of 43
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report



Views: 49 | Pages: 43

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Imperialism. Stronger/more powerful nations overtaking weaker ones. What is it?. 1700s. Industrial Revolution – need more resources!! Power hungry – show industrial/military strength Advances in transportation and communication – easier to control New economic and political power. Why?.
ImperialismStronger/more powerful nations overtaking weaker onesWhat is it?1700sIndustrial Revolution – need more resources!!
  • Power hungry – show industrial/military strength
  • Advances in transportation and communication – easier to control
  • New economic and political power
  • Why?Economic Interests
  • Political/Military
  • Humanitarian/Religious
  • Social Darwinism
  • MotivesWeakness of non-western states
  • Advantages of westerners:
  • Strong economy
  • Well-organized gov’t
  • Powerful armies/Navy
  • Technological and medical advances
  • How were westerners able to dominate so quickly?Resisting Imperialism/Western Domination
  • Revolts
  • Organize nationalist movements to get rid of westerners
  • ResultsForms of Imperial RuleIndirect RuleDirect Rule
  • Impose western culture
  • French - French officials
  • Local rulers/sultans/chiefs govern  get educated by westerners
  • British
  • Forms of Imperial Rule (cont.)Sphere of InfluenceProtectorate
  • Local rulers follow advice of westerners (trade, missionary activities, etc.)
  • Outside power has all of the rights to trading privileges
  • China – carved out amongst many powers to avoid conflicts among themselves
  • AfricaExplain European contact with Africa up to this point? What have we discussed so far?Age of Exploration?
  • Cape Colony (Cape of Good Hope) – Control from the Dutch to the British; Boers resent British laws/customs so they migrate north and encounter the Zulus
  • Slave trade – mostly outlawed; US freed slaves – Liberia (independent republic)
  • European Domination
  • Move into Africa’s interior (transportation/medical advances)
  • Missionaries – paternalistic view of Africans
  • Map interior, trade, spread Christianity, gain wealth/fame
  • HURRY!!! Get your colony!!
  • King Leopold II (Belgium) – Control of Congo leads to Europe wanting a piece of the pie!
  • Berlin Conference – westerners divide up Africa diplomatically (no Africans were invited)
  • New borders, no regard for tribal lines/cultures/religions
  • Results?
  • Exploitation of the raw materials/resources
  • Brutalization of villagers
  • Forced to work for little to no pay
  • Beatings/mutilations
  • Little to no role in gov’t
  • Wealth went back to Europe, not to the natives
  • Invasions/bloodshed
  • African resistance
  • Burning of crops/starvation to show strength of west
  • Ethiopia modernized so was able to fight off the Italians – they remain free
  • How does this cartoon relate to what we have been discussing?Boer War
  • Boers  descendants of Dutch settlers
  • 1814 British take the Cape Colony from the Dutch
  • Discovery of gold/diamonds in Boer land leads to conflict w/ GB
  • Guerrilla warfare – GB wins
  • New Gov’t run by whites and sets up a system of complete racial segregation (apartheid until 1993)
  • Muslim RegionOttomans in the Middle EastSafavids in PersiaMughals in IndiaDecline of All 3 Empires…
  • Central gov’ts lost control, corruption was widespread, etc.
  • Europeans won favorable trading rights
  • Rise of reform movements including Wahhabi in Arabia (purity and simplicity in Muhammad’s original teachings)
  • Who was an infamous leader who practiced the Wahhabi faith?Problems for the Ottomans
  • Local rulers increasing in power
  • Economic issues
  • Corruption
  • Nationalism in multi-ethnical empire
  • Revolts
  • Reforms were rejected (Young Turks thought that reforms were the only way to save empire)
  • Armenian Genocide
  • Armenians – Christians
  • Muslim Turks accused the Armenians of supporting the Russians against the Ottoman Empire
  • Armenians protested against Ott. Policies
  • Sultan had thousands then killed
  • Over 25 yrs.  600,000 – 1.5 million Armenians were killed/died from disease and starvation
  • Egypt
  • Semi – independent from Ottomans in early 1800s
  • Success due to Muhammad Ali
  • “Father of Modern Egypt”
  • Political/econ. Reforms = + world trade
  • Built western/modern army
  • Suez Canal
  • After Ali’s death, Egypt became increasingly under foreign control
  • French organized a company to build canal
  • Egypt couldn’t afford to repay loans so they sold shares in the canal – GB bought the shares
  • GB made Egypt a protectorate
  • Persia
  • Dictatorship but made reforms
  • Russia wanted to protect southern border/expand
  • GB wanted to protect interests in India
  • 1900’s = OIL!!!!
  • Russia and GB granted concessions (special rights given to foreign powers) – sent troops to protect interests
  • Persian nationalists = outraged
  • India “The Crown Jewel”
  • Mughal Empire – gave trading rights to the British East India Company
  • In decline b/c of diversity (not unable to unite
  • vs. British)
  • Inferior
  • weaponsSepoyRebellion
  • Sepoys (Indian soldiers) – required to serve overseas (offense vs. high-caste Hindu religion)
  • Hindu women were now able to remarry under GB law
  • New rifle cartridges – greased with animal fat (cow and pig) which had to be bitten off to load them into rifles
  • Problems Results:
  • Sepoys brutally massacred British men, women and children
  • GB crushed revolt – revenge = torch villages/kill unarmed Indians
  • Left fear, hatred and mistrust on both sides
  • India now under direct British rule, sent more troops and increased taxes
  • Impact of the British:Positive Negative Improved infrastructureEducation/legal structureMedical improvementsSocial changes (equality/end slavery /caste systems)Banned sati Tried to force Hindus/ Muslims to convert to ChristianityUnjust imprisonments (Sepoys)Destroyed villagesDeath tollTaxed Indians to pay the cost of British troopsTurned to unskilled laborDeforestationFarms – grew cash crops, not foodIndian Nationalism Grows
  • Indian National Congress – wanted self rule but western-style modernization
  • Grew increasingly Hindu controlled
  • Muslim League – formed to protect interests of Muslims once INC was gaining control by Hindus
  • Separate Hindu and Muslim state or cooperation in the future for India??
  • China
  • Previously had strict limits on foreign trade (had a favorable balance of trade/trade surplus)
  • China entered a period of decline
  • Industrial Rev = West needs more (raw materials, trade, etc.) and gave them superior military power
  • Opium War
  • British merchants making large profits (mostly in silver) selling opium from India for tea – hurting the Chinese economy
  • Chinese became addicted to the drug
  • Chinese gov’t outlawed the drug/executed drug dealers
  • Chinese warships conflicted w/ British merchants starting the Opium War
  • China was easily defeated due to tech advances of GB
  • Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking)
  • Unequal treaty
  • Britain received large indemnity (payment for the loss in war)
  • GB gained Hong Kong
  • GB gained 5 ports and extraterritoriality (live under own laws/tried in own courts)
  • Taiping Rebellion
  • Problems – Qing dynasty in decline, flooding, population explosion, $ to imperial court, tax evasion by rich, corruption…
  • Peasants rebelled as a response
  • After 14 yrs., the gov’t crushed the rebellion (deaths of 20-30 million)
  • Qing gov’t in power but now has to share rule, Europe took opportunity to seize more control
  • Reform?
  • China begins to modernize some –doesn’t have a lot of gov’t / citizen support
  • Late 1800s = Sino-Japanese War
  • Japan wins control of Taiwan
  • Revealed China’s weakness
  • Spheres of Influence
  • Open Door Policy
  • No one consulted the Chinese
  • Spheres of Influence in ChinaHow does this political cartoon explain what we’ve just been talking about?Boxer Rebellion
  • Anger grew
  • Christian missionaries threatening Chinese Confucianism
  • foreign presence
  • Secret society – named Boxers by foreigners b/c of martial arts
  • Drive out the “foreign devil”
  • Boxers attacked foreigners across China
  • Westerners and Japanese united – Boxers defeated
  • Results
  • China makes more concessions
  • More reforms – education, economically, socially
  • Chinese nationalism spread – want a stronger gov’t
  • REPUBLIC – President Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen)
  • JapanTokugawa Japan
  • 1603 Tokugawa family takes power
  • Reimposed feudalism
  • Closed ports to foreigners
  • Forbade citizens to travel abroad
  • Nagasaki – port w/ limited trade w/ Dutch
  • Japan - isolation
  • Japan Opens up
  • Matthew Perry (US) – Treaty of Kanagawa – Japan agrees to open 2 ports
  • US won extraterritoriality and Europeans wanted the same – Japan feared they would soon be like China
  • Revolt put 15 yr. old Meiji “enlightened rule” in power; moved capital to Edo and renamed it Tokyo
  • Meiji restoration
  • Goal  strengthen Japan
  • Studied western ways and adapt them to Japanese needs
  • Replaced feudal Japan with a new political and social system with modern industry/econ.
  • Modernization
  • Centralized government – constitution (all were equal) but emperor had absolute power, a legislature (diet), limited voting rights
  • Powerful banking and industrial families emerged; industry boomed, population grew
  • Successful b/c of homogeneous society – common language/culture
  • Revised the unequal treaties before the turn of the century
  • Japan’s military strength
  • Lacked resources / wanted to be = to the west
  • Korea was isolated  “Hermit Kingdom”
  • Japan forced Korea to open to trade/accept unequal treaties
  • Competition over Korea led to the Sino-Japanese War – Japan easily won and took control of Taiwan
  • Japan challenged Russia for Korea and Manchuria – Russo-Japanese War
  • Treaty of Portsmouth – Japan won Korea/parts of Manchuria
  • 1st time an Asian power won over a European nation
  • We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks

    We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

    More details...

    Sign Now!

    We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!