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Pb Peri urban
  49 Present address: 1 Senior Nutritionist and Head (e-mail: bakshimps@yahoo.com), Department of Animal Nutrition; 2 Senior Biochemist, 3 Assistant Professor, Veterinary Science, Departmentof Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension.  Indian    Journal    of     Animal    Sciences   80 (8): 745–749, August 2010 Nutritional   status   of    animals   in   peri-urban   dairy   complexes   in   Punjab,   India M P S BAKSHI 1 , M WADHWA 2  and J S HUNDAL 3 Guru    Angad     Dev   Veterinary   and     Animal    Sciences   University,    Ludhiana,    Punjab141 004    India Received: 13 October 2009; Accepted: 20 April 2010ABSTRACTThe study was taken up to assess the nutritional status of dairy animals in peri-urban dairy complexes in Punjab,India. About 24 to 29 dairy houses were selected randomly from each of Ludhiana (LDC), Amritsar (ADC), Jalandhar (JDC), Ferozepur (FDC) and Hoshiarpur (HDC) peri-urban dairy complexes. Buffaloes predominated in almost all peri-urban dairies, except in FDC. The animals of FDC had the lowest (P<0.05) and that of LDC had the highest bodyweight (478 vs. 572 kg). The milk yield of the animals of LDC was highest (P<0.05), while that of ADC was the lowest(9.65 vs. 5.96 kg/animal/day). The space allocated per adult cattle unit was highest in JDC and lowest in LDC, whichwas only 42 to 55% of the recommended area of 11.25 m 2 /adult cattle unit.Wheat bran was the most common feedstuffs used in the rations of lactating animals. Non-conventional feed resourceslike pulses chunni, brewery and starch industry waste played a significant role in peri-urban dairy production system.The CP and EE content in the diet of animals was less than the recommended level to the extent of 28 and 30%, 17 and32%, 22 and 38%, 13 and 26%, 12 and 4% respectively in JDC, ADC, FDC, LDC and HDC. The NDF content incomplete feed was 114 to 144% higher than the recommend level of >28%. The milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was lowest(P<0.05) in animals of FDC (8.1mg/dl) and highest in animals of HDC (20.8mg/dl). About 24, 14, 64, 83 and 50% of the dairy houses of JDC, ADC, FDC, LDC and HDC, respectively, offered DM less than the requirement. The dailyconsumption of nutrients was over and above the requirements in JDC, ADC and HDC, but less (P<0.05) than therequirement in LDC (22% DM, 18%CP, 15%DCP and 21%TDN) and FDC (5%DM, 8%CP, 11%DCP and 7%TDN).Only 3.6% of the dairy houses of FDC and 25% of the dairy houses of LDC offered mineral mixture to their animals,while mineral mixture was not offered at all in JDC, ADC and HDC. It was concluded that CP and EE content in the dietof the animals was less than the recommended levels in all the peri-urban dairy complexes in Punjab, but the dailyconsumption of nutrients was less than the requirements, only in LDC and FDC. The farmers need to be motivated tofeed nutritionally balanced diet. Key   words : Dairy animals, Nutritional status, Peri urban dairiesIn Punjab, 34% of the human population lives in urbanarea (Anonymous 2007). An ever increasing migration of human population from rural to urban areas has led toincreased demand of food, especially milk and milk productsin urban area. To meet the demand, seven peri-urban dairyunits two each in Jalandhar and Ludhiana and one each inAmritsar, Ferozepur and Hoshiarpur district has beenestablished. In most of these dairy complexes, animals aremainly offered wheat straw and compounded feed,supplemented with or without green fodder. But optimum productive and reproductive efficiency of livestock could beachieved only if the animals receive the required quantity of feed providing all nutrients in proper proportion (NRC 2001)and required management in terms of good health andcomfortable environment (Noguera and Abreu 1993,Venkatasubramaniam and Fuizele 1996). But, no informationis available regarding nutritional status of animals in the peri-urban dairy units in Punjab. This study was therefore takenup to assess the nutritional status of animals, so that the productive and reproductive performance of dairy animalscould be improved by advocating the use of balanced feeding,depending upon the physiological status of dairy animals.MATERIALS AND METHODSFor assessing the nutritional status of dairy animals in peri-urban dairy complexes in Punjab, India, about 24 to 29dairy houses were selected randomly from each of Ludhiana,Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ferozepur and Hoshiarpur peri-urbandairy complexes. Information about livestock holdings andfeeding practices was collected by filling up a comprehensivequestionnaire. The different categories of animals kept by  746BAKSHI  ET     AL. [  Indian    Journal    of      Animal    Sciences   80  (8) 50 the farmers were converted into adult cattle units, i.e. adultlactating buffalo/cow, bullock or adult male buffalo as 1 unit,heifer as 0.75 units and calves as 0.35 units. The heart girthand body length of animals were measured to calculate bodyweight of animals by using Shaeffered formula (Sastry et    al  .1994).The feed and fodder samples (249), on the spot milk andurine samples (552) were collected from at least 2 lactatinganimals selected at random from each house-hold. Thesamples of different feedstuffs were dried in a hot air over at80°C and ground to pass through 1 mm sieve and analyzedfor CP, EE (AOAC 1995) and NDF content (Robertson andVan Soest 1981). The milk samples were preserved withsodium azide tablet. The milk samples were centrifuged at2800 g for 15 min at 4°C to separate the fat layer. The defattedmilk was de-proteinized by equal volumes of 3% TCA.Samples were mixed and centrifuged at 21 000 g for 20 minat 4°C. The supernatant was used for the estimation of urea.The urine sample (10 ml) stored in a vial containing 0.5 mlof 20% H 2 SO 4  was analyzed for allantoin (Young andConway 1942), uric acid (Trivedi et    a1.  1978) and creatinine(Folin and Wu 1919). Purines absorbed were calculated fromthe daily urinary PD excreted (IAEA 1997). The data wereanalyzed by simple ANOVA (Snedecor and Cochran 1994) by using the software package SPSS version 12 (SPSS 1996)and differences in mean were assessed by using Tukey’s b.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThe LDC had the highest number of adult cattle units(ACUs) followed by JDC and ADC (Table 1), while the FDChad the lowest number of ACU. The lactating animals as percent of ACU were highest in JDC followed LDC, ADCand lowest in FDC. Buffaloes predominated in all peri-urbancomplexes and the relative proportion of cattle and buffaloesvaried between 43: 57 (FDC) and 17: 83 (JDC). The bodymeasurement revealed that the animals in FDC had lowest(P<0.05) body weight as compared to animals in other dairycomplexes. The animals of LDC had excellent health asindicated by highest body weight (572 kg).The animals of LDC followed by HDC had the highest (P<0.05) milk yieldas compared to the lowest in ADC, which was statisticallycomparable with that of animals in JDC and FDC. The milk  Table 1. Livestock inventory, body weight and milk production in peri urban dairy complexesParametersJDC (n=29)ADC (n=28)FDC (n=28)LDC (n=24)HDC (n=25)Livestock inventoryACU’s/dairy house98.294.520.6136.342.0Lactating animals/dairy house85.069.310.9115.324.4Lactating animals,% ACUs86.673.352.684.658.2Area allocated/ACU, m 2 less than recommended,%42.2245.6047.0254.7653.69Species wise distributionCattle17.228.642.925.026.9Buffalo82.871.457.175.073.1Cattle: Buffalo1: 4.81: 2.51: 1.31: 3.01: 2.7Body weight, milk yield and MUNBody weight, kg544.9 ab 553.2  b 478.1 a 571.8  b 537.5 ab Milk yield, kg/d6.5 a 5.9 a 6.7 a 9.7  b 8.3  b MUN, mg/dl12.8 ab 13.7  b 8.1 a 19.6 c 20.8 c JDC, Jalandhar dairy complex; ADC, Amritsar dairy complex; FDC, Ferozepur dairy complex; LDC, Ludhiana dairy complex; HDC,Hoshiarpur dairy complex; ACU, Adult cattle unit; MUN, Milk urea nitrogen.Figures with different superscripts in a row differ significantly, P<0.05.Table 2. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives (mM/dl) and microbial protein synthesis in animalsParametersJDCADCFDCLDCHDCPSEAllantoin51.1 a 102.8  b 59.3 ab 74.7 ab 77.2 ab 5.36Uric acid0.792.231.470.931.400.22Purine derivatives (PD)51.9 a 105.1  b 61.2 ab 75.6 ab 75.6 ab 5.4Creatinine145.6  b 151.9  b 97.2 a 167.5  b 188.7  b 6.12Purines absorbed, g189.9 a 412.7  b 170.8 a 306.9 ab 405.5  b 24.71Microbial-N, g138.1 a 300.1  b 124.1 a 223.1 ab 294.8  b 17.96Allantoin,% of PD98.197.595.198.494.50.85Uric acid,% of PD1.<0.05; Figures with different superscripts in a row differ significantly; Abbreviations are explained in Table 1.  August 2010]NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ANIMALS IN PERI-URBAN DAIRY COMPLEXES IN PUNJAB747 51 urea N (MUN), an indicator of nutritional status of animals,specifically with respect to protein was highest (P<0.05) inLDC and HDC as compared to MUN in animals of other  peri-urban dairy complexes and lowest in FDC.The urinary purine derivatives (a tool to assess themicrobial protein synthesized in the rumen) were highest(P<0.05) in animals of ADC as compared to those of JDC, but statistically comparable with the animals in other peri-urban dairy complexes (Table 2). The relative proportion of allantoin and uric acid was 94.5: 5.5 (HDC) to 98.4: 1.6(LDC), confirming the earlier report (Wadhwa et    al.  2005,2006). The purines absorbed and microbial N synthesized inthe rumen were highest (P<0.05) in animals of ADC ascompared to that of JDC, but statistically comparable withthose of other dairy complexes.Agro-industrial by-products particularly wheat bran wasthe most common feedstuff used in the rations of lactatinganimals. Non-conventional feed resources like moong chunni,dried chapatis , brewery and starch industry waste were usedextensively in peri-urban dairy production system. Thechemical composition of feedstuffs revealed that thecommercial feed had low CP and high NDF content ascompared to home made feed (Table 3). The CP content waslower but EE content was higher than the recommended ISI(1976) levels in compounded concentrate mixture. The EEcontent in cotton seed cake was lower than the recommendedlevel.The chemical composition of complete diet was workedout from the composition of different feedstuffs availableand the quantity consumed. The diet of animals in JDC hadlowest (P<0.05) CP and highest (P<0.05) NDF as comparedto diet offered to animals in LDC and HDC. The diet offeredto animals in FDC had the lowest (P<0.05) EE content ascompared to the diet offered in LDC and HDC. The CP andEE content in the diet of animals was less than therecommended level (NRC 1989) to the extent of 28 and 30%,17 and 32%, 22 and 38%, 13 and 26%, 12 and 4%respectively in JDC, ADC, FDC, LDC and HDC (Table 4).While the NDF content in complete feed was 114 to 144%higher than the recommend level of >28% for dairy cattle(NRC 1989). About 24, 14, 64, 83 and 50% of the dairyhouses of JDC, ADC, FDC, LDC and HDC, respectively,offered less DM than required by the animals. Singh et    al. (2008) also found that dairy animals in urban, peri-urbanand rural areas were offered diet deficient in DM, CP andTDN. The roughage to concentrate ratio revealed that theanimals of LDC were offered highest (P<0.05) level of concentrate mixture (40%) as compared to those of HDC,while reverse trend (P<0.05) was observed in level of roughage offered. Within the roughages the relative proportion of green fodder was the highest (P<0.05) in HDCand lowest in LDC and reverse trend (P<0.05) was observedwith respect to wheat straw. The roughage level in the dietmodify rumen microbial population, leading to changes inthe secretion of microbial enzyme responsible for digestibilityof nutrients which in turn may affect productivity of animals(Bakshi et    al.  2004). The daily consumption of nutrients wasover and above the requirements in JDC, ADC and HDC(Fig. 1), but less (P<0.05) than the requirements in LDC (22%DM, 18%CP, 15%DCP and 21%TDN) and FDC (5%DM, Fig. 1. Nutrient consumed vs. requirement (%) of dairy animalsin different peri-urban dairy complexes of Punjab, India.Table 3. Chemical composition of feed stuffs, % DM basisFeed stuffsTotal ashOMCPEENDFHome madeconcentrate8.0(2.0–16.0)92.0(84.0–98.0)17.0(4.6–20.3)3.78(2.3–9.7)38.7(25–61)Commercial feed6.45(4.0–8.5)93.55(91.5–96.0)15.15(14.9–16.4)3.85(1.7–8.7)44.8(42–56)Cotton-seed cake4.82(3.2–7.5)95.18(83.5–96.3)26.6(15.0–32.3)6.10(1.7–7.5)48.1(43–61)Wheat bran5.63(3.7–8.2)94.37(91.8–96.3)16.0(11.3–19.3)2.97(1.2–4.5)40(26–52)Rice polish7.0(5.5–9.7)93.0(90.3–94.5)15.6(14.8–16.0)2.4(2.1–2.6)51.3(40–58)Dried chapati 8.7(4–16.5)91.3(83.5–96.0)14.8(11.6–17.4)2.35(1.7–2.8)47.4(35–52)Brewery waste5.2(3.6–7.5)94.8(92.5–94.4)16.1(13.4–20.2)6.8(6.2–6.8)51.9(34–61)Masar chunni6.25(5.2–7.5)93.75(92.5–94.8)18.1(16.4–20.2)2.6(2.3–2.7)43.4(26–48)Maize husk*4.85(4.02–6.23)95.15(93.8–96.0)10.12(9.5–10.4)1.60(1.5–1.7)60.0(58.2–61.3)Green fodder9.54(4.0–14.5)90.46(85.5–96.0)8.87(1.21–13.8)2.5(2.5–3.0)70.9(59–81)Figures in parenthesis represent range, *starch industry waste.  748BAKSHI  ET     AL. [  Indian    Journal    of      Animal    Sciences   80  (8) 52 8%CP, 11%DCP and 7%TDN). Intake of all the nutrients(33 to 41%) was higher (P<0.05) in ADC in comparison tothat in JDC and HDC.The importance of mineral in regulating biologicalsystems, growth, production and reproduction is welldocumented (McDowell et    al.  1984). Only 3.6% of the dairyhouses of Ferozepur and 25% of the dairy houses of LDC,offered mineral mixture to their animals (Table 4), while noneof the dairy farmer of ADC and HDC used mineral mixture.Mastitis was frequently observed in 68 to 86% of dairy housesin different dairy complexes. Number of cases of abortionwas highest (12% of animals) in ADC and lowest (3.3 to3.5%) in LDC and FDC. General    observations : In the peri-urban dairy complexes,the conditions were very unhygienic like poor cleanliness,stripping of milk or flakes from infected udder on floor andheaps of dung on ground was the common scenario. Thenumber of animals per unit space was very high and animalswere unable to move. The dairy farmers rarely let lose theanimals for exercise. The poor living conditions could beresponsible for high incidence of mastitis in milking herd.In all the dairy complexes, the banned hormone oxytocinwas used extensively, at higher doses (6–10 ml or even more),for let down of milk and same needle was used for all animals.Perhaps this could be one of possible reasons for highincidence of abortions (1–20%) at most of the dairy houses. Table 4. Chemical composition of complete feed, nutrients consumed and reproductive problems in the animalsParametersJDCADCFDCLDCHDCPSEDM consumed, kg/dDM intake13.4  b 14.4  b 10.0 a 10.0 a 12.4  b 0.30Green fodder7.33  b 7.26  b 4.51 a 2.83 a 9.58 c 0.47Straw2.64  b 3.01  b 2.94  b 3.05  b 0.03 a 0.18Concentrate3.30 ab 4.56 c 2.47 a 4.09  bc 3.37 ab 0.15Concentrate: roughageConcentrate24.8 a 31.1 a 28.4 a 39.8  b 24.5 a 1.00Roughage75.2  b 68.9  b 71.6  b 60.2 a 75.5  b 1.00Green fodder  1 74.4  b 71.1  b 51.0 a 46.0 a 99.6 c 2.50Straw 1 25.6  b 28.9  b 49.0 c 54.0 c 0.37 a 2.50Chemical composition of complete feed,% DM basisCP9.4 a 10.8 ab 10.1 ab 11.3  b 11.4  b 0.21 NDF68.4 c 63.1 ab 66.5  bc 59.8 a 65.2  bc 0.56EE2.09 ab 2.05 ab 1.85 a 2.21  b 2.88 c 0.05 Nutrients consumed, kg/animal/dCP1.26 ab 1.56 c 1.02 a 1.16 ab 1.40  bc 0.04DCP0.84 ab 1.0 ab 0.63 a 0.80 ab 1.22  b 0.06TDN7.5  b 8.8  b 5.7 a 6.1 a 7.6  b 0.19 NDF9.1  b 9.1  b 6.6 a 5.9 a 8.1  b 0.21Mineral supplements offered and reproductive problems,% of dairy housesMineral mixture0.00.03.625.00.0-Salt31.046.425.083.334.6-Abortions* with different superscripts in a row differ significantly, P<0.05; 1 Within the roughage portion; *Per cent of animals. Mismanagement and negligence are the key factorsresponsible for spread of diseases and very high calf mortality. The sick animals were usually given self treatmentor were examined by so called doctors (quacks). Therecommended deworming and vaccination schedule was notfollowed strictly.Irrespective of the status of health (sick; mastitis infectedand the normal), almost all the animals were milked and themixed milk was sold in the market for human consumption.The sick animals given antibiotic therapy were also milkedwithout taking into consideration, the withdrawal period,necessary to avoid the antibiotic residues in the milk usedfor human consumption. Moreover the animal which abortedwas offered additional concentrate and once they startedmilking, the milk was sold to local market from very firstday.The farmers were unaware of the nutrient requirementsof dairy animals and the animals were offered feed in themanger (group of 10 to 15 animals). In some of the dairyhouses feed was removed from the mangers after some timeand the same manger was used for serving the drinking water.There were no separate mangers for smaller animals. A trendof homemade concentrates prevailed, which were highlyimbalanced with respect to protein, carbohydrate and fatcontent. Some farmers offered 200 to 300 ml mustard oil/animal weekly or fortnightly and some of the farmersdrenched oil to their animals, just prior to calving. Only a  August 2010]NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ANIMALS IN PERI-URBAN DAIRY COMPLEXES IN PUNJAB749 few offered mineral mixture to their animals, while the restof the lot frequently offered salt (Pakistani namak  ) or liquidcalcium (before and after parturition) to their animals. Alldairy farmers depend upon ‘ Gwalas ’ to look after their animals. The animal organic waste of commercial peri-urbandairy complexes is disposed off in a stream ‘ Ganda nallah ’,from where the water is pumped into the fields for irrigationof forages. The mobile dairy farmers let there animals in thisstream for bathing during hot season.It was concluded that CP and EE content in the diet of theanimals was less than the recommended levels in all the periurban dairy complexes in Punjab, but the daily consumptionof nutrients was less than the requirements, only in LDC andFDC. The farmers need to be motivated to feed nutritionally balanced diet to improve productive as well as reproductiveefficiency of cattle/buffaloes. REFERENCESAOAC. 1995. Official     Methods   of     Analysis.  Association of OfficialAnalytical Chemists, Arlington, Virgina, USA.Bakshi, M P S, Wadhwa M, Rana K K and Kaushal S. 2004. Effectof roughage level in complete feed on the rumen environmentin crossbred cows.  Indian    Journal    of     Animal     Nutrition   21 : 158– 63.Folin D and Wu H. 1919. A system of blood analysis.  Journal    of  Biological    Chemistry   38 : 81–110.IAEA. 1997. 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Clinical    Chemistry   24 : 1908– 11.Venkatasubramanian V and Fuizele R M. 1996 .  Factors influencingthe production performance of crossbred and indigenous cattleunder field conditions.  Indian    Journal    of     Dairy   Science   49 : 301– 06.Wadhwa M, Kaushal S, Bakshi, M P S and Parmar O S. 2005.  A ssessment of nutritional status of lactating crossbred cows.  Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition   22 : 144–56.Wadhwa M, Kaushal S, Bakshi M P S, Lamba J S and Jain A K.2006. Assessment of nutritional status of lactating buffaloesusing MUN as a tool.  Indian    Journal    of     Animal     Nutrition   23 :23–28.Young E G and Conway C. 1942. On the estimation of allantoin bythe Rumini-Schryver reaction.  Journal    of     Biological    Chemistry 142 : 839–52. 53 View publication statsView publication stats
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