Nationalism and the First World War

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Nationalism and the First World War. Carolyn P. Boyd Professor Emerita of History University of California Irvine. What is nationalism?. Nationalism: two interpretations “Constructed” vs. innate Modern vs. primordial The “nation” and nationalism: which comes first?
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Nationalism and the First World WarCarolyn P. BoydProfessor Emerita of HistoryUniversity of California IrvineWhat is nationalism?Nationalism: two interpretations
  • “Constructed” vs. innate
  • Modern vs. primordial
  • The “nation” and nationalism: which comes first?
  • “Civic” vs. “ethnocultural”
  • Voluntary vs. involuntary
  • Inclusion vs. exclusion
  • What is nationalism?
  • Political and social functions of nationalism
  • Integration and control: political, economic and social
  • The “imagined community”
  • Boundary maintenance
  • Who is a citizen?
  • “Us” vs. “them”
  • Nationalism and the origins of the First World WarDevelopment of the “nation-state” in 19th century EuropeEconomic integrationPolitical and administrative centralizationDemocratizationNationalization of the massesGermany and Italy and the European balance of power Europe in 1813Europe 1850Europe 1871Europe 1913International conflict, Pre-1914
  • Wars of national unification
  • Imperial expansion and rivalries
  • Nationalist movements in old empires (Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, British)
  • Nationalization of the masses, “jingoism”
  • Wars and Alliances Pre 1914Wars, Conflicts, and Crises, 1859-1913War of Italian Liberation, 1859Austro-Prussian War, 1866Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71Russo-Turkish War, 1875-78Fashoda, 1894Sino-Japanese War, 1895Spanish-American War, 1898Boer War, 1902Russo-Japanese War, 1904Moroccan Crises of 1905, 1911Balkan Crises and Wars, 1908-9, 1911-12, 1913Imperial RivalriesColonial Empires 1914Colonial Africa 1920The Ottoman EmpireBalkans 1912-13Ethnic Groups in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, 1910The Search for Stability, 1871-1914
  • The Alliance System
  • Three Emperors’ League, 1872 (Germany, A-H, Russia)
  • Triple Alliance, 1882 (Germany, A-H, Italy)
  • Franco-Russian Dual Alliance, 1894
  • Entente Cordiale, 1904, 1907 (France, Russia, Great Britain)
  • Military Alliances on the Eve of the Great WarNationalization, militarism, and militarization in Europe before 1914
  • War or peace?
  • Debates on ideological and economic grounds
  • General F. von Bernhardi, Germany and the Next War (1911)
  • Preparations for war
  • Expansion of armies and navies
  • Universal conscription
  • Erosion of civil supremacy (militarism)
  • Strategic doctrine: the triumph of the offensive
  • Militarization of society and culture
  • The Outbreak of War, 1914
  • The Third Balkan War
  • The weakness of Austria-Hungary
  • The imperatives of military planning and the alliance system
  • Popular enthusiasm for war
  • Franz FerdinandGavrilo PrincipNationalism and the War Effort
  • Mobilization of soldiers and civilians (the “home front”)
  • Justifying the sacrifices of war
  • Defense of the “homeland”
  • Demonization of the enemy
  • Nationalism and mobilizationNationalism and mobilizationPatriotic idealization of the “homeland”Patriotic idealization of the homelandPatriotic idealization“Us vs. them:” Demonization of the enemy“Us vs. them:” Demonization of the enemyNationalism and the Post-War Settlement
  • Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points
  • The Peace of Paris and the “Twenty Year Truce”
  • 1. Open covenants, openly arrived at2. Freedom of the seas3. Free trade4. Arms reduction consistent with domestic security5. Adjustment of colonial claims, taking into account interests of the populations concerned6. Evacuation of Russian territory; independent determination of its own political development7. Evacuation of Belgium and restoration of its sovereignty8. Evacuation of French territory and restoration of Alsace-Lorraine9. Readjustment of Italian frontiers along lines of nationality10. Autonomous development of peoples of Austria-Hungary; preservation of Empire11. International settlement of Balkan conflicts; Serbian access to sea12. Autonomous development of peoples under Turkish rule; free passage through Dardanelles13. Independent Polish state, with access to sea14. League of NationsWilson’s Fourteen Points-Synopsis
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