Policy Advocacy

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Community Health Sciences. Policy Advocacy. Jason Cabaj, MD MSc PGY4 PHPM Resident May 28, 2014. A public health trainee’s guide. Session Objectives. Illustrate the relevance of policy advocacy in public health practice Outline the knowledge gap in PHPM residency training
Community Health SciencesPolicy AdvocacyJason Cabaj, MD MScPGY4 PHPM ResidentMay 28, 2014A public health trainee’s guideSession Objectives
  • Illustrate the relevance of policy advocacy in public health practice
  • Outline the knowledge gapin PHPM residency training
  • Describe apotential solutionfor public health trainees:
  • Learning module incorporated into a wiki-based knowledge management platformBackground
  • Policy
  • Definite course of action selected from among alternatives to guide present and future decisions
  • Public health policy
  • Healthy public policy
  • Advocacy
  • Individual and social action designed to gain political commitment or support for a health goal or program
  • Key method of achieving policy change and protecting/improving health
  • Ottawa Charter strategy
  • Successful Policy Advocacy?PHPM Competencies
  • RCPSC PHPM Objectives of Training
  • 1.2. Identify opportunities for advocacy
  • 2.1.1. Recognize situations where advocacy is required and define strategies to effect the desired outcome
  • 3.3.3. Discuss mechanisms of policy development and methods of implementation, including legislation, regulation, and incentives
  • 3.3.5. Conduct a policy analysis and policy evaluation
  • 3.7.1. Demonstrate competency in advocacyskills
  • 5.2.5. Contribute to the formulation of healthy public policy or legislation at local, provincial or federal level
  • Minimum Competencies for MOHs in Canada (2009)
  • MOH competencies similar but more advanced
  • Highly required skills when working in a political environment
  • PHPM Training
  • PHPM training requirements
  • CanMEDS
  • Knowledge, attitudes, skills
  • Broad and location dependent
  • Variation in academic curriculum
  • Variation in opportunities for application
  • Policy competencies
  • Most residents have little background in political and social sciences
  • Focus on the Policy Cycle and on KT
  • Valuable but limited
  • Policy development is black box
  • Need to understand policy process itself to successfully engage and influence
  • Proposed Solution
  • Development of single consolidated resource
  • Focus on informing public health practice
  • Learning module for PHPM residents
  • Potential utility for other public health trainees
  • Process
  • Two month rotation guided by academic public health physician preceptor (Dr. Lynn McIntyre)
  • Targeted readings
  • Environmental scan
  • Policy briefs and analyses
  • Policy scans
  • Module development
  • Learning Module
  • Learning module content
  • Policy science overview (i.e. policy 101)
  • Policy process theories
  • PHPM physician roles in policy advocacy
  • Advocacy methods,skills, tactics
  • Key policy concepts
  • Competency application opportunities
  • Policy briefs, policy analyses
  • Links to external resources
  • Knowledge translation overview
  • Policy Science
  • Theories of policy process
  • Policy Cycle
  • i.e. Stages Model/Heuristic
  • “Textbook approach”
  • Advocacy Coalition Framework
  • Paul Sabatier
  • Multiple Streams Framework
  • John Kingdon
  • Physician Roles
  • Public health physicians have many potential roles
  • Decision maker/policy maker
  • Policy entrepreneur
  • Advisor
  • Coalition member
  • Honest broker
  • Medical doctor
  • Government employee
  • Expert
  • Private citizen
  • Association member
  • Key Policy ConceptsFramingAgendaSettingPolicyImplementationValencePolicy EntrepreneursPolicyImplicationsRhetoricPolicyWindowModuleWikiApplications for Module
  • Two models for use
  • Stand alone resource
  • Self-learning module for PHPM resident policy and knowledge translation competency acquisition
  • Elective rotation/directed study course guide
  • Core or supplementary resource guidance document
  • Recently used to good effect by CHS graduate student
  • Summary
  • The world of policy is complex
  • Lack of existing practice focused learning resources
  • Custom learning module provides a concise entry point
  • Thank youQuestions?References and Resources
  • Baumgartner, F.R. (2013). Ideas and policy change. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions. 26:2, 239-258.
  • Canadian Public Health Association - Policy and Advocacy page
  • Moloughny, B. (2012). The use of policy frameworks to understand public health-related public policy processes: a literature review. Prepared for Peel Public Health. Learn about public policies and their effects on health. National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy
  • National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy
  • National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools
  • Public Health Physicians of Canada - Advocacy Documents
  • Sabatier P. (ed) (2007). Theories of the policy process. Westview Press. Cambridge.
  • Scott, J.M, Rachlow, J.L., Lackey, R.T. (2008). The science-policy interface: What is an appropriate role for professional societies. BioScience 58:9, 865-869.
  • Key Policy Concepts
  • Agenda setting
  • Policy agenda is the issues/problems that decision makers are paying attention to
  • Framing
  • How actors seek to understand and act on complex situations
  • Policy entrepreneur
  • Individuals who may influence policy processes due to position, network, and persistence
  • Policy implementation
  • The process of turning policy into practice
  • Policy implications
  • Social, legal, ethical, environmental, economic, political, and organization factors
  • Policy window
  • Critical period of time when policy streams converge to facilitate policy change
  • Rhetoric
  • The art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing used in policy debates
  • Valence
  • The emotional quality of an idea that makes it more or less attractive
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