Influence of Organic Dietary Supplementation on Physiological Performance in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica): A Critical Review

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Poultry supplemented with ginger and garlic improved growth and feed conversion ratio and decreased mortality rate. Garlic supplementation also responsible for enhancing the activity of pancreatic enzymes and provides an environment for better
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   Swain  et al  Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 5 (5): 844-857 (2017) ISSN: 2320  –   7051 Copyright © Sept.-Oct., 2017; IJPAB 844   Influence of Organic Dietary Supplementation on Physiological Performance in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ): A Critical Review Parthasarathi Swain 1 , Kamdev Sethy 2 , Pravas Ranjan Sahoo 3 , Sidharth Prasad Mishra 4* , Sudhanshu Mohan Nayak 5  and Priyadarshini Patro 6   1 MVSc, Department of Livestock Production and Management, 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Nutrition, 3 Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, 4 MVSc, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 5 MVSc, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine Ethics and Jurisprudence, 6 MVSc, Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Odisha *Corresponding Author E-mail: sidpramishra44@gmail.com   Received: 7.04.2017 | Revised: 16.05.2017 | Accepted: 22.05.2017    Available online at www.ijpab.com    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18782/2320-7051.2810   ISSN: 2320  –   7051  Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 5 (5): 844-857 (2017)   ABSTRACT Poultry supplemented with ginger and garlic improved growth and feed conversion ratio and decreased mortality rate. Garlic supplementation also responsible for enhancing the activity of  pancreatic enzymes and provides an environment for better absorption of nutrients. Dietary  fermented garlic supplementation in poultry ration can increase the intestinal villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis in the intestine and results in better feed conversion efficiency. The inclusion of ginger root powder at levels 0.5% and 1% in the diet had no significant (P>0.05) effect on Hb, PCV, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC percentage. The combined effect of garlic and ginger mixtures has greater influence as an anti-hypercholesterolemic agent that successfully reduced the cholesterol in the serum and also been used to prevent high blood  pressure, high cholesterol level and cholesterol oxidation which are the primary causes of atherosclerosis, the precursor of cardiovascular diseases in poultry. It has been confirmed that garlic supplementation enhances immune system in poultry chicken due to rich aromatic oils which enhance digestion of birds due to modulation of intestinal microbiota. So, Japanese quail  feed supplemented with ginger and garlic has resulted better production performance in terms of  feed conversion ratio, body weight gain, disease resistant with enhanced immunity for better consumption by human being and animals.  Key words:  Blood hematology, FCR, Garlic, Ginger, Immunity, Japanese quail  Review Article Cite this article:  Swain, P., Sethy, K., Sahoo, P.R., Mishra, S.P., Nayak, S.M. and Patro, P., Influence of Organic Dietary Supplementation on Physiological Performance in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix coturnix  japonica ): A Critical Review,  Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 5(5):  844-857 (2017). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18782/2320-7051.2810    Swain  et al  Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 5 (5): 844-857 (2017) ISSN: 2320  –   7051 Copyright © Sept.-Oct., 2017; IJPAB 845   INTRODUCTION Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) are hardy birds that thrive in small cages and are inexpensive to keep. Existing breeds of Japanese quail cannot compete with the performance of the poultry chicken, but are more tolerant to poor managemental condition, being resistant to common poultry diseases like Marek’s disease and New Castle disease etc . In general, there is no vaccination required in quail bird farming. Although birds raised with these feed additives achieved good performance, their potential side effects became a real public health problem world-wide and led to the ban of these products 1,2 . So, researcher are looking for natural organic dietary supplement for better performance of the poultry bird with less side effect for human being or animal consumption. To achieve high feed conversion ratio, better growth and good physiological performance with enhanced immunity the birds are provided with garlic and ginger dietary feed supplement which it more suitable for human consumption. Ginger is a rhizomatous herbaceous plant, whose rhizome is used medicinally. Ginger contains several compounds and enzymes including gingerdiol, gingerol, gingerdione and shogaols 3,4 . These compounds have been reported to have antimicrobial, antioxidative and Pharmacological effects 5 . Garlic is best known as a spice and herbal medicine for treatment and prevention of an array of diseases 6 . The key active ingredient in garlic is a powerful plant chemical called allicin which rapidly decomposes to several organo-sulphur compounds with bioactivities and pronutrients 7 . Pronutrients are substances that could have the same effect as antibiotic feed additives and are defined as micro ingredients included in the formulation of animal feeds 8 . They also play an important role in enhancing the physiology and microbiology of the animals. They are also sometimes referred as phytogenic feed additives. Phytogenic feed additives are plant derived products used in animal feeding to improve their performance. Nutritional strategies aimed at reducing cost of animal production have led to high accumulation of fat in poultry 9 . Diets that have high cholesterol and saturated fats from animal products are known to contribute to unhealthy plasma lipid levels leading to increased plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol 10 . Elevated blood cholesterol and triacylglycerol are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease 11 . Hence, an alternative means of correcting and preventing these diseases is very crucial in achieving a healthy society. Medicinal herbs such as garlic and ginger have been reported to possess lipid lowering effects 12 . Ginger and garlic can stimulate the digestive systems by controlling the digestive pH and the activity of digestive enzyme and the microbial activity 13 . Ginger and garlic supplementation enhanced body weight gain and feed conversion ratio in poultry birds 14 . Ginger and garlic has been found to lower serum and tissue cholesterol levels inhibit bacterial growth and reduce oxidative stress in birds 15 . Ginger and garlic supplementation in quails  Garlic (  Allium sativum  L.) belongs to the class Liliopsida, subclass Liliidae, superorder Liliianae, order Amaryllidales, family Alliaceae, subfamily Allioideae, and genus Allium 16 . Freshly crushed garlic (  Allium sativum ) is an important source of allicin, alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin and S-allylcysteine 17 .  Chang and Cheong 7 reported that the most active ingredient of garlic i.e. allicin is rapidly decomposes to several organosulphur compounds with bioactivities. Garlic contains at least 33 sulfur compounds, several enzymes and the minerals calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, selenium and zinc; vitamins A, B 1  and C, fibre and water. It also contains 17 amino acids like lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamine, proline, glycine, alanine, cysteine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan and phenylalanine 18 . It has a higher concentration of sulfur compounds than any other Allium species which is reason behind its pungent odour and medicinal properties 18 .   Its medicinal power was well described on the walls of   Swain  et al  Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 5 (5): 844-857 (2017) ISSN: 2320  –   7051 Copyright © Sept.-Oct., 2017; IJPAB 846   ancient temples and on papyrus dating to 1500 BC 19 . Garlic is considered as a plant with antibiotic, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and cardiovascular protecting effects 20 . It was used by Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen to treat intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases, still today it is been used to treat diarrhea. Ancient Japanese and Chinese used it to treat headache, flu, sore throat and fever. In Africa, it is used to treat abdominal discomfort, diarrhea and otitis. In India, it was used to treat common colds, hay fever and asthma. Garlic is nick named as Russian penicillin for its widespread use as a topical and systemic antimicrobial agent. Ginger, the rhizome of  Zingiber officinale , is one of the most widely used species of the  Zingiberaceae  family. Ginger is cultivated in areas of abundant rainfall. Ginger contains a number of pungent constituents and active ingredients. Ravindran and Babu 21 revealed that it`s key ingredients are volatile oils such as zingiberene, curcumene, borneolneral, geranial, geraniol, citronyl acetate, α -terpineol and linalool, and pungent compounds such as gingerols and shogaols. Major components of ginger are known for their antioxidant and antimicrobial property 22 . It is also being a common condiment for various foods and beverages. It has a long history of medicinal use dating back 2,500 years in China and India for conditions such as headaches, nausea, rheumatism, and common cold. The compound 6-gingerol appears to be responsible for its characteristic taste. Zingerone and shogaols are found in small amounts in fresh ginger and in larger amounts in dried or extracted products. Steam distillation of powdered ginger produces ginger oil, which contains a high proportion of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, predominantly zingiberene. A simple experiment was conducted by Sharma et al 13  taking two hundred poultry chickens of 5 days old divided into 5 different feed treatment groups, namely: control, without red ginger (R-0) and treatment (R-0.5, R-1.0, R-1.5 and R-2.0) which were supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% red ginger, respectively for five weeks and observed that the major component of ginger is zingiberen and zingerol that can stimulate the digestive systems by controlling the digestive pH and the activity of digestive enzyme and the microbial activity. Effect of supplementation of ginger and garlic on body weight gain of quails Different researcher had tried at different levels of garlic and ginger in the diet of birds but most consistent results were obtained at about 1% level of supplem 14,23,24 .   Oleforuh-Okoleh et al 14   designed the experiment to investigate the growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical response of poultry chickens to aqueous extract of ginger and garlic took eighty day-old Marshal strain poultry chickens randomly allotted into four treatment groups consisting of four replicates with five birds per replicate infused 14 g of each test ingredient in 1 litre of hot boiled water for 12 hours and 50 ml of the filtrate/litre of drinking water was given to birds ad-libitum for 56 days. T1 (control), T2, T3, and T4 contained 0 and 50 ml of ginger and garlic at a ratio mixture of 1:1 in their drinking water respectively and observed a significant increase in final body weight, higher feed intake and better feed conversion ratio in T2 group. Though there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the initial body weight of the birds, feeding the ginger and garlic @14g/kg of the diet significantly (p<0.05) increased the final body weight of the birds 14 . Similarly, Puvaca et al 25  observed improved growth and feed conversion ratio, and decreased mortality rate in case of poultrys supplemented with ginger.   Also, Herawati 13  illustrated that hubbard strain poultrys fed 2% supplemental red ginger in the diet had significantly higher final body weight than those on the control diet in his experiment as explained above.   Minh et al 26  reported that supplementation of dried ginger to poultry diets led to improved performance and reduced feed cost. Canogullari et al 27  conducted an experiment taking one hundred and twenty 10-weeks-old quails allocated to four dietary treatments. Quails were caged individually and   Swain  et al  Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 5 (5): 844-857 (2017) ISSN: 2320  –   7051 Copyright © Sept.-Oct., 2017; IJPAB 847   fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 1, 2, 4% garlic powder for 12 weeks. There were significant ( P <0.05) increased in feed consumption, feed efficiency and egg production. The better values for these parameters were obtained from the 1% garlic powder supplemented group. Fadlalla et al 28  showed that garlic at 0.3% in poultry feed resulted significant positive effect on growth performance and carcass yield. But El-Deek et al 29  revealed that diet containing 1 g/kg of ginger did not affect the growth performance of poultrys. Pourali et al 30  suggested that allicin in garlic promotes the performance of the intestinal flora thereby improving digestion and enhancing the utilization of energy, leading to improved growth. Al-Moramadhi 31  observed increased body weight in poultry chicks supplemented with ginger orally at 100 mg/kg body weight for six weeks.   Ademola et al 32   with three hundred and ninety six day-old poultry chicks   of Hubbard strain randomly distributed into 11 dietary treatments, with 3 replicates in a treatment of 36 chicks supplemented with diets as T1, T2 and T3 at 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% of garlic on the other hand T4, T5 and T6 contained 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% ginger whereas T7 and T8 contained 1.0% and 1.5% garlic along with 0.25 % ginger was added to both diets ,while T9 and T10 contained 1.0% and 1.5% garlic respectively as well as 0.5% ginger were added to both diets, reported a numerical increase in final body weight and weight gain of poultrys when fed with a mixture of garlic and ginger.   Mahmood et al 33  confirmed that powdered garlic at 0.5% level may be incorporated as growth promoter in the ration of Japanese quails more effectively as compared to any other level.   Demir et al 34  postulated that garlic has been used for about 50 years as antibiotic growth promoters and to enhance growth performance in poultry and swine. Phytogenic substances are supposed to increase performance of birds by stimulating secretion of digestive enzymes, leading to enhanced digestion and absorption 35,36  . Bampidis et al 37  in .  their study came to conclusion that growth of poultrys supplemented with ginger got improved, but more effective at higher concentrations ranging 1-2% of the diet. Dibner and Richards 38  reported that garlic has been used since long time as antibiotic growth promoters and to enhance growth performance in poultry and swine.   Farinu et al 39  suggested that supplementation of ginger at the levels of 5, 10, or 15 g/kg slightly improved growth performance of poultrys. Tollba and Hassan 40  observed improved growth and feed conversion ratio and decreased mortality rate in case of poultrys supplemented with ginger. Garlic supplementation also responsible for enhancing the activity of pancreatic enzymes thereby provides an environment for better absorption of nutrients 41 . Effect of supplementation of ginger and garlic on feed conversion efficiency of quails The birds fed rations supplemented with garlic and black pepper combination utilized their feed more efficiently resulting in higher body weight 42 . A remarkable positive effect was observed when aqueous extract of plant mixture containing  Zingiber officinale , Carum apticum , Withania somnifera ,  Allium sativum  and    Berberis lyceum  used as a feed supplement on the performance of poultry chicks in term of weight gain, feed intake and   Feed Conversion Ratio 14 . A similar type of result was discovered by Javed et al 43  who showed a positive effect of aqueous extract of plant mixture (  Zingiber officinale , Carum apticum , Withania somnifera ,   Trigonella Foenum-Graecum ,  Silybummari anum ,  Allium sativum and  Berberis lyceum ) on the performance of poultry chicks in term of weight gain and Feed   Conversion Ratio.   Birds fed on the diet containing ginger extract (200mg/kg) and Mannon oligosaccharide exhibited higher body weight gain compared with those fed on control unsupplemented diet over the entire experimental period (p<0.05). FCR was also improved by ginger extract (200mg/kg) and Mannon oligosaccharide supplemented diets compared to the control group (p<0.05) (Ghasemi and Taherpour (2015).   Barazesh et al 44  reported that adding   Swain  et al  Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 5 (5): 844-857 (2017) ISSN: 2320  –   7051 Copyright © Sept.-Oct., 2017; IJPAB 848   ginger to feed diet could improve FCR and blood lipid profile, whereas no changes were reported in feed intake as regard body weight gain and FCR in poultrys with aqueous extract of ginger at the levels of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% supplemented through drinking water 45 .   In an experiment with 240 day-old Ross poultry chicks it had been observed that supplementation of garlic powder @ 0.5, 1 and 3% for 6 wks had better FCR than control unsupplemented group. Birds which were supplemented with garlic powder in the finisher diet had better FCR than those which were supplemented for the whole of the experiment 46 . Similarly, Onu 47  experimented with 120 poultry birds randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. T1 served as the control contained neither ginger nor garlic. Diets 2 (T2) and 3 (T3) contained 0.25% garlic and ginger respectively. Diet 4 (T4) contained a combination of 0.25% of garlic and ginger. He observed that ginger and garlic supplementation at 0.25% level in poultry finisher diets enhanced the growth rate and feed conversion ratio of the birds. Dietary fermented garlic supplementation in poultry ration can increase the intestinal villus height, villus area, cell area, and cell mitosis in the intestine and results in better feed conversion efficiency 48 . Onimisi et al 49  and Moorthy et al 50  reported significantly better feed conversion ratio in ginger supplemented poultrys as compared to their experimental control group respectively.   Tekeli et al 51   stated that due to the active ingredients in ginger and garlic, there is formation of more stable intestinal flora and improved feed conversion efficiency in consequence of a better digestion.   Garlic increases growth and improves feed conversion ratio by increasing height of villus of small intestine, activation of absorption process 40 .   Vervaeke et al 52   revealed   that   as much as 6% of the net energy in animal   diet can be lost due to bacterial utilization of glucose in the small intestine and also these bacteria require amino acids in relatively similar proportional amount as the animal according to Hays 53 . When garlic and ginger were added there may have been a nutrient sparing effect, therefore improving feed conversion ratio.  Effect of supplementation of ginger and garlic on blood haematology of quails It has been found that organic dietary supplement of ginger and garlic has significant effect on blood hematological studies.   Oleforuh-Okoleh et al 14  in his experiment as explained above found significant (p<0.01) increase in haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, white blood cell, and red blood cell of the ginger and garlic treated birds. Whereas George et al 54  incorporated that ginger at graded levels of 0g, 2g, 4g and 6g per kg feed and showed that haematological parameters (Hb and PCV) were not significantly influenced by the treatment.   Zomrawi et al 55  took one hundred and twenty-eight unsexed day old poultry chicks (Ross 308) to evaluate the effect of ginger root powder as natural feed additives on growth performance, blood and serum constituents of poultry chickens. Four dietary treatments were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of poultry chick containing ginger root powder at levels 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% and observed that the inclusion of ginger root powder at levels 0.5% and1% in the diet had no significant (P>0.05) effect on Hb, PCV, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC percentage.   A similar experiment was adopted by   Ademola et al 32   with three hundred and ninety six day-old poultry chicks   of Hubbard strain randomly distributed into 11 dietary treatments, with 3 replicates in a treatment of 36 chicks supplemented with diets as T1, T2 and T3 at 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% of garlic on the other hand T4, T5 and T6 contained 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% ginger whereas T7 and T8 contained 1.0% and 1.5% garlic along with 0.25% ginger was added to both diets, while T9 and T10 contained 1.0% and 1.5% garlic respectively as well as 0.5% ginger were added to both diets, concluded that garlic and ginger at 1.5 and 2% respectively did not affect the red blood cells and haemoglobin concentration of the chickens.  
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