Art is a *onte'porar/ ast A,ri*an renaissan*e 'oe'ent w+i*+ not on / de,ines a uni=ue genre o, art$ 8ut *ontri8utes to 8oosting t+e e*ono'/ t+roug+ its 8ri*o age produ*tiit/. A so$ t+e aut+or pointed out t+at  Jua ali  is t+e 'ost d/na'i* *onte'porar/ art ,or' in 3en/a w+i*+ e;ists as a +eig+ten ee o, *reatie ingenuit/ inspired 8/ t+e presen*e o, g o8a wastet+row-awa/ and poert/ (Swigert-La*+eru 2011. P129). S+e ,urt+er o8sered t+at$ 8/ irtue o, its appropriation o, g o8a waste$ ua 3a i un Art  8ridges t+e gap 8etween A,ri*an and western art wor ds 8/ *reating a g o8a , ow t+roug+ su*+ +/8ridi>ation w+i*+ in turn de,ies t+e '/t+ o, tri8a art and pri'itie order (Swigert-La*+eru 2011. P12H). Anot+er su8'ission 'ade 8/ t+e aut+or is t+at$ t+roug+ *reatie resus*itation o, dis*arded 'ateria s deposited in ast A,ri*a ,ro' urope$  Jua ali Jun! Art   *o'8ines 'aes+i,t *reatiit/ wit+ entrepreneurs+ip as a strateg/ ,or suria (Swigert-La*+eru 2011. P129). 7+us$ poert/ is *ited as t+e 'otiation ,or t+e innoation o, ua 3a i un Art in 3en/a$ w+i st arious artists inspired 8/ e*ono'i* +ards+ip are isted. A t+oug+ Swigert-La*+eru presents eiden*e o, +ow 'aes+i,t *reatiit/ in t+e arts *an 8oost t+e e*ono'/ o,  8ot+ t+e artists and t+e nation$ and a so 8roug+t to i'e ig+t t+e ,a*t t+at t+is ingenuit/ in ast A,ri*a was re egated to t+e 8a*ground 8e,ore now 8/ s*+o ars$ t+e aut+ors * assi,i*ation o, w+at *onstitutes un and de8ris is er/ *on,using and espe*ia / pro8 e'ati* 8e*ause t+is * assi,i*ation is t+e proiso ,or +er du88ing o, t+is art ,or' as  Jun! Art  . 7+e aut+or stated t+at  Jun! Art   is 'ade ,ro' e e*troni* gar8age and ,ound natura o8e*ts$ w+i e eniron'enta de8ris and o d * ot+es are used in insta ation (Swigert-La*+eru 2011$ p. 1%1). 7+is * assi,i*ation 8rings a8out arious unanswered =uestions w+i*+ su8ert t+is genre o, *onte'porar/ A,ri*an art. ?or instan*e$ *an a art 'ade ,ro' un in A,ri*a 8e * assi,ied as un ArtM <ow does natura ,ound o8e*t ie stones$ sea s+e s et* w+i*+ are not e e*troni* gar8age usti,/ t+eir in* usion in t+e *ategorisation un ArtM !r$ does t+e in* usion o, dis*arded 'ateria s into an artwor in t+is *ase as t+e aut+or enu'erated (o d * ot+es and eniron'enta de8ris)$ auto'ati*a / trans,or' su*+ wors into insta ation artM Is dis*arded 'ateria pcycling   into art$ t+e-sa'e as insta ation artM / using 'edia as t+e *riterion ,or deising t+e ru8ri* ‘Jua ali Jun! Art’, one wi assu'e t+at a artwors in ast A,ri*a or A,ri*a at arge 'ade ,ro' ,ound$ dis*arded or read/'ade  Arts and Design Studies www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6061 (Paper) ISSN 2225-059 (!n ine) #o .12$ 201% 4% o8e*ts wi idea / ,a into t+is *ategor/ (un art) 8ut t+is isnt t+e *ase. &aste ote (2011) o8sered t+at ! u A'oda uses dis*arded 'ateria s and un w+i*+ +e pre,ers to *a ‘Re#$urpose %aterials’, and t+at +is art 8e ooed at as E  Repurpose %aterial Art’  . !ne o8seres t+at$ ! u A'oda and ot+er A,ri*an artists een t+oug+ 'ae use o, un$ deise di,,erent na'es ,or t+eir waste 'ateria s and re,use t+at t+eir artwors 8e *a ed un art. 7+is is w+/ Swigert-La*+erus adoption o, t+e ter' un art to genera ise ,ound o8e*ts trans'utations in 3en/a is pro8 e'ati* 8e*ause ot+er waste appropriation artists in 3en/a +ae di,,erent na'es ,or t+eir waste 'ateria s. ?urt+er'ore$ 8/ using nu'erous na'es ,or waste 'ateria s$ deised 8/ di,,erent artists as t+e 'ain trust or generi* 'ode o, inestigation to e;p ore and interrogate t+is genre o, A,ri*an art$ su*+ ine o, en=uir/ as adopted 8/ Swigert-La*+eru and ot+er s*+o ars +as on / ead to di,,erent *on,used * assi,i*ations. 7wo issues stand out ,ro' Swigert-La*+erus stud/. ?irst /$ t+e ,a*t t+at t+e *ategorisation o, w+at *onstitutes waste and w+at ,a s into t+e t/po og/ de8ris is pro8 e'ati* 'eans t+e ter'ino og/ adopted ,or t+is art ,or' is e=ua / pro8 e'ati*. ?ro' t+e aut+ors su8'issions$ it i'p ies t+at natura o8e*ts$ o d * ot+es or eniron'enta de8ris are e;* uded ,ro' t+e t/po og/  Jun! art   and 8/ irtue o, t+eir waste *o'position$ +ae 8e*o'e insta ation art. A so$ * assi,/ing e e*troni* gar8age as t+e 'ateria used ,or 'aing  Jun! Art,  'eans t+e/ *ant  8e used in insta ation art 8/ t+e aut+ors su8'ission w+i*+ 'aes +er proposition er/ *on,using. Se*ond / t+e aut+ors pro8 e'ati* waste *ategorisation *u 'inates in an ina8i it/ to di,,erentiate un art ,ro' Insta ation art. Ge are t+us e,t wit+ a ru8ri* (un Art)$ w+i*+ doesnt een en*o'pass a o, 3en/as ,ound o8e*t appropriation$ neit+er does it$ re, e*t or en*o'pass ,ound o8e*t trans'utation pra*ti*ed e sew+ere in ast A,ri*a$ nor t+e entire A,ri*an *ontinent$ and su8'issions w+i*+ eaes us unaware o, t+e 8oundaries 8etween t+is art (un Art) and Insta ation Art. 7+ese unanswered =uestions and issues stated a8oe$ indi*ates t+e presen*e o, 'ore t+an a 'odi*u' o, gra/ areas and un*ertainties in Swigert-La*+erus paper. 2.2 #imbab$e: %&e 'ost an( Foun( Art. 'y Knowledge Mus)o)we #*#   7+is arti* e proides perip+era insig+ts into *onte'porar/ A,ri*an ,ound o8e*t appropriation and possesses a**o'pan/ing o8s*urities. 7+e 'ain purport o, t+e arti* e is t+e 8randing o, art t+at uti i>es aai a8 e waste or read/-'ades as E?ound !8e*t Art$ wit+ t+e aut+or positing t+at i'8a8wean artists use ,ound o8e*t art as a wa/ o, ,inding 'eaning in t+ras+ to *o''uni*ate en*oded 'essages. !ne 'aor assertion 'ade 8/ t+e aut+or is t+at$ ,ound o8e*t wors o, art are super atie to t+e 'ore 'undane ,or's o, s*u ptures w+i*+ are t+e o d *onentions. Arguing t+at$ t+e pun*tuated *oding s/ste' wit+in ,ound o8e*t art gies su*+ s*u ptures a *onte'p atie *+a enging =ua it/ w+i*+ is an edge oer traditiona ,or's o, s*u pture (:us+o+we$ 2012. P1). 7+at additie aest+eti* edge is 8orn out o, t+e *o'p e; *reatie pro*ess w+i*+ t+e aut+or des*ri8e as E Organised &andalism’, a pro*ess w+i*+ ino es disp a*ing o d 'eanings and ,or's o, o8e*ts to *reate and a**ord t+e' new ,or's and 'eanings (:us+o+we$ 2012. P1). G+i st pointing to t+e ,a*t t+at$ ,ound o8e*t art ino es re-*onte;tua isation o, o8e*ts 8/ dis o*ating t+e' ,ro' t+eir srcina *onte;t and o*ating t+e' in +ig+er rea 's o, artisti* e;isten*e$ t+e aut+or e=ua / draws ones attention to t+e ,a*t t+at its anda ising nature *onstitutes a *ause ,or *on*ern as *riti*s =uestion t+e ega it/ o, su*+ pra*ti*e. :ost noti*ea8 / and a'8iguous / so too$ is t+e ,a*t t+at t+e aut+or des*ri8es and asso*iates ,ound o8e*t art in A,ri*a to t+ose o, western re8e ious art 'oe'ents. <e stated t+at$ Ct+e re8e nature o, t+is ,ound o8e*t art is tra*ed to Dadais' and its prin*ipa e;ponent is :ar*e Du*+a'p (:us+o+we$ 2012. p2). Su*+ a 8o d assertion +oweer$ is not proen wit+ ade=uate ,a*ts w+i*+ 'ae it *on,using and pro8 e'ati* as wi 8e enun*iated in t+e ne;t  paragrap+. A t+oug+ t+is paper proides so'e new insig+ts into t+is genre o, *onte'porar/ A,ri*an s*u pture$ espe*ia / 8/  8randing it ‘Found Object Art’   and esta8 is+ing t+e ,a*t t+at$ 8e*ause t+is art ,or' dis o*ates dis*arded o8e*ts ,ro' t+eir srcina *onte;t to a new *reatie rea '$ it assu'es *onte'p atie*+a enging =ua ities w+i*+ a**ord t+e' aest+eti**reatie edge oer traditiona ,or's o, s*u pture su*+ as 'ode ed statues$ *arings et*$ t+e arti* e notwit+standing$ *onstitutes ,urt+er a'8iguities and raises arious =uestions. 7+e aut+ors iening o, t+is A,ri*an art *onention to  Dadaism  and purporting t+at :ar*e Du*+a'p is t+e ,ounder o, Dadais' is s+rouded in o8s*urities wit+out su,,i*ient s*+o ar / eiden*e to support su*+ * ai's. ?irst /$ in as 'u*+ as Du*+a'p$ @i*a8a and :an @a/ started anti art in A'eri*a$ Du*+a'p is not t+e ,ounder o, Dadais'. Dadais' 8egan in uri*+ wit+ artist ie 7ristan 7>ara$ :ar*e an*o$ ean Arp$ et* *redited ,or ste''ing t+e pro*ess t+at ead to Dadais' (<ans 1965$ we : 19H9$ Sand=ist 2006). <oweer$ Du*+a'p a pioneer 'e'8er o, anti-art in A'eri*a srcinated t+e E@ead/'ade w+i*+ aries ,ro' Dadaist Surrea isti* o8e*ts in arious respe*ts. 7+ere,ore$ +is ining o, Du*+a'ps  Readymade  and Surrealistic    Found Object in sa'e *ategor/ is pro8 e'ati*. 7+is is 8e*ause$ +e i'p ies 8/ su*+ proposition t+at Du*+a'ps @ead/'ade and Surrea ist ,ound o8e*ts are sa'e art t/pes w+i*+ ,ro' itera / eiden*e is not t+e *ase. Du*+a'ps @ead/'ade a *on*eptua art st/ e arrie at t+roug+ +is disinterested art ideo og/ and e;peri'entation wit+ +is E Creati'e Order and     (nfrat)in’ Jaest+eti*s o, indi,,eren*eK   e'p+asises t+e inte e*tua *on*eptua *ontent o, an artwor oer its isua ,or'$ to =uestion w+at de,ines*onstitute art and t+e entire art institution. ?urt+er'ore$ su*+  Readymade  were una tered 8/ t+e artist and on / assu'ed t+e dignit/ o, art t+roug+ ‘Dislocated Conte*tual Description’   (@ead 19B5$ !8a  2000$  Arts and Design Studies www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6061 (Paper) ISSN 2225-059 (!n ine) #o .12$ 201% 44 Iersen 2004). !n t+e ot+er +and$ Dadais' (surrea isti* o8e*ts) are o8e*ts o, *+an*e guided 8/ t+e un*ons*ious and adopted as 'eans o, 8ridging t+e gap 8etween 'ind and wor d. As reton t+e e;ponent o, t+e surrea isti* Dadaist o8e*t posited$ CSurrea isti* i'ages and o8e*ts are ie t+e isua residue ,ro' past e;perien*e t+at turn up in drea's...*+an*e wou d 8e t+e ,or' taen up 8/ e;terna rea it/ as it tra*es a pat+ in t+e +u'an un*ons*iousness (reton 19%5$ 19BH). Dadaist ,ound o8e*ts are o8e*ts o, *+an*e *onstru*ted or asse'8 ed wit+ 'inor or 'aor artisti* 'anipu ations into artwors. ?ro' t+e *on*eptua it/ o, t+e artisti* e;isten*e o, @ead/'ade and Surrea isti* !8e*t$ it is * ear t+at t+ese two art ,or's ar/ *onsidera8 /. As :argaret Iersen o8sered$ Ca t+oug+ @ead/'ade and Surrea isti* ,ound o8e*t s+are an o8ious a* o, aest+eti* =ua it/$ 8ot+ in eer/ respe*t are dissi'i ar (Iersen 2004). Dissi'i ar espe*ia / 8e*ause Du*+a'ps e;peri'entations w+ere inspired 8/ t+e 'odernist t+eories o, & e'ent Lreen8erg$ Leorge Di*ie et* w+i e Dadaist ?ound !8e*t o, reton w+ere ostensi8 / drien 8/ ?reudian t+eories. 7+is s+ows t+at$ t+e aut+ors iening o, t+ese art *onentions to w+at is pra*ti*ed in 'odern A,ri*a is signi,i*ant / o8s*ure 8e*ause$ t+ese art ,or's were a esta8 is+ed on uropean en ig+ten'ent t+eories and assu'ptions a8out rea it/ during t+e 1900s$ t+eories entire / ,oreign and unre ated to A,ri*a in an/ wa/. Against t+is 8a*drop$ it is apparent t+at :us+o+wes iening o, A,ri*an ,ound o8e*t appropriations to  Dadaism  and Du*+a'ps  Readymade  is parti*u ar / pro8 e'ati* and a*s su,,i*ient and t+oroug+ eiden*e to *onin*e us. As a resu t$ +is assertions wit+ t+eir a**o'pan/ing a'8iguities on / ead to 'ore unanswered =uestions. ?or instan*e$ is A,ri*an ,ound o8e*t art di,,erent ,ro' t+ose o, t+e westM I, /es$ on w+at po aritiesM I, no$ t+en w+at are t+e si'i aritiesM ?urt+er'ore$ i, one assu'es t+at 8ased on 'ateria used and *reatie trans'utation 'et+odo og/$ a *onte'porar/ A,ri*an artists pra*ti*ing t+is genre o, art$ *onstitutes a *onte'porar/ A,ri*an art wor d w+i*+ s+ares si'i ar st/ e *onention$ *an :us+ow+es adopted ru8ri* and * assi,i*ation ‘Found Object  Art’   ,or t+is genre in i'8a8we su,,i*e ,or t+at in 3en/a * assi,ied as  Jua ali Jun! Art   8/ Swigert-La*+eru and or si'i ar pra*ti*es in ot+er parts o, t+e *ontinentM Are A,ri*an artists pra*ti*ing waste trans,or'ation art drien  8/ sa'e ideo ogies and 'odernists t+eories as Du*+a'p or surrea isti* and dadiast artists o, t+e westM 7+e aut+ors inestigation into t+is art ,or' did not tae into *ognisan*e t+ese =uestions and t+e ,a*t t+at t+ese issues are not addressedO it 'aes t+e aut+ors su8'issions a'8iguous and =uestiona8 e. 7+e a,ore'entioned =uestionsun*ertainties$ re, e*ts issues w+i*+ s*+o ars +aent taen into *onsideration as we as o8s*urities in t+is arti* e w+i*+ 'aes it insu,,i*ient a te;t to ena8 e one ,u / understand t+is A,ri*an art *onention. 2.) Art is E*eryt&ing +: ,nternational -astetoart Catalogue ! Adewunmi, A! +d #** In t+is 8oo (*ata ogue) w+i*+ do*u'ented t+e wors o, ,ound o8e*t appropriation artists ,ro' arious A,ri*an *ountries present at t+e 200B wors+op$ t+ere is an atte'pt at deising a uni,ied ter'ino og/ to t/pi,/ t+is  p+eno'enon o, ,ound o8e*t trans,or'ation in 'odern A,ri*an art. 7+e aut+or posited t+at$ t+e dis*oer/ o, waste as a resour*e ,or artisti* *reation$ drawing attention to 'odern so*ieta issues and 'aing a iing ,ro' re*/* ing is *entra to ,ound o8e*t appropriation in A,ri*a. 7+us$ E  Recycling Art’   is used to des*ri8e a art 'ade ,ro' waste. Se*tions t+at dea wit+ t+is art t/pe in arious A,ri*an *ountries are dis*ussed under t+e su8+eadings C@e*/* ing Art in ganda$ @e*/* ing Art in 7ogo$ @e*/* ing Art in a'8ia$ @e*/* ing Art in L+ana$ @e*/* ing Art in Nigeria et* (Adewun'i ed 200B). An i'portant o8seration ,ro' Adewun'is *ategorisation is t+e ,a*t t+at$ +e draws ones attention to t+e possi8i ities o, dis*ussing ,ound o8e*t art in A,ri*a as a uni,ied 'odern *reatie *onention under one ter'ino og/$ i'p /ing t+at$ t+e *ontinuous deising o, 'u ti,arious ter'ino ogies w+i*+ a'ounts to a'8iguities 8e* ouding t+is art ,or' is unne*essar/. <oweer$ t+e aut+ors use o, t+e ter' E@e*/* ing as t+e pro*ess and produ*t o, t+is art t/pe in A,ri*a is =uestiona8 e. 7+is is 8e*ause re*/* ing ino es t+e *onersion o, waste into t+eir srcina state or reusa8 e ,or'  8ut t+is *reatie pro*ess in A,ri*a does not ino e restaging waste to t+eir srcina 'ateria state nor does it ino e *reating 'ateria s wit+ uti itarian ,un*tions. @at+er waste 'anipu ation pro*ess in t+is *onte;t produ*es wors o, art and not returning waste to t+eir srcina *onte;t. 7+is is w+/ t+e ter' ‘ pcycling’   is proposed to rep a*e re*/* ing w+en a wor o, art is t+e end produ*t. Sin*e Cp*/* ing is t+e pro*ess and *onersion o, 'ateria waste into o8e*ts o, greater a ue ('gin 2012$ P.6%). eing t+at$ pcycling   is t+e *ase in A,ri*a ie e sew+ere were waste is *onerted to art (wit+ greater a ue)$ Adewun'is du88ing o, ,ound o8e*t trans'utation into art in A,ri*a as E  Recycling Art’   is not entire / ,ree o, o8s*urities. :ore so$ Adenwun'i ,ai s to proide insig+ts into +is 'ode o, inestigation w+i*+ in,or'ed t+e deising o, t+e ter'ino og/ and *ategorisation o, a A,ri*an art w+i*+ appropriates waste and ,ound o8e*ts into sa'e t/po og/ as ‘Recycling  Art’  . Insig+ts are not proided as to w+et+er a stud/ was *ondu*ted to as*ertain t+at$ t+e 'et+odo og/$ ideo ogies$ *on*eptua it/ and inspirations 8e+ind waste re* a'ation is uni,ied a*ross A,ri*a and as we as a*ross A,ri*an artists ino ed in t+is st/ e *onention$ 8e,ore t+e ru8ri* E  Recycling Art’   was adopted as 8eing appropriate. 2./ El Anatsui: %ransformations. 'y -isa 'inder #**! isa inder introdu*es an intriguing perspe*tie to t+e *on*ept o, ,ound o8e*ts appropriation in *onte'porar/ A,ri*an s*u pture in t+is paper +l Anatsui- .ransformations/0  7+e aut+or ,o*used +er resear*+ on inestigating
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