Imperialism

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Imperialism. Stronger/more powerful nations overtaking weaker ones. What is it?. 1700s. Industrial Revolution – need more resources!! Power hungry – show industrial/military strength Advances in transportation and communication – easier to control New economic and political power. Why?.
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ImperialismStronger/more powerful nations overtaking weaker onesWhat is it?1700sIndustrial Revolution – need more resources!!
  • Power hungry – show industrial/military strength
  • Advances in transportation and communication – easier to control
  • New economic and political power
  • Why?Economic Interests
  • Political/Military
  • Humanitarian/Religious
  • Social Darwinism
  • MotivesWeakness of non-western states
  • Advantages of westerners:
  • Strong economy
  • Well-organized gov’t
  • Powerful armies/Navy
  • Technological and medical advances
  • How were westerners able to dominate so quickly?Resisting Imperialism/Western Domination
  • Revolts
  • Organize nationalist movements to get rid of westerners
  • ResultsForms of Imperial RuleIndirect RuleDirect Rule
  • Impose western culture
  • French - French officials
  • Local rulers/sultans/chiefs govern  get educated by westerners
  • British
  • Forms of Imperial Rule (cont.)Sphere of InfluenceProtectorate
  • Local rulers follow advice of westerners (trade, missionary activities, etc.)
  • Outside power has all of the rights to trading privileges
  • China – carved out amongst many powers to avoid conflicts among themselves
  • AfricaExplain European contact with Africa up to this point? What have we discussed so far?Age of Exploration?
  • Cape Colony (Cape of Good Hope) – Control from the Dutch to the British; Boers resent British laws/customs so they migrate north and encounter the Zulus
  • Slave trade – mostly outlawed; US freed slaves – Liberia (independent republic)
  • European Domination
  • Move into Africa’s interior (transportation/medical advances)
  • Missionaries – paternalistic view of Africans
  • Map interior, trade, spread Christianity, gain wealth/fame
  • HURRY!!! Get your colony!!
  • King Leopold II (Belgium) – Control of Congo leads to Europe wanting a piece of the pie!
  • Berlin Conference – westerners divide up Africa diplomatically (no Africans were invited)
  • New borders, no regard for tribal lines/cultures/religions
  • Results?
  • Exploitation of the raw materials/resources
  • Brutalization of villagers
  • Forced to work for little to no pay
  • Beatings/mutilations
  • Little to no role in gov’t
  • Wealth went back to Europe, not to the natives
  • Invasions/bloodshed
  • African resistance
  • Burning of crops/starvation to show strength of west
  • Ethiopia modernized so was able to fight off the Italians – they remain free
  • How does this cartoon relate to what we have been discussing?Boer War
  • Boers  descendants of Dutch settlers
  • 1814 British take the Cape Colony from the Dutch
  • Discovery of gold/diamonds in Boer land leads to conflict w/ GB
  • Guerrilla warfare – GB wins
  • New Gov’t run by whites and sets up a system of complete racial segregation (apartheid until 1993)
  • Muslim RegionOttomans in the Middle EastSafavids in PersiaMughals in IndiaDecline of All 3 Empires…
  • Central gov’ts lost control, corruption was widespread, etc.
  • Europeans won favorable trading rights
  • Rise of reform movements including Wahhabi in Arabia (purity and simplicity in Muhammad’s original teachings)
  • Who was an infamous leader who practiced the Wahhabi faith?Problems for the Ottomans
  • Local rulers increasing in power
  • Economic issues
  • Corruption
  • Nationalism in multi-ethnical empire
  • Revolts
  • Reforms were rejected (Young Turks thought that reforms were the only way to save empire)
  • Armenian Genocide
  • Armenians – Christians
  • Muslim Turks accused the Armenians of supporting the Russians against the Ottoman Empire
  • Armenians protested against Ott. Policies
  • Sultan had thousands then killed
  • Over 25 yrs.  600,000 – 1.5 million Armenians were killed/died from disease and starvation
  • Egypt
  • Semi – independent from Ottomans in early 1800s
  • Success due to Muhammad Ali
  • “Father of Modern Egypt”
  • Political/econ. Reforms = + world trade
  • Built western/modern army
  • Suez Canal
  • After Ali’s death, Egypt became increasingly under foreign control
  • French organized a company to build canal
  • Egypt couldn’t afford to repay loans so they sold shares in the canal – GB bought the shares
  • GB made Egypt a protectorate
  • Persia
  • Dictatorship but made reforms
  • Russia wanted to protect southern border/expand
  • GB wanted to protect interests in India
  • 1900’s = OIL!!!!
  • Russia and GB granted concessions (special rights given to foreign powers) – sent troops to protect interests
  • Persian nationalists = outraged
  • India “The Crown Jewel”
  • Mughal Empire – gave trading rights to the British East India Company
  • In decline b/c of diversity (not unable to unite
  • vs. British)
  • Inferior
  • weaponsSepoyRebellion
  • Sepoys (Indian soldiers) – required to serve overseas (offense vs. high-caste Hindu religion)
  • Hindu women were now able to remarry under GB law
  • New rifle cartridges – greased with animal fat (cow and pig) which had to be bitten off to load them into rifles
  • Problems Results:
  • Sepoys brutally massacred British men, women and children
  • GB crushed revolt – revenge = torch villages/kill unarmed Indians
  • Left fear, hatred and mistrust on both sides
  • India now under direct British rule, sent more troops and increased taxes
  • Impact of the British:Positive Negative Improved infrastructureEducation/legal structureMedical improvementsSocial changes (equality/end slavery /caste systems)Banned sati Tried to force Hindus/ Muslims to convert to ChristianityUnjust imprisonments (Sepoys)Destroyed villagesDeath tollTaxed Indians to pay the cost of British troopsTurned to unskilled laborDeforestationFarms – grew cash crops, not foodIndian Nationalism Grows
  • Indian National Congress – wanted self rule but western-style modernization
  • Grew increasingly Hindu controlled
  • Muslim League – formed to protect interests of Muslims once INC was gaining control by Hindus
  • Separate Hindu and Muslim state or cooperation in the future for India??
  • China
  • Previously had strict limits on foreign trade (had a favorable balance of trade/trade surplus)
  • China entered a period of decline
  • Industrial Rev = West needs more (raw materials, trade, etc.) and gave them superior military power
  • Opium War
  • British merchants making large profits (mostly in silver) selling opium from India for tea – hurting the Chinese economy
  • Chinese became addicted to the drug
  • Chinese gov’t outlawed the drug/executed drug dealers
  • Chinese warships conflicted w/ British merchants starting the Opium War
  • China was easily defeated due to tech advances of GB
  • Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking)
  • Unequal treaty
  • Britain received large indemnity (payment for the loss in war)
  • GB gained Hong Kong
  • GB gained 5 ports and extraterritoriality (live under own laws/tried in own courts)
  • Taiping Rebellion
  • Problems – Qing dynasty in decline, flooding, population explosion, $ to imperial court, tax evasion by rich, corruption…
  • Peasants rebelled as a response
  • After 14 yrs., the gov’t crushed the rebellion (deaths of 20-30 million)
  • Qing gov’t in power but now has to share rule, Europe took opportunity to seize more control
  • Reform?
  • China begins to modernize some –doesn’t have a lot of gov’t / citizen support
  • Late 1800s = Sino-Japanese War
  • Japan wins control of Taiwan
  • Revealed China’s weakness
  • Spheres of Influence
  • Open Door Policy
  • No one consulted the Chinese
  • Spheres of Influence in ChinaHow does this political cartoon explain what we’ve just been talking about?Boxer Rebellion
  • Anger grew
  • Christian missionaries threatening Chinese Confucianism
  • foreign presence
  • Secret society – named Boxers by foreigners b/c of martial arts
  • Drive out the “foreign devil”
  • Boxers attacked foreigners across China
  • Westerners and Japanese united – Boxers defeated
  • Results
  • China makes more concessions
  • More reforms – education, economically, socially
  • Chinese nationalism spread – want a stronger gov’t
  • REPUBLIC – President Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen)
  • JapanTokugawa Japan
  • 1603 Tokugawa family takes power
  • Reimposed feudalism
  • Closed ports to foreigners
  • Forbade citizens to travel abroad
  • Nagasaki – port w/ limited trade w/ Dutch
  • Japan - isolation
  • Japan Opens up
  • Matthew Perry (US) – Treaty of Kanagawa – Japan agrees to open 2 ports
  • US won extraterritoriality and Europeans wanted the same – Japan feared they would soon be like China
  • Revolt put 15 yr. old Meiji “enlightened rule” in power; moved capital to Edo and renamed it Tokyo
  • Meiji restoration
  • Goal  strengthen Japan
  • Studied western ways and adapt them to Japanese needs
  • Replaced feudal Japan with a new political and social system with modern industry/econ.
  • Modernization
  • Centralized government – constitution (all were equal) but emperor had absolute power, a legislature (diet), limited voting rights
  • Powerful banking and industrial families emerged; industry boomed, population grew
  • Successful b/c of homogeneous society – common language/culture
  • Revised the unequal treaties before the turn of the century
  • Japan’s military strength
  • Lacked resources / wanted to be = to the west
  • Korea was isolated  “Hermit Kingdom”
  • Japan forced Korea to open to trade/accept unequal treaties
  • Competition over Korea led to the Sino-Japanese War – Japan easily won and took control of Taiwan
  • Japan challenged Russia for Korea and Manchuria – Russo-Japanese War
  • Treaty of Portsmouth – Japan won Korea/parts of Manchuria
  • 1st time an Asian power won over a European nation
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