On the Breakdown of the Law of Increasing Entropy

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On the Breakdown of the Law of Increasing Entropy
  On the Breakdown of the Law of Increasing Entropy At present, the theory of an oscillating, closed universe is considered to have the following drawback (among others): the entropy of this closed system may spontaneously decrease, something which the Second Law of Thermodynamics (in its present form) expressly forbids. This difficulty has been mentioned many times, even as far back as 1966 in R.H Dicke's Gravitation and the Universe, (Science Journal, October 1966, p.100).The purpose of this note is to propose the following:Proposition I. The total entropy of a closed, cyclical and oscillating universe may spontaneously decrease; that is, the usual law of strictly increasing entropy for closed systems  breaks down for a closed, cyclical and oscillating universe taken as a whole (or equivalently for the entire macrocosm) at the final moment of collapse of this oscillating universe (i.e. at the ending of one of its cycles).After all, the Second Law of Thermodynamics is a statistical law and is applied effectively to moderately sized systems. Because of the statistical aspect, however, it is inapplicable to particlesregarded individually and thus is often inapplicable or even meaningless at the microcosmic level.  Now the macrocosm in many ways seems intimately bound up with the microcosm and probably obeys (or disobeys) many of the same laws, though, to be sure, in some cases for different reasons. Thus, it seems not unreasonable to suppose that a law which is often not obeyed at the microcosmic level may very well be inapplicable at the gigantic, macrocosmic level. Furthermore, it is usually for systems which are (comparatively) moderately sized that the Second Law has generally been verified.In fact, a collapsed universe at the end of a cycle might be regarded and behave as a single great collapsed particle (with any irregularities in density crushed out of existence and 'equalized' at  the final moment of collapse), and rendering statistical arguments applied to moderately sized systems involving many particles inapplicable. For then Boltzman's Law involving different arrangements of a system, relating to how many ways available energy can be distributed to parts of the system, becomes inapplicable once the collapsed universe can be regarded as a single collapsed  particle; this renders the idea of entropy (and its increase) and thus the Second Law irrelevant to a collapsed universe at the end of a cycle.There is another relevant point. Gravitational effects, especially that of 'clumping' (separate masses or bodies being pulled together) were not really taken into account in the early formulations of the law. It is just as reasonable to regard clumping as a decrease in entropy – some bodies clumped together into a large one may just as well be regarded as being a more ordered system thanwhen they were separate, thus resulting in a decrease in entropy. Indeed, the whole idea of entropy is open to a certain amount of flexibility and further brings into question its applicability and further emphasizes its limitations in certain situations, such as the one referred to above.Indeed, it might seem reasonable to propose the following proposition relating to an oscillating, closed universe.Proposition II. Any increases in the entropy of an oscillating, cyclical, closed universe are only temporary and are eliminated and become inapplicable and meaningless at the end of each cycle.Of course, especially since 1998, some observations have thrown the idea of a closed universe into question. But this still has not been completely ruled out over the long term (e.g. the idea of 'quintessence'), in which case the use (or misuse) of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to rule out a closed universe, even in its oscillating cyclical form, is highly questionable to say the least.
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