Master Beginners Workshop - September 2019

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1. Miguel Pardal September 18th and 19th, 2019 2. LEIC 2000 Unisys Portugal Lecturer at Técnico since 2002 MEIC 2006 Visiting Student at MIT in 2009 DEIC 2014 Visiting…
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  • 1. Miguel Pardal September 18th and 19th, 2019
  • 2. LEIC 2000 Unisys Portugal Lecturer at Técnico since 2002 MEIC 2006 Visiting Student at MIT in 2009 DEIC 2014 Visiting Scholar at TUM in 2017 First publication in 2004 Since then, about 40 more http://web.tecnico.ulisboa.pt/miguel.pardal
  • 3. Methods Tips Be Effective Improve Organize Papers Write Take better notes
  • 4. Share my experience Provide tool suggestions Learn from you
  • 5. What is research Find related work Propose solutions Evaluate proposal Write technical papers
  • 6. What is research Find related work Propose solutions Evaluate proposal Write technical papers
  • 7. What is the problem at hand? How will you solve it? In a new or better way! Following the scientific method: Ask questions Study existing work Construct hypothesis Test hypothesis with experiments Analyze data and draw conclusions Communicate results
  • 8. “XPTO is better than XPTY!” How do you know that? Based on your own results, or Based on the work of others Citations Accepted by the scientific community
  • 9. How to name the authors in text One: Smith Two: Smith and Williams Three or more: Smith et al. Presenting a new system/result “Smith et al. [22] proposed a new system to…” Supporting a statement “System XPTO was evaluated as the fastest [22]”
  • 10. Our research is only possible because of the work of others before us Actual People, Labs, Universities
  • 11. Google Scholar: http://scholar.google.com/ ResearchGate Academia.edu
  • 12. Arlindo Oliveira
  • 13. Citations How many papers (from other authors) cite papers by the author Hirsch-Index (h-index) Attempts to measure both the productivity and citation impact For instance, an h-index of 17 means that the scientist has published at least 17 papers that have each been cited at least 17 times i10-index Number of publications with at least 10 citations
  • 14. What is research Find related work Propose solutions Evaluate proposal Write technical papers
  • 15. Finding the “10” papers most related to your work
  • 16. From the start, keep a reference repository Save the PDF Identify each paper Author name, year
  • 17. http://www.jabref.org/
  • 18. IEEExplore: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org ACM: http://portal.acm.org/dl.cfm AAAI: http://www.aaai.org/Library/library.php DBLP: http://dblp.uni-trier.de/
  • 19. Technical report Workshop paper Conference paper Book chapter Journal article Book
  • 20. Title Abstract Introduction Figures Conclusion References Read related work
  • 21. Start with most cited papers They are the ones the community is reading and using in their work Also see the most recent papers from top sources Published in the last 3 years In ACM, IEEE, Usenix, … or others (ask your advisor) Recent papers will cite previous relevant work
  • 22. Good conference ? Check conference rankings CORE Accept rate < 20% Only 1 in 5 submitted papers gets accepted Good journal ? Check journal rankings (Q1 are the best) Scimago Impact factor Average number of citations to recent articles published in the journal
  • 23. http://portal.core.edu.au/conf-ranks/
  • 24. http://www.scimagojr.com/journalrank.php
  • 25. https://www.iannotate.com/
  • 26. Write a short summary of paper Should fit in an index card https://www.onenote.com/ https://evernote.com
  • 27. Tables are great for comparing things Start with columns from existing table, or think of your own Add more columns if you need Empty cells show what you don’t know yet System Initial Release Latest Version … Windows [Gates83] 1983 10.0 Mac [Jobs84] 1984 10.11 (El Capitan) Linux [Torvalds91] 1991
  • 28. Review your notes Contribution Strengths & Weaknesses Points of interest Comparison with your work Study details in depth As needed for your own work Come back later for more As your own work matures, reading a very related work paper can provide more insight
  • 29. What is research Find related work Propose solutions Evaluate proposal Write technical papers
  • 30. Move 1 – Establish the “territory” Move 2 – Establish the niche Move 3 – Occupy the niche Your advisor is very important for these moves
  • 31. Move 1 – Establish the “territory” Claiming centrality and/or Making topic generalizations and/or Reviewing items of previous research Move 2 – Establish the niche Counter-claiming or Indicating a gap or Question-raising or Continuing a tradition Move 3 – Occupy the niche Outlining purposes or Announcing present research Announcing principle findings Indicating research article structure http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Swalesian-Introduction
  • 32. Functional requirements What must the solution do? Quality requirements How fast? How secure? How reliable?
  • 33. A model is a simplification/abstraction of a complex object To show relevant characteristics Easier to manipulate than the actual object
  • 34. A model can be textual Example: attacker model A model can be visual Example: package diagram Represent structure and behavior Each diagram is a perspective on the system
  • 35. Class Diagram
  • 36. Sequence Diagram
  • 37. What is research Find related work Propose solutions Evaluate proposal Write technical papers
  • 38. Asking questions Finding answers Checking if answers are good enough
  • 39. Qualitative Quantitative
  • 40. Looks at requirements Satisfied ? Partially satisfied Unsatisfied
  • 41. Metrics Key performance indicators
  • 42. How long, on average, does the system take to respond to requests? How many simultaneous users can the system hold without degrading performance levels? …
  • 43. What is research Find related work Propose solutions Evaluate proposal Write technical papers
  • 44. The work is almost complete Is writing worth it? YES To write is to express thoughts into words So that others may learn Your own learning is not complete without the “distillation process” that comes with writing
  • 45. Use the most common science language, so that your work may reach the widest audience English What about Portuguese and other languages? Still important for scientific divulgation
  • 46. Introduction Problem and Contributions Proposal Evaluation Results and Discussion Related Work Conclusion Contributions and Future Work
  • 47. 3 tells Say what you will say Say Say what you said Provide guidance and context to the reader
  • 48. Each “middle” chapter in a dissertation should have: Introduction text Main content sections Summary section Highlight most important points to carry forward Transition to next chapter
  • 49. Most important ideas first Should appear in the beginning of the paragraph Details and alternatives should appear later
  • 50. Be direct, to the point “There are many important systems in computer history, in particular, regarding remote graphical systems, one of the first widely used contributions was the X system [22]” -> “The X system [22] was the first widely used remote graphical system. It was an important system in computer history.”
  • 51. Use more formal language Avoid oral contractions We’re -> we are Don’t -> do not Gonna -> going to Ain’t -> am not Avoid possessives Joana’s work -> The work by Joana The system’s characteristics -> The characteristics of the system
  • 52. Use correct tense Proposal – future tense – will do Dissertation – past tense – did Use the third person Sometimes first person plural is OK – we
  • 53. Avoid passive voice It creates uncertainty about who is the subject of the phrase “The system was shown to have good performance” vs “We have shown that the system has good performance”
  • 54. Avoid informal (colloquial) expressions These are bad sentences: “At the end of the day, the best system is …” “It is a matter of life and death that…” “There’s more than one way to skin a cat, so a different approach was attempted…” “The performance has hit a wall…”
  • 55. Avoid exaggerations (hyperboles) "infinite“ Infinity is not a large number "innumerable“ It means uncountable “impossible” It means outside the realm of possibility
  • 56. Avoid non-rigorous terms “Ultra” “Super” “Critical” “Elastic” “Agile” If you need them, define them
  • 57. Avoid possibly rigorous terms used in a non-rigorous way “scalable” It means that the system can sustain a performance level when the number of users increases by orders of magnitude (10, 100, 1000) Not that it supports many users “real-time“ It means subject to specific time constraints Not that the system is fast
  • 58. Avoid quotes Example: The “advanced” option is … Conveys imprecision, lack of rigor Avoid et cetera Example: The system modules include the graphical interface, the business logic, etc. Conveys lack of rigor, again If you are going to list, list everything Use categories instead
  • 59. Process to increase the quality of the writing Follow sound science practices Blind review You will not know who the reviewer is Double blind review The reviewer also does not know who you are
  • 60. Reviews are not always constructive… Do not get offended by it, the comments are not about you, they are about your work You should be the first to know that there is always something to improve…
  • 61. English quality Structure Literature review Complete and to the point Motivation for decisions Rigor Avoid misunderstandings Identify the limitations of your own work They will be found anyway (sooner or later) They are future work opportunities
  • 62. First promising results Workshop Ongoing work with evaluation Conference Fully developed and with final innovative findings Top conference Journal
  • 63. Technical report Workshop paper Conference paper Book chapter Journal article Book Increasing public exposure and scrutiny
  • 64. What is research Find related work Propose solutions Evaluate proposal Write technical papers
  • 65. Science is personal and social People are central Reading related work Learn from other authors Cite them Compare what they did Writing about your work Explain in a concise way Learn from the reviewers Share with others
  • 66. Map the world Choose the destination Plot the course Navigate to destination Arrive at destination
  • 67. Map the world Research area Choose the destination Problem Related work Plot the course Solution proposal Technical challenges Navigate to destination Evaluation Arrive at destination Contributions
  • 68. Miguel.Pardal@tecnico.ulisboa.pt Obrigado Thank you “The traveler sees what he sees. The tourist sees what he has come to see.” ― G.K. Chesterton
  • 69. IEEE Authorship Series and toolbox: http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/ authors/authors_journals.html Guide by Miguel and Joana Pardal: http://web.tecnico.ulisboa.pt/miguel.pardal/www/doc/ quick-guide-research.pdf Thanks to Miguel P. Correia for the review
  • 70. Widely used Produces documents with excellent aesthetics Easy to follow template rules Built-in support for mathematical expressions. Generates the reference list automatically! BibTeX It is a programming language (with comments) These are the main contributions: % do not forget to add the prototype!
  • 71. https://www.overleaf.com/
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