Paper on public policy

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Paper on public policy
  INTRODUCTION Every society and organization employs different technique and strategies in their quest of tackling societal or organizational challenges. This challenges ranges from health, education, transportation, agriculture, finance and employment. Whichever technique used as a tool by government in initiating a  policy must be centered on the citizens thus planning is paramount. The choice of government to tackle or not to tackle societal problem, is a public policy. And this decision of government is incumbent on the technique used in assessing such problem. One of such technique is Planning, Programming and Budgeting system (P.P.B.S), it is mostly associated with budgeting. Chiefly to say is that P.P.B.S is essential to how funds are raised, how it is to be expended, on what it is to expended on and within what time it is to be achieved. For the purposes of this paper, certain concept mention above will be briefly explain reason been that the idea of Planning, Programming and Budgeting system may not be properly conceived without these concept of public policy, budget, budgeting and  budgeting techniques been clarified. Conceptual clarification Public Policy : public policy is the multiplicity of actions taken by government which progresses from mere expression of intent through formulation of goals and their actual implementation. According to R.B Jenkins, public policy is a set decision by a political actor or group of actors concerning the selection of goals and the means of archiving them. For Thomas Die, public policy is whatever government chooses to do or not to do. To Charles Limdblom, public policy is any output by any decision maker. From the above  public policy is targeted are tackling societal problem. Budget: it is the financial expression of intent of government on how incomes are to be generated and how it is to be expended. Thus, it is the financial statement containing the expected income and expenditure of an institution over a particular of period usually one fiscal year. Often time, budgeted monies are not readily available but anticipated, thus a budget is a policy of a State. Budgeting: this is all process involved in the preparation of a budget, Ranging from issuance of call circular, the technique adopted and the actual implementation of the said budget. There are basically four [4] budgeting techniques, it including;    Line- Item Budgeting    Performance Budgeting    Zero-Base Budgeting    Incremental Budgeting It follows that budgeting is a technique used by policy makers in tackling societal problem. Haven laid this precept; it makes sense that our attention be drawn to the focus of this paper. PLANNING, PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING SYSTEM  The srcin of this concept of Planning, Programming and Budgeting system is traceable to the United States of American in 1961 by Robert McNamura. It was one of the numerous innovations enunciated within the bureaucratic setting in the USA. As it then was, it laid emphasis on programmed decision,  planning and routine sequence in service delivery. Its introduction in Nigeria was made visible by the famous Udoji reform of 1974 as Ikelegbe [1994] puts it that it was hoped that the implementation of the Udoji reform in 1980, that by 1983 P.P.B.S would have been part and parcel of governmental ministry, department and Agency. Planning, Programming and Budgeting system has basically three elements which include planning, programming and budgeting. Planning: it is one of the cardinal point in management, and within PPBS, it is the first and foremost step or stage. It involves the careful identification of areas where fund are to be allocated according to the scale of preference and priorities. It is the examination of course of action among alternatives in the  pursue of institutional goals and objectives. Programming:  it is the actual identification of the step-by-step procedure and schedule in the implementation of goals and objectives. It is the second and most critical stage in PPBS, it is the actual conversion of plans into schedule Budgeting:  this is the allocation of funds or resources, it is the last stage of the PPBS process. It is the  process of placing resources according to priority towards archiving the goals and objectives. This technique is instrumental in public policy formulation; this is due to its emphasis on specialization rather than opportunity. Within the usage of this technique, it requires that resource allocation is based on  priorities and areas of utmost importance. Like the Rational Comprehensive model of policy formulation, PPBS, requires knowledge of all alternatives it is mostly adopted in the quest of avoiding sunk cost. Within the foregoing, PPBS lays emphasis on rationalism, efficacy and change. Its introduction was resisted by officials because of the rigor, time and changes required Eneanya [2010] In Nigeria , during the fiscal year of 1972, PPBS was a success in the Western state and it became imparetive that its replication in public service was then recommended by the Udoji reform. Suffice to say that according to Ikelegbe [1994] its implementation was not successful due to certain eventualities as stated    The requirement of goal determination could generate possible conflict    The requirement of cost-effectiveness and most of the beneficial program within this qualification are to be analyzed which was viewed to be rigorous    The system requires projections which are saddled with enormous data generation, analysis and uncertainty    The time span required to plan, program, review and allocate resource was believed too long and was regarded as a delay. Every tool or technique in public policy analysis has its own peculiarity in merit and demerit and PPBS is of no exemption. According to Okeke [2001] the following are identified as merit and demerit of PPBS MERIT  1.   It helps government determine the priorities 2.   It helps in effective planning and managing the delivery of services in the future through forecasting and projection 3.   It helps in monitoring the allocation of resources to a project and determines how the said resource is to be utilized DEMERIT 1.   It is time consuming in its implementation and actualization 2.   It is perceived to slow in dealing with the call for social and service delivery due to its quest for lot of information Conclusion PPBS, which is a systemic consideration of alternatives aimed at archiving high goal and objectives of an organization or institution requires adequate planning and stipulated procedure or schedule with proper funding. In present day Nigeria were emphasis is no longer on specialty and government faced with multiplicity of emergency implantation of PPBS and its achievement would be a daunting task
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