Guideline for the Management of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: 2007 Update

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Guideline for the Management of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: 2007 Update
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  Guideline for theManagement of ClinicallyLocalized ProstateCancer: 2007 Update This publication was supported by Grant Number C12/CCC323617-01 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Members, (specialty): Ian Thompson, M.D., Chair, (Urology)James Brantley Thrasher, M.D., Co-Chair, (Urology)Gunnar Aus, M.D., (Urology)Arthur L. Burnett, M.D., (Sexual Medicine)Edith D. Canby-Hagino, M.D., (Urology)Michael S. Cookson, M.D., (Urology)Anthony V. D’Amico, M.D., Ph.D., (Radiation Oncology)Roger R. Dmochowski, M.D., (Urology)David T. Eton, Ph.D., (Health Services Research)Jeffrey D. Forman, M.D., (Radiation Oncology)S. Larry Goldenberg, O.B.C., M.D., (Urology)Javier Hernandez, M.D., (Urology)Celestia S. Higano, M.D., (Medical Oncology)Stephen R. Kraus, M.D., (Neurourology)Judd W. Moul, M.D., (Urology)Catherine M. Tangen, Dr. P.H., (Biostatistics and Clinical Trials) Consultants: Hanan S. Bell, Ph.D.Patrick M. FlorerDiann Glickman, Pharm.D.Scott Lucia, M.D.Timothy J. Wilt, M.D., M.P.H., Data Extraction AUA Staff: Monica Liebert, Ph.D.Edith BuddMichael FolmerKatherine Moore Prostate Cancer Change Notice: Any information related to Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)in the following guideline may have been revised in the AmericanUrological Association's (AUA) PSA Best Practice Statement: 2009 Update. In the case of any discrepency in recommendations betweenguidelines pertaining to PSA, please refer to the AUA's PSA Best Practice Statement: 2009 Update  for the latest AUA recommendationregarding PSA testing.  Copyright © 2007 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. ®   2 Table of Contents Introduction.....................................................................................................................................4 Context............................................................................................................................................5 Definitions and Terminology..........................................................................................................6 Screening Tests.........................................................................................................................................................6  PSA.......................................................................................................................................................................6  DRE......................................................................................................................................................................7  Prostate Biopsy....................................................................................................................................................7  Tumor Characteristics...............................................................................................................................................7 Tumor Grade........................................................................................................................................................7  High-Grade Cancer.............................................................................................................................................8Tumor Stage.........................................................................................................................................................8 Initial Evaluation and Discussion of Treatment Options with the Patient......................................8 Life Expectancy and Health Status...........................................................................................................................9Tumor Characteristics...............................................................................................................................................9Risk Strata.................................................................................................................................................................9Treatment Options..................................................................................................................................................10 Watchful Waiting and Active Surveillance.........................................................................................................10 Interstitial Prostate Brachytherapy....................................................................................................................12 External Beam Radiotherapy.............................................................................................................................12 Radical Prostatectomy.......................................................................................................................................14 Primary Hormonal Therapy...............................................................................................................................14Other Treatments...............................................................................................................................................15 Methodology.................................................................................................................................16 Search and Data Extraction, Review, and Categorization......................................................................................16Data Limitations.....................................................................................................................................................23Guideline Statement Definitions.............................................................................................................................25Deliberations and Conclusions of the Panel...........................................................................................................26Future Prostate Cancer Guideline Panel Activities.................................................................................................26 Treatment Alternatives..................................................................................................................27 Treatment Recommendations.......................................................................................................27 Treatment of the Low-Risk Patient.........................................................................................................................27Treatment of the Intermediate-Risk Patient............................................................................................................29Treatment of the High-Risk Patient........................................................................................................................30Additional Treatment Guidelines............................................................................................................................31  Copyright © 2007 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. ®   3 Treatment Complications..............................................................................................................32 Summary of Treatment Complications...................................................................................................................32Analysis of Treatment Complications....................................................................................................................37  Incontinence and Other Genitourinary Toxicity................................................................................................38Gastrointestinal Toxicity....................................................................................................................................39 Erectile Dysfunction...........................................................................................................................................39 Quality of Life and Treatment Decisions: A Major Patient Concern in Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer.............................................................................................................................41 Randomized Controlled Trials......................................................................................................42 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................42RCTs Comparing Different Treatment Modalities.................................................................................................43 Watchful Waiting Versus Radical Prostatectomy...............................................................................................43 Adjuvant Bicalutamide Therapy.........................................................................................................................45 RCTs Within Treatment Modalities........................................................................................................................46  External Beam Radiotherapy.............................................................................................................................46  External Beam Radiotherapy Fractionation......................................................................................................47  The Role of Combined Therapy.............................................................................................................................47  Neoadjuvant Hormonal Therapy in Combination with Radical Prostatectomy.................................................47  Hormonal Therapy in Combination with Radiation Therapy.............................................................................48 Future Research Needs.................................................................................................................50 Acknowledgments and Disclaimers: Guideline for the Management of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: 2007 Update......................................................................................................55 References.....................................................................................................................................56  Copyright © 2007 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. ®   4 Introduction In December 1995, the American Urological Association (AUA) published the  Report on the Management of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer  . 1  The document was the culmination of six years of work by 17 clinicians and scientists and required the evaluation of 12,501 scientific  publications with the detailed extraction of information from 165 papers that met the rigorous criteria of the panel of experts (Appendix 1). The Panel noted that a lack of evidence precluded specific recommendations for optimal treatment of an individual patient, which patients should  be offered all treatment options, and that patient preferences should guide decision making. Since 1995, approximately 2,600,000 men 2  in the United States have been diagnosed with  prostate cancer, and nearly 375,000 men 3, 4  have lost their lives to this disease. In addition, the  National Cancer Institute 4  has spent $2.1 billion on prostate cancer research and as of November 2005, approximately 28,111 scientific papers concerning prostate cancer have been published in  peer-reviewed medical journals (OVID Search, December 31, 1995 to October 23, 2005; key word: prostatic neoplasms). At the same time, mortality rates from prostate cancer have been declining: 34,475 men died in 1995 compared with an estimated 30,350 in 2005. 4  Several  pivotal randomized clinical trials related to prostate cancer treatment have been completed, including a chemoprevention study, 5  along with studies demonstrating prolongation of life in men with hormone-refractory metastatic disease 6, 7  and improved outcomes in men with nonmetastatic disease. 8-35  With the use of new and combined treatments, the frequency and variety of complications have differed from those previously reported. Advances have been made in prostate cancer imaging, biopsy methodology, in understanding causative factors and disease, in treatment-related quality of life and in predicting the behavior of individual tumors using risk strata. Despite these advances, no consensus has emerged regarding the optimal treatment for the most common patient with prostate cancer: the man with clinically localized stage T1 to T2 disease with no regional lymph node or distant metastasis (T1 to T2N0-NxM0). Of the 234,460 men in the United States diagnosed with prostate cancer annually, 91% have localized disease. 36  For these men and their families, the bewildering array of information from scientific and lay sources offers no clear-cut recommendations.  Copyright © 2007 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. ®   5 Understanding this challenge for patients with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer and the explosion in research and publications, the AUA re-impaneled the Prostate Cancer Clinical Guideline Panel (Appendix 2) for the purpose of reexamining and updating its analysis of treatment options. We herein report the results of a 5 ½-year effort to update the 1995 Guideline. The online version of this Guideline, which can be accessed at http://www.auanet.org/guidelines/, contains appendices that include additional documents used in the conduct of the analysis and the graphics detailing the Panel’s findings. Context A contemporary man with localized prostate cancer is substantially different from the man with  prostate cancer of 20 years ago. With the advent of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening  beginning in the late 1980s and the dramatic increase in public awareness of the disease, the average new prostate cancer patient has generally undergone multiple prior PSA tests and may even have experienced one or more prior negative prostate biopsies. When the cancer is detected, it is in a substantially earlier stage, often nonpalpable clinical stage T1c with, perhaps, one to several positive biopsy cores. The typical patient usually is very familiar with his PSA history and has a history of multiple visits to either his primary care provider or urologist. The most common patient will likely have Gleason score 6 or 7 disease, reflecting the most common current grading category and the fact that contemporary uropathologists assign this score more often than in the past when this group of tumors was frequently diagnosed one or two scores lower. 37  The average patient of today also will more commonly have serum PSA levels in the 4 to 10 ng/mL range, and often in the 2.5 to 4.0 ng/mL range. In many cases, the patient’s PSA history will include sufficient data to allow a prediagnosis PSA velocity or doubling time to be calculated. Generally, the treating physicians will personalize the patient’s risk based on serum PSA level, highest/worst Gleason score, clinical stage, and burden of disease (either number or  percent of biopsy cores with cancer). Following diagnosis, today's patient will oftentimes be better informed and consequently request a second opinion by other physicians including other urologists or such specialists as radiation and medical oncologists. Many centers offer multidisciplinary clinics where the patient can consult with urologists, and with radiation and medical oncologists at one location. After considering the options and gathering several opinions, a patient and his family will choose
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