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1 Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................... 5 Cadmium Telluride (CdS/CdTe) Solar cell .......................................................................................................... 6 Cell efficiency .............................................................................................................................................
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  1 Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................... 5   Cadmium Telluride (CdS/CdTe) Solar cell .......................................................................................................... 6   Cell efficiency ....................................................................................................................................................... 7   Low Cost Manufacturing ....................................................................................................................................... 8   Advantages of Cadmium Telluride Solar Panels ................................................................................................... 8   Disadvantages ........................................................................................................................................................ 9   Ongoing Research ............................................................................................................................................... 10   Modeling Current Voltage Characteristics .............................................................................................................. 11   Implementing Modeling Mathematics in Circuit ................................................................................................. 13   Current Voltage Characteristics ........................................................................................................................... 17   Modeling the PV Array ........................................................................................................................................... 19   Maximum Power Point Tracking ............................................................................................................................. 20   Perturb and Observe (P&O) ................................................................................................................................ 21   Converter for MPP tracking ................................................................................................................................ 25   Designing the converter ....................................................................................................................................... 25   Battery Basics .......................................................................................................................................................... 29   Cell, modules, and packs ..................................................................................................................................... 29   Battery types based on its chemistry ................................................................................................................... 29   Secondary and Primary Cells............................................................................................................................... 30   Watts and Volt-amps (VA) .................................................................................................................................. 30   C-rates ................................................................................................................................................................. 30   Battery Capacity .................................................................................................................................................. 31   Energy ................................................................................................................................................................. 32   Battery Voltage .................................................................................................................................................... 32   State of Charge (SOC) (%) .................................................................................................................................. 32   Depth of Discharge (DOD) (%) ........................................................................................................................... 33   Specific Energy (Wh/kg) ..................................................................................................................................... 33   Specific Power (W/kg) ........................................................................................................................................ 33   Maximum Continuous Discharge Current ........................................................................................................... 33   Charge Voltage .................................................................................................................................................... 33   Float Voltage ....................................................................................................................................................... 34   Charge Current .................................................................................................................................................... 34   Basic Charging Methods ......................................................................................................................................... 34   Constant Voltage charging .................................................................................................................................. 34   Constant current charging .................................................................................................................................... 35   Multi-stage Charging ........................................................................................................................................... 36    2Charging Rates ........................................................................................................................................................ 37   Slow Charge ........................................................................................................................................................ 37   Rapid/Quick Charge ............................................................................................................................................ 38   Fast Charge .......................................................................................................................................................... 39   End-of-charge detection .......................................................................................................................................... 41   Temperature Detection Methods ......................................................................................................................... 42   Voltage Detection Methods ................................................................................................................................. 42   End of charge of detection in simulation ............................................................................................................. 43   Battery Charging System ......................................................................................................................................... 44   Charging algorithm .............................................................................................................................................. 45   Charging converter .............................................................................................................................................. 48   Results and Discussion ............................................................................................................................................ 50   Verification with experimental data .................................................................................................................... 51   Current voltage characteristics of PV array ......................................................................................................... 52   Response to Maximum Power point tracking ...................................................................................................... 54   Response to temperature change ......................................................................................................................... 55   Battery charging application simulation .............................................................................................................. 57   Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 62   Contributions ........................................................................................................................................................... 62   Future Works ........................................................................................................................................................... 63   References ............................................................................................................................................................... 64    3 List of Figures F IGURE 1:   E FFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT TYPE OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS (2006) ................................................................................. 5   F IGURE 2:   P RODUCTION RATE (MW) OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS ...................................................................... 6   F IGURE 3:   D EVICE STRUCTURE OF T HIN F ILM C DS /C D T E SOLAR CELL ............................................................................................ 7   F IGURE 4:   O PTICAL ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT OF THE ABSORBER , BUFFER AND WINDOW LAYER FOR C D T E SOLAR CELL ......................... 14   F IGURE 5:   O PTICAL ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT OF THE C D T E AND C D S ........................................................................................ 15   F IGURE 6:   S PECTRAL I RRADIANCE V S WAVELENGTHS ............................................................................................................... 15   F IGURE 7:   A SINGLE SOLAR CELL .......................................................................................................................................... 16   F IGURE 8:   C URRENT V OLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS AT DIFFERENT INTENSITY ................................................................................... 18   F IGURE 9:   P OWER VS V OLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS AT DIFFERENT INTENSITY .................................................................................. 18   F IGURE 10:   A SINGLE SOLAR CELL ........................................................................................................................................ 19   F IGURE 11:   ( A )   2 SOLAR CELLS IN SERIES AND ( B ) THEIR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT ............................................................................... 20   F IGURE 12:   ( A )   2 SOLAR CELLS IN PARALLEL ( B ) THEIR E QUIVALENT CIRCUIT ................................................................................. 20   F IGURE 13: DECISION STATEMENT IN P&O ALGORITHM ........................................................................................................... 22   F IGURE 14:   P ERTURB AND O BSERVE ALGORITHM FLOWCHART .................................................................................................. 24   F IGURE 15:   S IMULINK BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR MPP .................................................................................................................. 25   F IGURE 16:   C ONVERTER FOR MPPT .................................................................................................................................... 25   F IGURE 17:   DC-DC   B OOST C ONVERTER ............................................................................................................................... 26   F IGURE 18:   T YPICAL DISCHARGE CURVES OF LEAD ACID AS A FUNCTION OF C- RATE [24] ................................................................. 31   F IGURE 19:   C HARGING RATE VS TIME IN C ONSTANT V OLTAGE C HARGING [25] ............................................................................ 35   F IGURE 20:   B ATTERY CHARGING ALGORITHM WITH OVER CHARGE AND OVER DISCHARGE PROTECTION .............................................. 47   F IGURE 21:   B UCK CONVERTER WITH TWO - QUADRANT SWITCHES CAPABLE OF BIDIRECTIONAL POWER FLOW ....................................... 48   F IGURE 22:   C URRENT V OLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS WITH EXPERIMENTAL DATA .............................................................................. 51   F IGURE 23: POWER VS VOLTAGE AND CURRENT VS VOLTAGE CURVE ............................................................................................ 52   F IGURE 24: CURRENT VS VOLTAGE AND POWER VS VOLTAGE AND CURVE ..................................................................................... 53   F IGURE 25:   C URRENT AND P OWER - VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF A C D T E SOLAR CELL VARYING C D T E LAYER THICKNESS . ................... 53   F IGURE 26:   C HANGE OF INTENSITY WITH TIME ....................................................................................................................... 54   F IGURE 27:   C IRCUITS OPERATE AT MPP ACCORDING TO THE ALGORITHM AS THE INTENSITY CHANGES ............................................... 54   F IGURE 28: TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON CURRENT VOLTAGE CURVE ............................................................................................... 55   F IGURE 29: TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON POWER CURVE .............................................................................................................. 56   F IGURE 30:   T YPICAL C-V   C HARGE P ROFILE [30] ..................................................................................................................... 58   F IGURE 31:   C URRENT V S TIME DURING BATTERY CHARGING ...................................................................................................... 59   F IGURE 32:   V OLTAGE V S SOC(%) PROFILE ............................................................................................................................ 59   F IGURE 33:   V OLTAGE V S TIME DURING BATTERY CHARGING ...................................................................................................... 60   F IGURE 34:   M ULTI STAGE CHARGING ................................................................................................................................... 60    4 List of Tables T ABLE 1:   E ACH CHEMISTRY USES A UNIQUE CHARGE TERMINATION [19] ...................................................................................... 41   T ABLE 2: PARAMETERS AND THEIR VALUES FOR C D S/C D T E ....................................................................................................... 50 
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