New Trends in Visual Language Of Television Series

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In acquiring higher ratings, productions of TV serials tend to innovate new principles of communication with television viewers. Although production budgets for television serials are being reduced, viewers' expectation are growing. New
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  NEW TRENDS IN VISUAL LANGUAGE OF TELEVISION SERIES JANA ŽJAK  Mgr.Art. Mgr. Jana Žjak, Paneuropean University, +4219071!7!9, jana."jak#g$ai%.&o$  Key words ' visual language, television, TV series, cinema, new trends, cinematography, visual concept, dramaturgy, The Game of Thrones Abstract  In acquiring higher ratings, productions of TV serials tend to innovate new principles of communication with television viewers. Although production budgets for television serials arebeing reduced, viewers' epectation are growing. !ew television serials are trying to find anew way in communication with potential viewers " not only in storyline but also in visual representation. #ur paper will try to capture main points of tv serial historic development interms of filming process, filming in studio or eternal location filming. $ain point of our  paper is to analy%e the implementation of cinematography language from cinema to television serials. &e will also rely on interviews with television serials, cinematographers as well asattaintment of film history and visual studies. 1. Introducton (e%evision )roa*&asting a&es a ne &-a%%enge an* ig-ts a ne $e*ia &o$petition  t-einternet. /igita%age au*ien&es stop o&using on sing%e s&reening. e age vieer is at&-ing&ontent on t-e $o)i%e p-one -i%e )a&kgroun* is &onsiste* o te%evision )roa*&asting.ieers $ost re3uent%y sear&- or &ontent on s$art p-ones or ipa*ta)%ets.56e&utive pro*u&er o t-e A8 $ystery seria% (astle)  or os Ange%es (i$es *einest-at ne age te%evision -as )een at&-e* it- %aptop on %egs. :e &%ai$s t-at If you don't capture the audience in the first two episodes, you don't have a chance. ;1< Joe =%int or os Ange%es (i$es interprets resear&- ro$ 2009 )y a%% >tate University?s8enter or Me*ia /esign )a&ks up t-e t-eory o t-e *istra&te* vieer. @esu%ts s-oe* t-ata)out 20 o te%evision at&-ers are a%so p%aying it- &o$puters or ot-er $e*ia at t-e sa$eti$e. 56pansion o ne *igita% $e*ia su&- as iPa*, ta)%ets or s$art p-ones took t-eir p%a&esevera% years ater t-e resear&-, in 2012. os Ang%es (i$es states Mi&-a% :o%$es, -e &enter?s*ire&tor o insig-t an* resear&- &%ai$s a)out uture o *igita% $e*ia Bte%evision i%% 3ui&k%y )e&o$e t-e se&on* $ost i$portant s&reen in t-e roo$. :o%$es a**e*' B(-e Cnternet is a veryengaging, intera&tive $e*iu$, so your attention is on t-at an* t-e te%evision re&e*es into t-e )a&kgroun*.B ;1< (e%evision is in t-e ar situation it- ot-er *igita% $e*ia. e age is typi&a% or sear&-ingor &ontent. e age vieer ten*s to seek or suita)%e an* interesting or$ats, -e is notaiting or )roa*&asting ti$e o *esire* progra$$e. Maureen @yan says t-at $e*iaenviron$ent is ra&ture*' B$ost o usDnetork suits an* &ivi%ians a%ikeD-ave a&&epte* t-ei*ea t-at s$a%%er au*ien&es are t-e ne nor$.E ;2< (-ere are severa% ays to B&aptureE t-e vieer' p%ot %ine, &asting or visua%ity. :oever, t-erig-t re&ipe or $aking a su&&essu% te%evision seria% is -ar* to pre*i&t. Fenera%%y it is  &onsi*ere* t-at it-out a strong p%ot a goo* &asting it- popu%ar a&tors are irre%evant. ieer i%% not &o$e )a&k to t-e episo*e i -e is not intereste* in t-e story *eve%op$ent. Cn our paper e i%% ork on &ine$atograp-y in te%evision seria% in or$s o visua%-an*%ing o t-e p%ot. Cn 8ine$atograp-y, (-eory an* Pra&ti&e, ru&e %o&k &%ai$s t-at Gt-e-istory o &ine$a &an easi%y )e stu*ie* as t-e intro*u&tion an* a**ition o various te&-ni3uesan* $et-o*s t-at e &a%% cinematic) ;H<. A&&or*ing to -i$, t-ese &ine$ati& too%s are&on&eptua% an* t-ay &an )e separate*%y ana%y"e*  t-e ra$e, t-e %ens, %ig-t an* &o%or, te6ture,$ove$ent, esta)%is-ing an* pointo vie. ;H<Cn our paper e i%% *is&uss t-e visua% sty%e an* te&-no%ogy in t-e seria% (-e Fa$e o (-rones. !.I"#act o$ s%ootn& t'c%no(o&) on t%' $na( "a&' Cn prepro*u&tion part, &ine$atograp-er in &o%%a)oration it- ot-er i%$ proessions is &reatingvisua% sty%e o au*iovisua% ork. Ine o $ost i$portant *e&ision is &-oosing s-ootingte&-no%ogy, %o&ation s&outing or stu*io setup, &reating %ig-ting p%an an* &-oosing s-ooting$et-o*.Ater rea*ing t-e p%ot or s&reenp%ay &ine$atograp-er in &orre%ation it- *ire&tor issetting t-e visua% sty%e o t-e i$age. Cn t-is part, it is &ru&ia% to set t-e at$osp-ere. Cn a $atter o visua% sty%e an* i$age, at$osp-ere is t-e point ro$ -ere t-e ork on visua% e%e$ents isstarting. Ine o t-e irst points is &-oosing t-e s-ooting te&-no%ogy or &-oosing t-e &a$era-i&- &an repro*u&e t-e i%%ing i$age. Cn t-e 3uestion o s-ooting te&-no%ogy, te%evision an* i%$ in*ustry are at t-e opositesi*es. As t-e te&-no%ogy as going ort- an* s-ooting i$age turne* on *igita% te&-no%ogyro$ 1$$ or H!$$ i%$ $ateria%. (e%evision oun* $ore )eneits in s-ooting on anot-er t-an i%$ te&-no%ogy *ue to %ess pro*u&tion &osts. 8ine$atograp-y &ontinue* in using i%$$ateria% not &ounting un*ergroun* ays -i&- -a* use* *igita% te&-no%ogy as a $anner o aest-eti& or$. :oever, )eteen te%evision an* i%$ e in* te%evision seria%s. (-ese or$so popu%ar *ra$ati& progra$$e oten are )eing s-oote* on i%$ $ateria%. >ear&-ing or a rig-t s-ooting te&-no%ogy, &ine$atograp-er are *is&ussing a)ove$any ot-er te&-no%ogi& spe&ii&ation $ain points -i&- -ave t-e ee&t on visua% &on&ept'&o%or repro*u&tion an* *yna$i& range. 2.1. New age television phenomenon - Game of Thrones (e%evision :I starte* t-e pro*u&tion o te%evision seria% Fa$e o (-rones in Apri%2011. (-e p%ot o *ra$ati& seria% is )ase* in $e*ieva% ages. >eria% is )ase* on t-e )estse%%ingantasy )ook series  A *ong of Ice and +ire , )y Feorge @.@. Martin. (-e ai$ as to $ake aseria% it- a eature i%$ 3ua%ity p-otograp-y. ( seria% -a* great su&&ess in su)&u%ture, )utater )roa*&asting season to nu$)er o vieers rapi*%y got -ig-er nu$)ers an* starte* to )e$ainstrea$. (-e Fa$e o (-rones is &onsi*ere* to )e t-e t-ir* $ost popu%ar :I?s seria%s.;4< As t-e p%ot *o&u$ents t-e po%iti&a%, $i%itary an* e$otiona% entang%e$ents )eteen riva%an&ient king*o$s on a i&tiona% &ontinent Mi&-ae% Fo%*$en rites or A$eri&an8ine$atograp-er t-at' BAs su&-, its a perio* pie&e, a antasy pie&e, an ense$)%e pie&e an* a pro*u&tion t-at re%ies -eavi%y on %o&ation, *esign an* &a$eraork to pu%% o t-e i%%usion.B ;!<(o $aintain t-e i%%usion o $e*ieva% )ut to preserve $o*ern an* attra&tive %ook -i&-is -e%* in t-e *o&u$entary pi&ture, sty%e s&enes ere s-ot $ain%y in e6teriors. Ct as an ai$ tokeep natura%isti& %ook so i%$ stu*ios an* green s&reens ere avoi*e* as $u&- as possi)%e.  8ine$atograp-er Mar&o Ponte&orvo e6p%aine* t-e visua% &on&ept o seria% as a very strongan* &o$$itte* %ook, in or*er to e6press t-e at$osp-ere an* s&a%e o t-e s-o. ;< Kit-&ine$atograp-ers Matt Jensen an* A%ik >ak-arov t-ey -ave *e&i*e* to s-oot t-is tv seria% on*igita% &a$era A@@C A%e6a. isua% &on&ept as to keep eature i%$ %ooka%ike -i&- $eantto keep $ain%y t-e *ept- o ie%* an* *yna$i& range. Mar&o Ponte&orvo or arri.&o$e6p%aine* -is sty%e o &ine$atograp-y' BMy sty%e or t-e s-o as to s-oot it- a -ig-&ontrast ratio. (-at as t-e &ase even in ort-ern Cre%an*, -en e ere s-ooting on t-estageL C -a* a %ot o &ontrast, it- strong s-ats o %ig-t an* %ots o s-a*o. (-e range &ou%*easi%y )e ro$ (2. to (22, so C *i* nee* t-e A5NA?s *yna$i& range an* it peror$e* verye%%.E;<(-is te&-no%ogy gave an opportunity to ork it- *ai%ies instant%y an* a%so s-are t-e$on severa% s-ooting %o&ations as t-e seria% (-e Fa$e o (-rones -a* )een s-ot in *ierent&ountries OMa%ta, 8roatia an* ort-ern Cre%an* para%e%%y. (-is eature -e%pe* *ire&tors o  p-otograp-y to $aintain very si$i%ar ina% i$age %ook. (-is ne approa&- to ork%o as a )eneit or )ot- &ine$atograp-ers an* *ire&tors a%ike )ut a%so or pro*u&tion &ost -i&-signii&ant%y *e&rease*. *.Vsua( st)(' n t'('+son s'ra(  8ine$atogrpa-y stan*s or visua% interpretation o %o&ation in -i&- t-e story is )ase*.P-i%ippe @ousse%ot &%ai$s t-at any %o&ation, even a -ouse or a roa* posses its on %ogi&a%stru&ture. (-ese %ogi&a% stru&tures &an )e in*os, verti&a% te%ep-one po%es, trees, et&. -i&-&an )e t-e key or &ine$atograp- visua% interpretation' B(-ese operate as &onstraints, *einingt-e pat-s to o%%o, t-e operations to a&&o$p%is-, an* *i&tate t-e %ig-t sour&es an* positions o t-e &a$era as $u&- as t-e in*i&ations o t-e $ise en s&Qne an* t-e pure%y narrativee%e$ents.E ;7<%o&k *eines *esign prin&ip%es in &ine$atograp-y -i&- re%ate to *ept- o ie%*,$ove$ent an* visua% or&e o t-e e%e$ents in t-e i$age' unity, )a%an&e, visua% tension,r-yt-$, proportion, &ontrast, te6ture an* *ire&tiona%ity. ;H< (-ese prin&ip%es are *erivates ro$t-e pri$ary, as t-e %o&k *eines t-e$  &on&eptua% too%s o &ine$atograpy' t-e ra$e an*&o$position, %ig-t an* &o%or, using o t-e %ens, $ove$ent, te6ture, esta)%is-ing an* point o vie. ;H< Cn 5uropean &ine$atograp-y s&-oo% as t-e $ain &ina$atograp-y $eans o e6pression are &onsi*ere* to )e $ain%y &o$position o t-e ra$e, o&a% %engt-, point o vie,&o%or an* t-e $ain e6pression is orking it- %ig-t, &reating t-e %ig-t at$osp-ere.8reating visua% &on&ept o (-e Fa$e o (-rones %aste* or si6 $ont-s. Ater settingt-e pri$aries )ase* on natura% %ook an* &-oosing *igita% &a$era A@@C A%e6a as t-e s-ootings&ope, *ire&tors o p-otograp-y &ou%* ork it- )reaking situations. Cn t-e s&enes o (-e Fa$e o (-rones, s&ene -ave natura%isti& %ook. (-is %ook isa&-ieve* using $ini$u$ o %ig-t. Ct is easi%y to &o$pare it- anot-er stu*io te%evision seria%s-i&- ork it- a great %ig-t park. Cnstea*, pa%pa)%e at$osp-ere suita)%e or t-e s-ot o p%otepo&- is a&-ieve* not using artii&ia% %ig-t an* keep t-e pri$ary sour&e in t-e %ot o ire%ig-t.Ana%y"ing s&enes, it is o)vious t-at t-e %ig-ting p-i%osop-y as &%ear  avoi*ing $u%tip%i&ityo %ig-t sour&es. Korking it- &o%or an* &o%or &orre&tion &ine$atograp-er Ponte&orvo -a* a p-i%osop-y to *ieren&e t-e %o&ations in t-e ee%ing o &o%or per&eption an* $a*e a pattern'B$ain%y it as p%aying it- t-e &urve an* app%ying *esaturation, it- a genera%%y ar$er %ook in Ma%ta an* a &oo%er approa&- or ort-ern Cre%an*. Unortunate%y C -a* to s-oot so$estu in ort-ern Cre%an* to $at&- t-e Ma%ta ootage, -i&- as e6tre$e%y *ii&u%t )e&ausee -a* rain an* grey &%ou*s in Cre%an*R Cn Ma%ta t-e sun as ar$ an* -ig-er in t-e sky, so to )e a&e* it- t-e %at, grey %ig-t o ort-ern Cre%an* as a )ig &-a%%engeR C -a* to use a &-erry   pi&ker it- a &oup%e o A@@CMAN %ig-ts so t-at t-ere as at %east a %itt%e )it o s-ape to t-e )a&k%ig-tL t-en C pus-e* t-e &ontrast an* t-e &urve o t-e i$age.E ;< As t-e s-ooting in stu*ioas $ini$i"e*, t-e &ine$atograp-ers -a* an opportunity to use natura% %ig-t in $ore &reativeay. *.1. S%ootn& "'t%od and t%' +sua( st)(' >-ooting $et-o* is not t-e on%y 3uestion o &ine$atograp-y )ut, t-eoreti&a%%y, t-e $ain&on&ept is on e*itor. :oever, setting a p%an o s-ooting is *eter$ine* )y severa%&ine$atograp-i& too%s  %ig-ting, point o vie, t-e %ens an* $ove$ent an* t-ereore it is&ru&ia% or &ine$atograp-er to *is&uss t-is 3uestion it- e*itor an* *ire&tor.ru&e %o&k *eines severa% s-ooting $et-o*s' t-e $aster s&ene $et-o*, &overage,over%apping, inone an* reeor$ $et-o*. ;H< Most re3uent s-ooting $et-o*s in te%evisionseria%s is over%apping or trip%etake $et-o*. asi& o t-is $et-o* is s-ooting one s&ene on$ini$u$ t-ree &a$eras. 8a$eras are )eing p%a&e* on various stages to ai$ at *ierent pointso vie. (rip%etake $et-o* is )ase* on &%assi&a% te%evision seria% s&ene it- *ia%ogue o to&-ara&ters. 8onversation s-ou%* )e i%$e* in one i*er s-ot as a $aster. >e&on*ary &a$erasare *e*i&ate* to &%oser s-ots  one &%oser or one &-ara&ter an* se&on* &a$era or &%ose up o se&on* &-araker. /epen*ing on nu$)er o &-ara&ters or s&ene ranges, it is possi)%e to a**&a$eras an* &a$era stages to over%apping s-ooting $et-o*. >-ooting $et-o*s *ivi*e&ine$atograp-y tra*ition. Main%y :o%%yoo* tra*ition use t-is $et-o* in rea%i"ation i%$, ont-e ot-er -an*, 5uropean tra*ition uses trip%etake $et-o* $ain%y or s-ooting te%evisionseria%s. Cn t-e 3uestion o (-e Fa$e o (-rones, a &%assi&a% trip%etake $et-o* as use* )utt-e e6teriors ere $u&- greater t-an typi&a% te%evision stu*ies, -i&- gave t-e opportunity toi$p%e$ent $ore &a$eras or even use various $ove$ent te&-no%ogies an* keep t-e r-yt-$ o t-e &ine$atograp-y an* t-e story tension in a ay o eature i%$. evert-e%ess, s-ooting ones&ene ro$ a *ierent point o vie ae&ts t-e )u*get in a positive ay. Moreover, $ini$a%%ig-ting e3uip$ent provi*e* opportunity to te%% t-e story in a $ore &reative ay. ,. -onc(uson isua% %anguage an* visua% sty%e o &ine$atogrpa-y in te%evision an* eature i%$ are&onstant%y in progress. (-is evo%ution is a%so )ase* on te&-no%ogy progress in s-ootingte&-no%ogy -i&- gives an opportunity to aut-ors to e6peri$ent an* try ne $et-o*s an*ne &on&eptua% %ooks or $eans o e6pression. Ine o t-e $ost su&&essu% te%evision seria%trie* &o%%a)oration o genres ro$ te%evision an* eature i%$. 8reators o t-e te%evision seria%&o$)ine* s-ooting te&-no%ogy an* visua% sty%e o eature i%$ an* te%evision ork%o. (-e Fa$e o (-rones in its visua% sty%e uses $o*ern too%s -i&- eature&ine$atogra-y *erive ro$ *o&u$entary i%$s  natura%isti& %ook. (-is %ook is $ain%ya&-ieve* )y $ini$i"ing %ig-ting sour&es to a $ini$u$ an* uses natura% %ig-t as t-e pri$e.An*, ina%%y, te%evision seria% (-e Fa$e o (-rone got out o te%evision stu*ios to rea% e6terior un%ike t-e ot-ers seria%s. @ea% e6teriors give to t-e visua% sty%e )e%ieva)%e stru&tures an* a%%osei"e t-e story *ivi*e* into episo*es an* keep t-e vieer in not on%y in )e%ie )ut a%so ini$patien&e. Lt'ratur' ;1< =%int, J. ' A *ra$ati& *e&%ine or netork *ra$as Cn' os Ange%es (i$es, 12.0!.2011. on%ine ;-ttp'arti&%es.%ati$es.&o$2011$ay12entertain$ent%aet0!12*ra$a20110!12<  ;2< @yan, M. ' :as ( %ost its nerve -en it &o$es to &o$p%e6 *ra$as Cn' 8-i&ago (ri)une, 27.02.2009. on%ine' ;-ttp'eatures)%ogs.&-i&agotri)une.&o$entertain$entStv200902-astv%ostitsnerve-enit&o$esto&o$p%e6*ra$as.-t$%<, 2.0.2014;H< %o&k, . ' 8ine$atograp-y, (-eory an* Pra&ti&e, i$age $aking or &ine$atograp-ers an**ire&tors. I6or* ' =o&a% Press, 2012, s. H!. C> 97024012090;4< Trein*%er, >. ' Fa$e o (-rones'? (-e @ea%ity o Pro*u&tion on :Is =antasy >eries, Cn'8reative P%anet etork  . In%ine' ;-ttp'.&reativep%anetnetork.&o$nesnesarti&%esga$et-ronesrea%itypro*u&tion-)osantasyseries42H099<, 2.0.2014;!< Fo%*$an, M. ' ! &ine$atograp-ers &ontri)ute to t-e ne season o :I?s antasya*venture series Fa$e o (-rones, Cn' (-e Asso&iation o A$eri&an 8ine$atograp-ers.In%ine' ;-ttp'.t-eas&.&o$a&S$aga"ineMay2012Fa$eo(-ronespage1.p-p<,2.0.2014;< A@@C' A5NA ins t-e FAM5 I= (:@I5>, Cn' A@@C Ii&ia% e) site. In%ine';-ttp'.arri.&o$nes.-t$%arti&%eV!!W&:as-V&&H!7&)<, 2.0.2014;7< @ousse%ot, P. ' a sagesse *u &-e opQrateur . Paris ' e-ar Jean8%au*e, 201H, s. 110.C> 97291!!4H47
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