Juzwik, M. & Ives, D. (2010). Small stories as resources for performing teacher identity: Identity-in-interaction in an urban language arts classroom. Narrative Inquiry, 20(1), 37-61.

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Juzwik, M. & Ives, D. (2010). Small stories as resources for performing teacher identity: Identity-in-interaction in an urban language arts classroom. Narrative Inquiry, 20(1), 37-61.
  is is a contribution from Narrative Inquiry 20:1 © 2010. John Benjamins Publishing Company is electronic file may not be altered in any way.e author(s) of this article is/are permitted to use this PDF file to generate printed copies to be used by way of offprints, for their personal use only.Permission is granted by the publishers to post this file on a closed server which is accessible to members (students and staff) only of the author’s/s’ institute, it is not permitted to post this PDF on the open internet.For any other use of this material prior written permission should be obtained from the publishers or through the Copyright Clearance Center (for USA: www.copyright.com). Please contact rights@benjamins.nl or consult our website: www.benjamins.comTables of Contents, abstracts and guidelines are available at www.benjamins.com John Benjamins Publishing Company   Narrative Inquiry   󰀲󰀰:󰀱 (󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀰), 󰀳󰀷–󰀶󰀱 . 󰁤󰁯󰁩 󰀱󰀰.󰀱󰀰󰀷󰀵/ni.󰀲󰀰.󰀱.󰀰󰀳juz󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁮 󰀱󰀳󰀸󰀷–󰀶󰀷󰀴󰀰 / 󰁥-󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁮 󰀱󰀵󰀶󰀹–󰀹󰀹󰀳󰀵 © John Benjamins Publishing Company  Small stories as resources for performing teacher identity  Identity-in-interaction in an urban language arts classroom Mary M. Juzwik and Denise Ives Michigan State University / University of Massachusetts, Amherst is paper sets out to (a) eorize teacher identity as fluid, dynamic, interaction-ally emergent in situ , (b) Operationalize a dialogic narrative approach for the study of teacher identity on these terms, and (c) Account for the locally unfold-ing process of teacher identity, over short periods of time, in relation to curricu-lar content. We pursue the inquiry through multi-layered small story analysis of a narrative, “My Worst Mistake,” told by a veteran English language arts teacher in the Midwestern United States. Keywords: teacher identity, dialogic analysis, narrative inquiry, small stories is paper begins with the premise that teachers’ identities are accomplished through the various interactions that constitute their working lives: in classrooms with students; in the halls with other teachers and administrators; in meetings and conversations with parents; and at conferences interacting with a broader com-munity of professionals — to give but a few examples. Since most time in teachers’ working lives is spent in face-to-face interactions with students, we believe that classroom interaction offers a promising site (though by no means the only site) for scrutinizing how teacher identity is interactionally shaped. Much previous work in teacher education makes claims about teacher identity based on a range of data, including elicited and observed narratives, and dra󰀀s accounts (o󰀀en themselves narratives) which set out to represent   teacher identity. While this work valuably Requests for further information should be directed to Mary Juzwik, Michigan State Univer-sity, Department of Teacher Education, 308 Erickson, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA, Email: mmjuzwik@msu.edu,  © 2010. John Benjamins Publishing Company All rights reserved 󰀳󰀸  Mary M. Juzwik and Denise Ives maps out what Connelly and Clandinin (1999) refer to as “teachers’ professional landscapes,” it does not typically account for the various small-scale, micro-in-teractionally contingent ways that teacher identity/ies emerge through unfolding semiotic processes in classrooms. Further, the ways that emergent teacher identity interacts with curricular content — again, at a micro-interactional level — is not well-studied in the literature on teacher identity.erefore, this paper sets out to (a) eorize teacher identity as fluid, dynamic, emergent in situ , (b) Operationalize a dialogic narrative approach for the study of teacher identity on these terms, and (c) Account for the locally unfolding process of teacher identity, over short periods of time, in relation to curricular content (Applebee, 1996). We focus on the curricular content of English language arts. Making claims about teacher identity: Articulating a theoretical approach Our approach departs from, and we believe complements, the approach to study-ing teacher identity that has been referred to as “narrative inquiry” (NI) in much of the teacher education literature (for a comprehensive overview, see Clandinin, 2007; for an explanation of the approach, see Connelly & Clandinin, 1990). Ac-cording to Connelly and Clandinin (1990), “narrative” in this tradition is both object   and method   of study (cf. Polkinghorne, 1995). Whether used to refer to the object of inquiry, the method of inquiry, or the mode of write-up, the term “nar-rative” (sometimes interchangeable with “story,” although Connelly & Clandinin [1990] do articulate a distinction between the two) in the NI tradition is somewhat fuzzy, thereby allowing it to be quite broad and inclusive.As method of study, narratives are constructed by NI researchers to interpret teachers’ professional identities within shi󰀀ing professional landscapes. Because this construction is o󰀀en based on long-term study, o󰀀en focused on the school as fundamental unit of analysis, researchers can warrant claims about shi󰀀ing identi-ties across contexts by looking at different stories teachers tell, and enact, across the contexts of their working lives. Context, then, is central to this tradition of nar-rative inquiry work; however, the semiotic construction of contexts by participants — through narrative contextualization processes, for example — tends not to be the focus of the NI tradition in education. When teacher narratives are studied as data (i.e., object of study), inquiries tend to focus on the content   of teacher nar-ratives, rather than on the small-scale discursive and semiotic processes through which narratives are performed and interactionally negotiated.A conceptual consequence of the methodological focus on narrative content and context is that teachers’ narratives metaphorically become a window  onto teacher identity in context  , rather than a discursive resource for performing or  © 2010. John Benjamins Publishing Company All rights reserved  Small stories as resources for performing teacher identity 󰀳󰀹 revising identity through contextualization processes (Gumperz, 1984). For ex-ample, Connelly and Clandinin (1999) are interested in teachers’ “stories to live by”, which they refer to as narrative story-lines recruited by teachers “to make sense of themselves and their practice” (Beijaard et al., 2004, p. 121). Yet, meth-odologically, because NI work rarely draws on the arts and sciences of discourse study (e.g., traditions like interactional sociolinguistics, rhetoric, ethnomethodol-ogy, and conversation analysis), it generally takes stories to be, or creates stories that amount to, representations  of teacher identity, even if identity is shown to be shi󰀀ing across teachers’ professional landscapes.Dialogic approaches to teacher identity study draw upon the arts and sci-ences of discourse study to understand identity-in-interaction. On this view, narrative is not a window onto teacher identity, but rather a semiotic resource through which teachers can fluidly entexualize, contextualize, and recontextualize identities across the discursive spaces of their working lives (Bauman & Briggs, 1990). In contrast to a good portion of NI work, our ongoing research focuses on how teacher identification is micro-interactionally accomplished in the secondary   classroom, across time, in comparison to how teacher identification is interac-tionally accomplished in other discursive spaces (e.g., interviews with researchers, lunchtime conversations with colleagues). Our understanding of the “dialogic” is grounded in the work of Bakhtin (1981, 1984, 1986) and in subsequent interpreta-tions of Bakhtin’s work in educational research (e.g., Dyson, 2003; Nystrand et al., 1997; Wortham, 2001). On this view, discourse — by which we mean “language-in-use” — powerfully constitutes social situations while also being constrained by those situations. e phenomenon of interest to dialogic researchers becomes how persons use small-scale discursive resources to accomplish interpersonal work in the social situation at hand. How does discourse function in-interaction? How does this interaction relate to the content of the discourse? How is language used to perform identity? e focus, then, falls more on local discursive interactional dynamics (i.e., timescales of second or minutes [Lemke, 2000]): how turn-taking gets negotiated, how utterances unfold in the telling, how interlocutors respond to those utterances, and so on.Studying identity-in-interaction is one strand of a more general dialogic ap-proach. e study of identity-in-interaction has been developed in several sociolin-guistic studies of youth, classrooms, and schools (e.g., Bamberg, 2004, 2006; Geor-gakopoulou, 2007, 2008; Maybin, 2006; Wortham, 2006). For example, Wortham (2006) conducted a year-long ethnographic study in an urban ninth grade English and history classroom. is work showed how social identities of students (e.g., as “outcasts”) could — through the discursive resource of  participant examples  — emerge within classroom dialogues about literature, 1  become intertwined with the thematic content of the curriculum, form into well-established “trajectories of  © 2010. John Benjamins Publishing Company All rights reserved 󰀴󰀰  Mary M. Juzwik and Denise Ives identification” of the student across time (e.g., as outcast), and thus become natu-ralized across a school year. Student identities did not merely get performed “in the classroom context”; rather, this analysis shows how they were entextualized, contextualized, and recontextualized to contribute to the creation of   the classroom context. us, the occurrence of participant examples over time, across a school year, was a small-scale discursive process that — because they happened across time — became a key identification resource for teachers (one English, one his-tory) and students. In this analysis, neither “student identity” nor “classroom con-text” is given; both are in process, constantly under negotiation and in the process of becoming .Georgakopoulou (2008), on the other hand, studied how youth identities took shape through narrative interactions that formed part of a “classroom underlife” — sidebar conversations among students, conducted independently of curricu-lar conversations (what Brooke [1987], following Goffman [1961] referred to as classroom “underlife”). Although the teacher sometimes shushed this narrative talk, Georgakopoulou (2008) traces how, through such talk (much of it about their dating lives), middle school girls collaboratively made identity claims about themselves and about significant others, such as boys they were interested (or not interested) in and girlfriends. Georgakopoulou further traces how solidified roles for the girls formed over time in the stories the girls shared and co-authored with one another. Like Wortham and Georgakopoulou, we take a similar identity-in-interaction perspective, only we shi󰀀 the focus to an inquiry about teacher   identity and to how narratives can become constitutive resources in classrooms for teacher identity work.In taking a dialogic approach to teacher identity, we build from a line of work in sociolinguistics focused on the identity-performing, context-constituting func-tions of narrative-in-interaction. Linguistic interest in narrative forms of talk dates at least to the late 1960s and the work of Labov and colleagues (e.g., Labov & Wa-letsky, 1967; Labov, 1972; Labov, 1982). is work laid out a structural approach to the study of narratives, introducing numerous concepts that have had a rich life in linguistic narrative theory and empirical, linguistically-oriented narrative study, most notably the structure of fully-formed narratives including such constructs as evaluation , the linguistic moves speakers use to illustrate (and we would amend that to  perform ) their point(s) of view, or more general claims about the world. Evaluation includes linguistic and paralinguistic resources used by narrators to make more general points about themselves and about the world. For example, evaluation can include metalinguistic markers (e.g., “said” versus “protested”), phonological emphasis (e.g., expressive intonation, louder volume) and parallel-ism (e.g., repetition at various textual levels). By looking closely at evaluation, it becomes possible to see how narrative speakers articulate a single moral stance
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