Micro Motor

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  MicromotorFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigaonJump to searchMicromotors are very small parcles (measured in microns) that can move themselves. The termis oen used interchangea!ly ith #nanomotor,# despite the implicit si$e di%erence. These micromotors actually propel themselves in a speci&c direcon autonomously hen placed in a chemical soluon. There are many di%erent micromotor types operang under a host of mechanisms. 'asily the most important eamples are !iological motors such as !acteria and any other selfpropelled cells. *ynthecally, researchers have eploited oidaonreducon reaconsto produce chemical gradients, local +uid +o s, or streams of !u!!les that then propel these micromotors through chemical media.Micromotors may have applicaons in medicine since they have !een sho n to !e a!le to deliver materials to living cells ithin an organism. They also have !een sho n to !e e%ecve in degrading certain chemical and !iological arfare agents.ontents-Janus Motor ropulsion-.-/ano parcle 0mplementaon12pplicaons3hotocatalyc 4egradaon of 5iological and hemical Warfare 2gents3.-hotocatalyc 4egradaon Mechanism67eferencesJanus Motor ropulsionJanus sphere micromotors usually consist of a tanium dioide surface layer and a strong reducing agent inner layer. The interacon of the t o layer under irradiaon of 89 light produces !u!!les as a result of a reducon reacon. Micromotors usually have a si$e of a!out 3:;m ith a small 1;m opening on the outer layer. This leads to the eposure of the inner core, hich is typically the fuel source for the propulsion mechanism. The diameter of the hole controls the rate and speed of the reacon.<-=  /ano parcle 0mplementaon/ano parcle incorporaon into micromotors has !een recently studied and o!served further. *peci&cally, gold nanoparcles have !een introduced to the tradional tanium dioide outer layer of most micromotors.<-= The si$e of these gold nanoparcles typically is distri!uted from any here around 3 nm to 3: nm.<1= *ince these gold nanoparcles are layered on top of the inner core (usually a reducing agent, such as magnesium), there is enhanced macrogalvanic corrosion o!served.<3= Technically, this is here the cathode and anode are in contact ith each other, creang a circuit. The cathode, as a result of the circuit, is corroded. The depleon of this inner core leads to the reducon of the chemical environment as a fuel source. For eample, in aTi>1?2u?Mg micromotor in a sea ater environment, the magnesium inner core ould eperience corrosion and reduce ater to !egin a chain of reacons that results in hydrogen gas as a fuel source. The reducon reacon is as follo s@ ABdisplaystyle MgC1DEA1>Bto Mg(>D)EA1CDEA1 ABdisplaystyle MgC1DEA1>Bto Mg(>D)EA1CDEA1<-=2pplicaons7esearchers hope that micromotors ill !e used in medicine to deliver medicaon and do other precise smallscale intervenons. 2 study has sho n that micromotors could deliver gold parcles to the stomach layer of living mice.<6=hotocatalyc 4egradaon of 5iological and hemical Warfare 2gentsMicromotors are capa!le of photocatalyc degradaon ith the appropriate composion. *peci&cally, micromotors ith a tanium dioide?gold nanoparcle outer layer and magnesium inner core are currently !eing eamined and studied for their degradaon eGcacy against chemical and !iological arfare agents (5W2). These ne Ti>1?2u?Mg micromotors produce no reagents or toic !yproducts from the propulsion and degradaon mechanisms. Do ever, they are very e%ecve against 5W2s and present a complete and rapid degradaon of certain 5W2s. There has !een recent research of Ti>1?2u?Mg micromotors and their use and degradaon eGcacy against !iological arfare agents, such as 5acillus anthracis, and chemical arfare agents, such as organaphosphate nerve agents a class of acetylcholinesterase inhi!itors.Therefore, applicaon of these micromotors is a possi!ility for defense and environmental applicaons.hotocatalyc 4egradaon Mechanism  These ne micromotors are composed of a photoacve tanium dioide outer?surface layer that has gold nanoparcles as ell. 8nder 89 irradiaon, the adsor!ed ater produces strongly oidi$ing hydroyl radicals. 2lso, adsor!ed molecular >1 reacts ith electrons producing superoide anions. Those superoide anions also produce to the producon of peroide radicals, hydroyl radicals, and hydroyl anions. Transformaon into car!on dioide and ater, other ise kno n as minerali$aon, of W2s has !een o!served as a result of the radicals and anions. 2lso, the gold nanoparcles e%ecvely shi the Fermi level of tanium dioide, enhancing the distri!uon of the electron charge. Therefore, the lifeme of the radicals and anions is etended,so the implementaon of gold nanoparcles has greatly improved photocatalyc eGciency.
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