Ha Kusen

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  TUGASAN 1 Sankyoku muzik dari jepun Irama Menggunakan meter duaan Melodi Pentatonik (Japanese pentatonic scale)   Contoh: ‘Hirajoshi’ pentatonic scale (Salah satu  Japanese pentatonic scale) Kake-ai –    Teknik antifonal  –   Penyanyi dan shamisen ‘berinteraksi’ (call and response –   assisting one another)  Ekspresi Tiada perubahan dalam dinamik (mezzo forte mf) yang jelas Ada unsur ‘semula jadi’ dan rubato dalam tempo   (sangat perlahan  –  sederhana laju) Penggunaan ornament trills dan grace notes  Tekstur Polifoni dan heterofoni Harmoni Tiada pergerakan kord yang jelas Bentuk 3 segmen utama   - Maeuta  (fore / opening song), tegoto  interlude (instrumental) , atouta  (after / closing song)  Ada ainote (short interlude –    kebiasaannya terdapat pada bahagian maeuta  )  Warna ton Shamisen, koto dan shakuhachi boleh menggunakan kibod, gitar dan rekorder. MUZIK DUA Irama   Melodi Ekspresi Tekstur Harmoni Bentuk Warna ton TUGASAN 2 The diversity of Japanese melodies makes generalization difficult. The melodies of folk songs differ greatly in rhythn, pitch and structure from those of shakuhachi music, for example. Japanese melodies often contain short bits that are repeated, in part or in their entirely, throughout a piece. - Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples, Volume 1   By Jeff Todd Titon, Linda Fujie https://books.google.com.my/books?id=DzNCo0VHlKoC&pg=PA162&lpg=PA162&dq=HAKUSEN+NO+MELODY&source=bl&ots=3t20jCcRNH&sig=ACfU3U1JoUxmHAxkn2r2u3UCBuBUhBXtHQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi4687Y9YHhAhXe6nMBHfJlCIIQ6AEwAHoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=HAKUSEN%20NO%20MELODY&f=false   Hakusen no   is a Japanese Kouta, the name of which translates to “A White Fan.” Japanese Kouta is a form of traditional Japanese music and means “short song.” There are examples of Kouta from the Middle Ages, but when referring to Kouta generally, one refers to the variety of Kouta developed at the end of the Edo period (around 1860). Kouta from the middle of the Meiji period, from 1868 to 1912, became increasingly prominent in Japan. Different schools of Kouta developed, making it very popular. The text of Kouta is known to be very structured and filled with symbols, but fairly short and related to Japanese haiku. Kouta is primarily for voice and the instrument called the shamisen , a stringed instrument (Figure 3). The shamisen  is played with a plectrum in order to accentuate the rhythm of the Kouta. Additionally, Kouta were traditionally sung by geisha and were associated with the theater style of kabuki  . Hakusen no ’s lyrics are from a love poem with five and seven syllable lines. The number of syllables in the lines mimics that of a haiku. The piece contains an aspect of sentimentality and also includes symbols in the text. The “pine tree symbolizes longevity.” (W.W. Norton and Company) It is also filled with beautiful natural imagery to convey the emotions of the lyrics and the singer. This Kouta is accompanied by the shamisen  but also shakuhachi  , a type of Japanese flute (Figure 4). The shamisen  and shakuhachi   contrast the voice rhythmically, giving the piece heterophonic texture. Hakusen no  features bent notes and many inflections in the instruments and the voice, a stylistic feature typical of traditional Japanese music. The melody in the voice tends to be short and does not repeat very often, so contrasts with the freely played shamisen and shakuhachi  . At some points, the shakuhachi   seems to play off of the singer’s melody and copies the long, whining phrases.  http://mlialex.tumblr.com/post/20535944087/hakusen-no  Irama Melodi Ekspresi Tekstur Harmoni  monofoni muzik terdiri daripada melodi yang tiada iringan, dipersembahkan oleh seorang pemuzik tunggal, atau oleh banyak pemuzik yang mepersembahkan melodi secara serentak (iaitu setiap pemuzik bermain persis sama dengan padang pada masa yang sama.) Dalam tekstur heterofoni, muzik terdiri daripada melodi yang tidak diiringi oleh ramai pemuzik, dimana masing-masing mempersembahkan secara serentak versi lagu yang sedikit berbeza. The term heterphony describes a SINGLE-LINE MUSICAL TEXURE ONLY when there is NO accompaniment to the melody. The term is also sometimes used to describe a way of performing a melody that IS accompanied. In this case a melody performed in heterophonic style is actyally part of a MULTI-PART TEXTURE. We shall call this type of texture accompanied heterophony  All textures in which there are TWO or MORE distinct parts, multipart or polyphonic. -Melody accompanied by independent rhythmic instrument -Melody with drone -Harmonized textures, all parts in the same rhythm -Melody with chord accompaniment -Multiple-melody textures -Polyrhythmic texutres Bentuk Ostinato-based  A piece based on a short element or elements that continuously repeats Xai Oye Como Va Tito Puento Warna ton
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