Psychosocial and Cultural Contributing Factors of Teen Pregnancy in North America i

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Teen pregnancy is a concern not only for parents, but for the society and nation as well due to the numerous risks that come along with it (Lanquille, 2007). Teen pregnancy has been linked to deaths and other subsequent related psychological
  Psychosocial and Cultural Contributing Factors of Teen Pregnancy in North America i   Claude R.Shema,MD.Msc. Post Graduate, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, UK Shema Discovery Institute (Founder) ABSTRACT Teen pregnancy is a concern not only for parents, but for the society and nation as well due to the numerous risks that come along with it (Lanquille, 2007). Teen pregnancy has been linked to deaths and other subsequent related psychological consequences, such as trauma and depression, as well as to socioeconomic issues such as financial hurdles and social isolation (Languille, 2007, p. 1601). So far, risk factors such as lack of sexual knowledge and reproductive health awareness have been associated with teen pregnancy. However, seldom considered factors like individual biological circumstances, such as early psychophysiological maturing, conduct issues, parenting deficit, or family instability and family dynamic can also be leading risk factors associated with teen pregnancy (Woodward, Fergusson & Horwood, 2001). This paper explores potential risk factors associated with teen pregnancy in North America (Canada, United States and Mexico) from a biopsychological aspect, multi-ethnic, sociocultural and economic diversity context. The chapter is a compilation of literature of possible risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy in North America. Objectives:  Understanding risk factors associated with teen pregnancy in Canada, Mexico and United States of America. Methods:  Data analysis and appraisal of existing publications relevant to psychophysiological and cultural risk factors leading to teen pregnancy in North America. CONCLUSION:  Teenage pregnancy in North America has severe impacts on the youth, their families, communities and nations. Teen parents usually face issues such as psychological trauma, stress, high levels of anxiety, confusion, financial problems, isolation, resulting in suicide and death along with not being able to complete their education. Furthermore, with families and parents steering away from creating sexual awareness amongst their own children, not providing them information of sexual behavi or and keeping “sex behavior” as a taboo subject, they increase chances of early pregnancies. Teenagers under the influence of digital media are becoming more prone to sexual behavior and sexual practice from an early age. Sexual violence is also becoming more and more alarming commonly among teens. The incidents of intimate sexual violence, or dating violence, often unreported, are becoming more prevalent and have been found to be factors of teen early pregnancy as well.  Key words:  Teen Pregnancy, Early Sex, Reproductive Health, Sexuality, Sex Education, Parenting, Peer Pressure, Adolescence, North America.  REFERENCES Aebi M., Barra S., Bessler C., Steinhausen, H.C., Walitza, S. & Plattner B. (2016). Oppositional defiant disorder dimensions and subtypes among detained male adolescent offenders.  Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry , 57(6), 729-36. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12473. Basant K. P.& Ian T. (2010). Psychiatry, an evidence-based text  . Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd. UK.   Chen, X. K., Wen, S. W., Fleming, N., Demissie, K., Rhoads, G. G., & Walker, M. (2007). Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: A large population based retrospective cohort study.  International journal of epidemiology , 36  (2), 368-373. Coley, R. L., & Chase-Lansdale, P. L. (1998). 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