Human Respiratory System

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Human Respiratory System Functions:  Works closely with circulatory system, exchanging gases between air and blood:  Takes up oxygen from air and supplies it to blood (for cellular respiration).  Removal and disposal of carbon dioxide from blood (waste product from cellular respiration). Homeostatic Role:  Regulates blood pH.  Regulates blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. Components: Nasal cavity, throat (pharynx), larynx (voice box), trachea, bronchi, alveoli, and lungs. Pathway of
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  Human Respiratory System Functions:    Works closely with circulatory system, exchanging gases between air and blood:      Takes up oxygen from air and supplies it to blood (for cellular respiration).      Removal and disposal of carbon dioxide from blood (waste product fromcellular respiration).   Homeostatic Role:      Regulates blood pH.    Regulates blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.   Components: Nasal cavity, throat (pharynx), larynx (voice box), trachea, bronchi, alveoli, and lungs. Pathway of Inhaled Air: u   Nasal cavity   u   Pharynx (Throat)   u   Larynx (Voice Box)   u   Trachea (Windpipe) u   Bronchi   u   Bronchioles   u   Alveoli (Site of gas exchange)Exhaled air follows reverse pathway. Parts: 1. Nasal cavity: Air enters nostrils, is filtered by hairs, warmed, humidified, and sampled for odors as itflows through a maze of spaces.2. Pharynx (Throat): Intersection where pathway for air and food cross. Most of the time, the pathwayfor air is open, except when we swallow.  3. Larynx (Voice Box): Reinforced with cartilage. Contains vocal cords, which allow us to make soundsby voluntarily tensing muscles.      High pitched sounds: Vocal cords are tense, vibrate fast.      Low pitched sounds: Vocal cords are relaxed, vibrate slowly.      More prominent in males (Adam’s apple).   4. Trachea (Windpipe): Rings of cartilage maintain shape of trachea, to prevent it from closing. Forksinto two bronchi.   5. Bronchi (Sing. Bronchus): Each bronchus leads into a lung and branches into smaller and smallerbronchioles, resembling an inverted tree.6. Bronchioles: Fine tubes that allow passage of air. Muscle layer constricts bronchioles. Epithelium of bronchioles is covered with cilia and mucus.      Mucus traps dust and other particles.      Ciliary Escalator: Cilia beat upwards and remove trapped particles from lowerrespiratory airways. Rate about 1 to 3 cm per hour.   Pulmonary Function Tests    Assessed by spirometry.    Subject breathes into a closed system in which air is trapped within a bell floating in H 2 0.    The bell moves up when the subject exhales and down when the subject inhales.    SpirogramTidal volume:    Amount of air expired with each breath.    Vital capacity:    The maximum amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after maximum inhalation. Spirogram    Tidal volume:    Amount of air expired with each breath.    Vital capacity:    The maximum amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after maximum inhalation.    Terms Used to Describe Lung Volumes and Capacities Term Definition   Lung Volumes   The four nonoverlapping components of the total lung capacity   Tidal volume The volume of gas inspired or expired in an unforced respiratory cycle   Inspiratory reserve volume The maximum volume of gas that can be inspired during forcedbreathing in addition to tidal volume   Expiratory reserve volume The maximum volume of gas that can be expired during forcedbreathing in addition to tidal volume   Residual volume The volume of gas remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration   Lung Capacities   Measurements that are the sum of two or more lung volumes   Total lung capacity  The total amount of gas in the lungs after a maximum inspiration   Vital capacity  The maximum amount of gas that can be expired after a maximum inspiration   Inspiratory capacity  The maximum amount of gas that can be inspired after a normal tidalexpiration   Functional residual capacity  The amount of gas remaining in the lungs after a normal tidalexpiration Anatomical Dead Space    Not all of the inspired air reached the alveoli.    As fresh air is inhaled it is mixed with anatomical dead space.    Conducting zone and alveoli where 0 2 concentration is lower than normal and C0 2  concentration is higher than normal.    Alveolar ventilation: f x (TV- DS)    F = frequency (breaths/min.).    TV = tidal volume.    DS = dead space.  Hemoglobin helps transport CO 2 and buffer blood   Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells Functions:      Transports oxygen      Transport carbon dioxide      Helps buffer blood   As carbon dioxide is picked up from tissues it is converted into carbonic acid:   CO 2 + H 2 O <-----> H 2 CO 3 <----> H + + HCO 3-  Carbon Carbonic acid Carbonate iondioxideHemoglobin picks up most H +   ions, so they don’t acidify the blood.   Respiratory Acid-Base Balance    Ventilation normally adjusted to keep pace with metabolic rate.    H 2 CO 3 produced converted to CO 2 , and excreted by the lungs.    H 2 0 + C0 2 H 2 C0 3 H + + HC0 3-   Respiratory Acidosis    Hypoventilation.    Accumulation of CO 2 in the tissues.    pH decreases.    Plasma HCO 3- increases.    P c02 increases. Respiratory Alkalosis    Hyperventilation.    Excessive loss of CO 2 .    pH increases.
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