Introduction to General Organic and Biochemistry 10th Edition Bettelheim Solutions Manual

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  10 Chapter 2: Atoms 2.1 (a) NaClO 3  (b) AlF 3  2.2 (a) The mass number is 15 + 16 = 31. (b) The mass number is 86 + 136 = 222. 2.3 (a) The element has 15 protons, making it phosphorus (P); its symbol is 1531 P . (b) The element has 86 protons, making it radon (Rn); its symbol is 86222 Rn . 2.4 (a) The atomic number of mercury (Hg) is 80; that of lead (Pb) is 82. (b) An atom of Hg has 80 protons; an atom of Pb has 82 protons. (c) The mass number of this isotope of Hg is 80 + 120 = 200; the mass number for this isotope of Pb is 82 + 120 = 202. (d) The symbols of these isotopes are 80200 Hg and 82202 Pb . 2.5 The atomic number of iodine (I) is 53. The number of neutrons in each isotope is 125 - 53 = 72 for iodine-125 and 131 - 53 = 78 for iodine-131. The symbols for these two isotopes are 53125 I  and 53131 I . 2.6 The atomic weight is 6.941 amu, which is nearer to 7 amu than 6 amu. Therefore, lithium-7 is the more abundant isotope. The relative abundances for these two isotopes are 92.50  percent for lithium-7 and 7.50 percent for lithium-6. 2.7 This element has 13 electrons and, therefore, 13 protons. The element with atomic number 13 is Aluminum (Al). Al  2.8 Both Democritus and Dalton believed that matter was composed of tiny indivisible  particles referred to as atoms. The major difference between Democritus and Dalton is that Dalton based his theory on evidence rather than belief. 2.9 (b), (c), (d), (f), (g), (h), and (k): True (a) False: matter is divided into pure substances and mixtures. (e) False: mixtures can be separated into their component pure substances. (i) False: technetium, promethium, and all of the elements beyond uranium are man made. (j) False: H, O, C, N, Ca, and P are the six most important elements in the human body. (l) False: The combining ratio is based on a ratio of atoms, not a ratio of masses. Full file at https://testbankuniv.eu/Introduction-to-General-Organic-and-Biochemistry-10th-Edition-Bettelheim-Solutions-Manual Full file at https://testbankuniv.eu/Introduction-to-General-Organic-and-Biochemistry-10th-Edition-Bettelheim-Solutions-Manual  Chapter 2: Atoms 11 2.10 (a) Oxygen - an element (b) Table salt - a compound (c) Sea water - a mixture (d) Wine - a mixture (e) Air - a mixture (f) Silver - an element (g) Diamond - an element (h) A pebble - a mixture (i) Gasoline - a mixture (j) Milk - a mixture (k) Carbon dioxide - a compound (l) Bronze - a mixture 2.12 Given here is the element, its symbol, and its atomic number: (a) Bohrium (Bh, 107) (b) Curium (Cm, 96) (c) Einsteinium (Es, 99) (d) Fermium (Fm, 100) (e) Lawrencium (Lr, 103) (f) Meitnerium (Mt, 109) (g) Mendelevium (Md, 101) (h) Nobelium (No, 102) (i) Rutherfordium (Rf, 104) (j) Seaborgium (Sg, 106) 2.14 The three elements named for planets are mercury (Hg, 80), uranium (U, 92), and neptunium (Np, 93). Pluto [plutonium (Pu, 94)] was recently demoted from planetary status. 2.16 (a) NaHCO 3  (b) C 2 H 6 O (c) KMnO 4  2.18 The law of conservation of mass 2.20 Mass percent of H and O in: H 2 O: 18.015 g/mol H: 11.2% O: 88.8% H 2 O 2 : 34.014 g/mol H: 5.9% O: 94.1% 2.22 (a) Protons are located in the nucleus. (b) Electrons are outside the nucleus (c) Neutrons are in the nucleus. 2.24 (a) Mass number = 22 protons + 26 neutrons = 48 (b) Mass number = 76 protons + 114 neutrons = 190 (c) Mass number = 34 protons + 45 neutrons = 79 (d) Mass number = 94 protons + 150 neutrons = 244 Full file at https://testbankuniv.eu/Introduction-to-General-Organic-and-Biochemistry-10th-Edition-Bettelheim-Solutions-Manual Full file at https://testbankuniv.eu/Introduction-to-General-Organic-and-Biochemistry-10th-Edition-Bettelheim-Solutions-Manual  Chapter 2: Atoms 12 2.26 An element is identified by its atomic number, which is mass number - number of neutrons. (a) 45 - 24 = 21 protons. The element is scandium (Sc), and its symbol is 2145 Sc . (b) 48 - 26 = 22 protons. The element is titanium (Ti), and its symbol is 2248 Ti . (c) 107 - 60 = 47 protons. The element is silver (Ag), and its symbol is 47107 Ag . (d) 246 - 156 = 90 protons. The element is thorium (Th) and its symbol is 90246 Th . (e) 36 - 18 = 18 protons. The element is argon (Ar) and its symbol is 1836 Ar  . 2.28 The number of neutrons is equal to the mass number - atomic number (number of protons). (a) 13 - 6 = 7 neutrons (b) 73 - 32 = 41 neutrons (c) 188 -76 = 112 neutrons (d) 195 - 78 = 117 neutrons 2.30 (a) Neon-22 has 10 protons and 22 - 10 = 12 neutrons (b) Palladium-104 has 46 protons and 104 - 46 = 58 neutrons (c) Chlorine-35 has 17 protons and 35 - 17 = 18 neutrons (d) Tellurium-128 has 52 protons and 128 - 52 = 76 neutrons (e) Lithium-7 has 3 protons and 7 - 3 = 4 neutrons (f) Uranium-238 has 92 protons and 238 - 92 = 146 neutrons 2.32 The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an element. The mass number is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. 2.34 The atomic weight (121.75 amu) is nearer to that of antimony-121 (120.90 amu) than it is to antimony-123 (122.90 amu). Therefore, antimony-121 has the greater natural abundance. The observed abundances are 57.3 percent antimony-121, and 42.7 percent antimony-123. 2.36 Carbon-14 has 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 8 neutrons. 2.38 Fluorine-18 has 9 protons, 9 electrons, and 9 neutrons.  Nitrogen-13 has 7 protons, 7 electrons, and 6 neutrons. Oxygen-15 has 8 protons, 8 electrons, and 7 neutrons. 2.40 Rubidium-87 has 37 protons, 37 electrons, and 50 neutrons. Strontium-87 has 38 protons, 38 electrons, and 49 neutrons. 2.42 In period 3, there are three metals (Na, Mg, and Al), one metalloid (Si) and four nonmetals (P, S, Cl, and Ar). 2.44 Periods 1 - 3 contain more nonmetals than metals. Periods 4 -7 contain more metals than nonmetals. Full file at https://testbankuniv.eu/Introduction-to-General-Organic-and-Biochemistry-10th-Edition-Bettelheim-Solutions-Manual Full file at https://testbankuniv.eu/Introduction-to-General-Organic-and-Biochemistry-10th-Edition-Bettelheim-Solutions-Manual  Chapter 2: Atoms 13 2.46 Palladium (Pd), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr) are transition elements. Cerium (Ce) is an inner transition element; K and Br are main group elements. 2.48 (a) Argon is a nonmetal (b) Boron is a metalloid (c) Lead is a metal (d) Arsenic is a metalloid (e) Potassium is a metal (f) Silicon is a metalloid (g) Iodine is a nonmetal (h) Antimony is a metalloid (i) Vanadium is a metal (j) Sulfur is a nonmetal (k) Nitrogen is a nonmetal 2.50 Only period 1 has two elements. Periods 2 and 3 have eight elements. Periods 4 and 5 have 18 elements and period 6 has 32 elements. Period 7 is not yet filled, but it has the  potential for 32 elements. 2.52 The group number tells the number of Lewis dots to be placed around the symbol of the element. (a) (b) (c)(d) (e) (f)C Si OS Al Br  :       :       :       :       :       :       : ::..  :       ... .....  2.54 Following are Lewis dot structures for each element in Problem 2.49: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)Li Ne C .. :  :       Be  :. Mg :  :       : :  2.56 Following are Lewis dot structures for each element in Problem 2.55: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)Na P . Cl  :       .:. He :.:  :       . H .  2.58 In the ground state, 3  s  and 3  p  orbitals are occupied by valence electrons. 2.60 (a) Rb(37): 1  s 2 2  s 2 2  p 6 3  s 2 3  p 6 4  s 2 3 d  10 4  p 6 5  s 1  (b) Sr(38): 1  s 2 2  s 2 2  p 6 3  s 2 3  p 6 4  s 2 3 d  10 4  p 6 5  s 2  (c) Br(35): 1  s 2 2  s 2 2  p 6 3  s 2 3  p 6 4  s 2 3 d  10 4  p 5  2.62 The properties are similar because all of them have the same outer-shell electron configuration. They are not identical because each has a different number of filled inner shells. Full file at https://testbankuniv.eu/Introduction-to-General-Organic-and-Biochemistry-10th-Edition-Bettelheim-Solutions-Manual Full file at https://testbankuniv.eu/Introduction-to-General-Organic-and-Biochemistry-10th-Edition-Bettelheim-Solutions-Manual
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