Insights PT 2018 Exclusive Science and Technology

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             Insights PT 2018 Exclusive Science and Technology June 2017  –  January 2018 WWW . INSIGHTSONINDIA . COM     Insights PT 2018 Exclusive (Science and Technology) www.insightsonindia.com Page 2  www.insightsias.com   Table of Contents Defence Technology .......................................................................................................... 6 1. INS Kalvari ....................................................................................................................................... 6 2. INS Khanderi ................................................................................................................................... 6 3. INS Karanj ....................................................................................................................................... 6 4. Prithvi-II missile ............................................................................................................................... 7 5. Air-independent propulsion ............................................................................................................. 7 6. Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) ................................................................................. 7 7. Anti-Tank Guided Missile Nag .......................................................................................................... 7 8. Rukmini ........................................................................................................................................... 8 9. Naval Offshore Patrol Vessels (NOPVs) ............................................................................................ 8 10. Akash missile ................................................................................................................................. 8 11. India’s first unmanned tank Muntra  ............................................................................................... 9 12. Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile (QRSAM) .............................................................................. 9 13. World’s 1st Laser Weapo n ............................................................................................................. 9 14. Medium Range Surface to Air Missile (MRSAM) ............................................................................. 9 15. Indian Coast Guard ship ‘Shaurya’  ................................................................................................ 10   16. Astra Missile ................................................................................................................................ 10 17. INS Tarasa ................................................................................................................................... 10 18. INS kiltan ..................................................................................................................................... 10 19. ‘NIRBHAY’ Sub -Sonic Cruise Missile .............................................................................................. 11 20. BrahMos Missile .......................................................................................................................... 11 21. “PRATAP” helicopters  .................................................................................................................. 11 22. World’s largest amphibious aircraft takes off in China  .................................................................. 12 23. Agni-V Missile .............................................................................................................................. 12 Space Technology ............................................................................................................ 13 1. GSLV-Mk III ................................................................................................................................... 13 2. LISA Pathfinder .............................................................................................................................. 13 3. Brown dwarfs ................................................................................................................................ 13 4. ‘Hottest’ planet in universe discovered  .......................................................................................... 13 5. NASA’s Orion Spacecraft  ................................................................................................................ 14 6. Exoplanets .................................................................................................................................... 14 7. Flexible Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) .............................................................................................. 14 8. Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) ..................................................................................... 15 9. Cartosat-2 series satellite .............................................................................................................. 15 10. NASA’s CHESS  .............................................................................................................................. 15 11. Uranus’ Unusual Rotation Creates Light Switch Effect  .................................................................. 15 12. ASTROSAT ................................................................................................................................... 16 13. Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) ..................................................................................... 16 14. Saraswati .................................................................................................................................... 16 15. Israel launches first environmental research satellite Venus......................................................... 16 16. NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) .............................................................................. 17 17. ISRO and CSIR-NPL sign MoU to make desi GPS a reality .............................................................. 17 18. Launch of IRNSS-1H unsuccessful ................................................................................................. 17 19. ISRO to develop full-fledged Earth observation satellite ............................................................... 18 20. Scientists map lunar water with data from Chandrayaan-1 .......................................................... 18   Insights PT 2018 Exclusive (Science and Technology) www.insightsonindia.com Page 3  www.insightsias.com   21. India’s Mars Orbiter Mission completes 3 years in orbit  ............................................................... 19 22. Breakthrough Listen project ......................................................................................................... 19 23. Pluto mountains named after Tenzing Norgay, Edmund Hillary .................................................... 20 24. Cassini Mission ............................................................................................................................ 20 25. OSIRIS-Rex ................................................................................................................................... 20 26. Dawn Mission Extended at Ceres ................................................................................................. 21 27. Proxima Centauri may host planetary system .............................................................................. 21 28. NOAA’s JPSS -1 satellite ................................................................................................................ 22 29. Aditya-L1 ..................................................................................................................................... 22 30. Sentinel satellite .......................................................................................................................... 23 31. Deep learning neural networks .................................................................................................... 23 32. SOFIA - NASA’s flying telescope  ................................................................................................... 24 33. Parker solar probe ....................................................................................................................... 24 34. International Space Station (ISS) .................................................................................................. 25 35. China to be world’s first country to launch a lunar probe on far side of moon  .............................. 25 36. NASA’s mi ssions to explore nearest space .................................................................................... 25 37. SPARCS ........................................................................................................................................ 26 38. James Webb Space Telescope ...................................................................................................... 26   39. Chandrayaan-2 ............................................................................................................................ 27 40. Kilopower .................................................................................................................................... 27 Technologies / New Discoveries ...................................................................................... 28 1. Gravitational Waves merger .......................................................................................................... 28 2. First train that runs on virtual tracks .............................................................................................. 29 3. GeneXpert ..................................................................................................................................... 29 4. Quantum Communication ............................................................................................................. 29 5. Scientists develop world’s sharpest laser  ....................................................................................... 30 6. Google’s machine -raised mosquitoes to shrink vector’s numbers  ................................................... 30 7. When DNA is the new hard drive ................................................................................................... 31 8. Gelator to remove oil from spills.................................................................................................... 31 9. Sohum ........................................................................................................................................... 32 10. Food Irradiation ........................................................................................................................... 32 11. Cloud Seeding .............................................................................................................................. 32 12. World’s smallest surgical robot created  ....................................................................................... 33 13. Project Brainwave ....................................................................................................................... 33 14. Blockchain Technology ................................................................................................................ 33 15. World’s biggest X -ray laser gun .................................................................................................... 34 16. Cobots ......................................................................................................................................... 35 17. New Graphene-based battery ...................................................................................................... 35 18. VoLTE services ............................................................................................................................. 35 19. FSOC technology .......................................................................................................................... 36 20. Bharatiya Nirdeshak Dravya (BND-4201) ...................................................................................... 36 21. Pratyush and Mihir ...................................................................................................................... 37 22. World’s first ‘speed breeding’ technique to boost production of wheat  ........................................ 38 Diseases / Infections ........................................................................................................ 39 1. Keratitis ........................................................................................................................................ 39   Insights PT 2018 Exclusive (Science and Technology) www.insightsonindia.com Page 4  www.insightsias.com   2. Drug resistant TB ........................................................................................................................... 39 3. Threefold rise in domestic budget for fight against tuberculosis ..................................................... 39 4. Moscow declaration ...................................................................................................................... 39 5. Gonorrhea ..................................................................................................................................... 40 6. Avian Influenza  –  H5N1 and H5N8 ................................................................................................. 40 7. Swine Flu (H1N1) ........................................................................................................................... 40 8. Kala-azar ....................................................................................................................................... 41 9. Measles-Rubella ............................................................................................................................ 41 10. Monkey Fever ............................................................................................................................. 42 11. Zoonotic TB ................................................................................................................................. 42 12. Trachoma .................................................................................................................................... 43 13. Typbar TCV .................................................................................................................................. 44 14. Tourette Syndrome ..................................................................................................................... 44 15. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) ................................................................................................ 45 16. Polio ............................................................................................................................................ 45 Government Programmes / Departments ....................................................................... 47 1. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) ....................................................................... 47   2. VAJRA scheme ............................................................................................................................... 47 3. CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) ............................................................ 47 4. NIC CERT ....................................................................................................................................... 48 5. Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) ................................................................... 48 6. Sagar Vani ..................................................................................................................................... 48 7. JIGYASA  –  Student-Scientist connect Programme ........................................................................... 49 8. National Cyber Coordination Centre .............................................................................................. 49 9. Directorate General of Quality Assurance ...................................................................................... 49 10. India Hypertension Management Initiative (IHMI) ....................................................................... 50 11. Bio-toilets .................................................................................................................................... 50 12. ‘IPrism’  ........................................................................................................................................ 50 13. iCreate ........................................................................................................................................ 51 Biotechnology ................................................................................................................. 51 1. Stem Cells ..................................................................................................................................... 51 2. GM Crop ........................................................................................................................................ 51 3. China plans to build gigantic DNA database platform ..................................................................... 51 Events / Celebrations ...................................................................................................... 52 1. 2017 BIO International Convention ................................................................................................ 52 2. World Diabetes Day 2017 .............................................................................................................. 52 3. World AIDS Day 2017 .................................................................................................................... 52 Miscellaneous ................................................................................................................. 54 1. Oxytocin ........................................................................................................................................ 54 2. Petrwrap or Petya ......................................................................................................................... 54 3. WHO revises Protocol for Antibiotics ............................................................................................. 54 4. IMD to release Malaria and Chikungunya Alerts ............................................................................. 55
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