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Maine. Vermont. New York. New Hampshire. Massachusetts. Connecticut. Rhode Island. New Jersey. Ohio. Pennsylvania. I ndiana. Illinois. Kansas. Missouri. W. Virginia. Kentucky. Virginia. Maryland. Oklahoma. Tennessee. N. Carolina. Arkansas. S. Carolina. Alabama. Mississippi.
MaineVermontNew YorkNew HampshireMassachusettsConnecticutRhode IslandNew JerseyOhioPennsylvaniaIndianaIllinoisKansasMissouriW. VirginiaKentuckyVirginiaMarylandOklahomaTennesseeN. CarolinaArkansasS. CarolinaAlabamaMississippiGeorgiaTexasLouisianaFloridaNorth DakotaMinnesotaWisconsinSouth DakotaMichiganIowaNebraskaMontanaAlaskaWashingtonOregonIdahoWyomingNevadaUtahColoradoCaliforniaArizonaNew MexicoHawaiiAppalachian MTS
  • The range is mostly located in the USA but extends into SE Canada forming a zone from 100 to 300 miles wide.
  • Runs from the island of Newfoundland 1,500 miles SW to Central Bama.
  • The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago.
  • The Appalachian chain has been/is a barrier to east-west travel.
  • Great Lakes
  • Are a series of interconnected lakes in NE North America, on the Canada–USA border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean.
  • They form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, containing 21% of the world's surface fresh water.
  • The lakes contain 85% of the surface freshwater of North America
  • The most well known winter effect of the Great Lakes on weather there is the lake effect, sometimes very localized.
  • Moist air passes over the colder land surface, the moisture often produces concentrated, heavy snowfall.
  • Rocky MTS
  • The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 3,000 miles from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in W Canada, to New Mexico, in SW USA.
  • Formed 55-80 million years ago.
  • The Rocky Mountains have the highest peaks in NA. The highest peak is Mount Elbert in Colorado at 14,440 ft.
  • The Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans.
  • Deserts
  • The Chihuahuan Desert=
  • The Sonoran Desert =
  • The Mojave Desert =
  • Mississippi River
  • The chief river in North America.
  • Flows entirely in the USA, it rises in N Minnesota & flows slowly S for 2,340 miles to the Gulf of Mexico.
  • With many tributaries, the Mississippi drains all or parts of 31 US states and 2 Canadian provinces between the Rocky & Appalachian Mts.
  • The Mississippi ranks as the 4th longest & 10th largest river in the world.
  • Because of the silt deposits, the Mississippi River Valley is one of the most fertile agricultural regions of the country.
  • During the Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory because of the river's importance as a trade route & travel of the Confederacy.
  • Mississippi River
  • The Mississippi River runs through or along 10 states, from Minnesota to Louisiana, & was used to define portions of these states' borders.
  • A clear channel is needed for the barges & other vessels that make the Miss one of the great commercial waterways of the world.
  • The task of maintaining a navigation channel is the responsibility of the United States Army Corps of Engineers.
  • Earlier projects began as early as 1829 to remove snags, close off secondary channels & remove rocks & sandbars.
  • A series of 29 locks & dams on the upper Mississippi, is designed primarily to maintain a 9 ftdeep channel for commercial barge traffic.
  • Miss River
  • Louisiana acts as the center for transportation infrastructure connecting the Miss River Delta with cities across the country.
  • Ports link the Miss & the American Midwest w/ the rest of the world. W/ 5 of the country’s 15largest ports within its borders, Louisiana handles about 1/5 of all water born commerce in the US, making the state vital for trade.
  • Every year, Louisiana ships more than $100 billion worth of commodities and finished goods to the rest of the United States.
  • It receives almost an equal amount of ag produce, machinery & other products from factories, farms &urban areas in the Miss River Valley & other sections of the country.
  • In 2010 alone, more than $30 billion in exports passed through the Port of New Orleans on their way to important trade destinations.
  • FDR’s New DealFranklin D. Roosevelt's program was known as the New Deal.
  • Under it, the federal government took far more responsibility for the economic welfare of the people than it had in any previous administration.
  • The nation's economic system was almost at a standstill when Roosevelt became President on March 4, 1933. Nearly every state government had declared a banking holiday, or moratorium, to prevent depositors from withdrawing all their funds and ruining the banks. Roosevelt declared a four-day national banking holiday. He then obtained, in one day, legislation from Congress that permitted reopening of most banks under certification by the federal government that they were sound. Later banking reforms included insuring of deposits through the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
  • The New Deal provided large sums of federal money for direct payments to needy citizens through grants (rather than loans) to the states.
  • It also established various new agencies to provide government-sponsored work for the unemployed.
  • Through the Works Progress Administration (WPA) special projects were devised to provide employment for skilled & unskilled labor.
  • A vast program of public works—the construction of public buildings, highways, dams, and similar projects—was begun under the Public Works Administration (PWA). Young men were employed by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) to work on conservation projects.
  • A basic goal of the New Deal was to raise both wages and prices, which had dropped lower and lower as the depression continued.
  • Along with its relief program, the New Deal enacted various measures for the reform of business practices, many of which resulted in increasing the ability of government activity.
  • The Tennessee Valley Authority was created in 1933. The Securities and Exchange Commission was established to regulate the stock market. The Social Security Act of 1935 provided for unemployment insurance and old-age pensions.
  • In 1940 Roosevelt sought election to an unprecedented third term no President had ever served more than two terms.
  • By 1940, the New Deal crusade for economic reform had all but ended. War in Europe & Japanese aggression in Asia caused the Roosevelt administration to shift its main attention to foreign policy and national defense.
  • In September Congress authorized the first peacetime military draft in the nation's history.
  • In October, 16,300,000 men registered & the draft began soon afterwards.
  • New Deal Programs
  • Tennessee Valley Authority- is a federally owned corporation in the USA created by congress in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression.
  • TVA was formed not only as a provider, but also as a regional economic development agency that would use federal experts & electricity to rapidly modernize the region's economy & society.
  • TVA's service area covers most of Tennessee, portions of Alabama, Mississippi, and Kentucky, and small slices of Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia.
  • Civilian Conservation Corps
  • The CCC was a public work relief program that operated from 1933-1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families, ages 18–25.
  • The CCC provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation & development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state and local governments.
  • The CCC was designed to provide jobs for young men, to relieve families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression in the United States while at the same time implementing a general natural resource conservation program in every state and territory.
  • Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000; in nine years 3 million young men participated in the CCC, which provided them with shelter, clothing, and food, together with a small wage of $30 a month ($25 of which had to be sent home to their families)
  • Public Works Administration
  • PWA was a large-scale public works construction agency in the USA.
  • It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges, hospitals, and schools.
  • Its goals were to spend $3.3 billion in the first year, and $6 billion in all, to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, and help revive the economy.
  • The PWA spent over $6 billion in contracts to private construction firms that did the actual work. It created an infrastructure that generated national & local pride in the 1930s
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