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  Non- Exam Assessment 1 Sebastian Cutter 4068 Food Investigation Task Analysis To   investigate the effects of changing the ratio of sugar in a cake recipe. My understanding of the hypothesis is that I will be changing the amount of sugar in a sponge recipe to see what happens to the end product. Prior Knowledge Firstly, I know that sugar is a carbohydrate. This means that it provides energy to the body. There are however, three types of sugars. Type one is a mono saccharide. These are natural sugars found in fruits and vegetables. Monosaccharaides have one sugar molecule therefore they are fast release as they are very easy for the body to digest. Type two is disaccharide. These are sugars that we use in everyday life for example to sweeten tea or bake cake. Disaccharides have two sugar molecules however they are also fast release so therefore are easy to digest. Type three are polysaccharides. They are the sugars in starchy carbohydrates for example bread and potatoes. Polysaccharides have three sugar molecules and are therefore slow release because they are hard for the body to digest. Polysaccharides are best for the body because they give long lasting energy. All sugars provide energy. If you eat too much sugar then the unused energy is turned into fat causing weight gain and increasing risks of obesity and heart disease. Research Types of Sugar on the Market When you go out there are many different types of sugar on the shelves. But what are they and what do they do? Caster Sugar: a very fine sugar that dissolves easily. Used in baking because it doesn’t alter the texture like granulated sugar. Can be made by grinding granulated sugar. Can be brought golden or white. Golden is unrefined giving it a colour. Granulated Sugar: This is your everyday sugar that is used in tea or over fresh fruit. Coarser in texture than caster and takes longer to dissolve   Carry out a research to find facts Something changes because of something else Becoming different Shows the relative sizes of two or more values  A natural sweetener found in the carbohydrate family A sweet airy sponge that has been baked A set of instructions for preparing a meal  Non- Exam Assessment 1 Sebastian Cutter 4068 Food Investigation Icing Sugar: Sugar ground into a fine powder with an addition of an anti-caking agent e.g. calcium phosphate or corn flour. It dissolves on contact with water and is used to sweeten foods that won’t be heated. Used to make icing and dusting on cakes.  Demerara/ raw sugar: dark sugar with an intense flavour. Works well in coffee and topping cakes. Light brown soft sugar: has a rich flavour for use in fruitcakes and rich puddings. Dark brown soft sugar: looks as its name suggests has a rich flavour popular in gingerbread, pickles and chutneys. Light and dark muscovado sugar: relatively unrefined. It has a dark treacle like flavour which is used in sticky gingerbread. The ingredients In a plain sponge the ingredients are butter, eggs, sugars and self-raising flour. Butter: Butter is a saturated fat with a low plastic ity meaning it isn’t malleable straight from the fridge. Make from milk, usually cow however goat’s  milk is also used. Fat is a macronutrient found in animal and plant foods. Fat molecules are called triglycerides. They are made up from glycerol and three fatty acids. Fat gives the body energy and insulates the body from the cold. It protects the bones and organs from physical damage and provides the body with the fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). Every gram of fat gives us 9 calories meaning fatty foods are very energy dense. A deficiency of fat is very rare in the UK however it causes weight loss, feeling cold, easy bruising and a lack of the fat soluble vitamins. However if you have excess fat it causes weight gain as it is stored in the adipose tissue cells and obesity. Your liver absorbs fat and can’t work properly. It can also lead to coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. The recommended daily amount for adults is 35% of food energy. Eggs: The main nutrient is eggs is protein. Protein is a macronutrient found in plant and animal foods. It is made up of amino acids. These ‘Building Blocks’ of protein are essential for growth and repair. 10 of these amino acids are essential meaning the body can’t make them and must be gained from foods. The body can make 10 also. High biological value foods contain all the essential amino acids. An example of these are eggs and soya. Low biological value foods do not contain all the amino acids. An example would be rice and nuts. However if you eat two or more low biological value foods you gain all the essential amino acids. This is called protein complementation. Vegans use this because they can’t eat meat. Protein is needed for growth and repair of the body and gives the body energy. Children need more protein because they are growing more than adults. A deficiency of protein causes children to not grow properly, hair loss, poor nail and skin condition, infections and poor digestion of food. An excess cause’s  weight gain as it is stored as fat and a strain on the liver and kidneys. Eggs also contain fat.  Non- Exam Assessment 1 Sebastian Cutter 4068 Food Investigation Self-raising flour: Self-Raising flour is a combination of flour and baking powder. The flour is a carbohydrate. It is a polysaccharide and a starch so therefore gives slow release energy. Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of energy.  It also contains dietary fibre to help the body get rid of waste. A deficiency of carbohydrates is rare in the UK and similar countries however you will have a lack of energy, weight loss and severe weakness. You will also become constipated due to a lack of dietary fibre. An excess leads to weight gain. Weight gain leads to other illnesses such as obesity. Every day, 50% of your diet should be carbohydrates. Adults need 30g of fibre per day. Baking powder is a chemical raising agent. It is made by mixing bicarbonate of soda and cream of tartar. It produces lots of CO 2  when mixed with a liquid. Self-raising flour has been already prepared with the correct ratio of flour to baking powder. You could use bicarbonate of soda however this is an alkali and would leave a soapy aftertaste. Strong flavours like ginger mask this. The cream of tartar , an acid, neutralises this to leave no aftertaste. Caster Sugar: Caster sugar is a refined, fine sugar that is a disaccharide. The type of sugar is sucrose. It comes from sugar cane and sugar beet. Sugar cane is not grown in the UK. Commonly, it is grown in Brazil, India, China, Australia and Thailand. Sugar Cane it a type of grass and is a joined stem that grows up to 5 metres in height and 5 centimetres in diameter. It is a tropical plant and can only be grown in countries near the equator or in areas with an average temperature of 24 o c. It must have a plentiful water and sun supply. Sugar beet is also a source of sugar. The juice of sugar beet has high levels of sucrose second only to sugarcane. Sugar beet is accountable for almost all sugar production in the EU and 1/5 of the world’s sugar production. A mature sugar beet can grow to  1-2kg and can contain 8- 22 % sucrose. That’s 80 -220 grams of sugar per plant. Sugar beet is commonly grown in the UK, Germany and Eastern France. Sucrose and other disaccharides should only be 5% of your daily carbohydrate intake. Also 11years old to adults should have no more than 6 teaspoons of sugar per day. Children aged 4-6 should have no more than 4 teaspoons a day and children aged 7-10 should have no more than 5 teaspoons a day. Summary of Research I have learnt that sugar can be made in the UK and sugar beet only makes 1/5 of the world ’ s sugar. I have also learnt that different sugars have different functions.
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