PWR Report

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  Master 2019- 2020 Overview bout Pressurized Water Reactors Institute of Environmental Studies and research   Page 1 of 12 CONTENTS Subject Page Introduction ………………………………………………………….   2 PWR’s Major System   ………………………………………………………….   5 a  Reactor vessel ………………………………………………………….  5  b Steam Generator ………………………………………………………….  5 c  Reactor coolant pump ………………………………………………………….  5 d  Pressurized ………………………………………………………….  5 e  Reactor coolant system ………………………………………………………….  6 f  Reactor interior ………………………………………………………….  6 g Core and Fuel ………………………………………………………….  6 h  Reactor Vessel ………………………………………………………….  7 i Steam Generator ………………………………………………………….  8  j  Reactor Coolant Pump ………………………………………………………….  9 PWR Advantages and Disadvantage ………………………………………………………….   11 a  Advantages ………………………………………………………….  11  b  Disadvantages ………………………………………………………….  11 Refrences ………………………………………………………….   12   Page 2 of 12 INTRODUCTION though there has been much progress in the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency, and expanding energy access over the past decade, the world is not on track   to meet international climate goals established under the Paris Agreement, or international goals for sustainable development. We are facing a climate crisis : the IPCC 2018 Special Report   on 1.5°C found that roughly a decade remains to keep global warming below this level and avoid the worst effects of climate change. Most countries are still subsidizing the consumption of fossil fuels, and fossil fuel consumption subsidies increased 11% in 2017. Urgent action is needed now to change our energy systems. Moreover, we will never meet the objectives under UN Sustainable Development Goal 7 for increasing renewable energy, energy efficiency , and energy access if we continue down our current energy path. Renewable energy is central to achieving these international goals. Using renewables (as oppose to fossil fuels) brings other    advantages and opportunities, ranging from environmental to socio-economic and  political. The burning of fossil fuels for energy results in a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming. Air pollution and emissions. Worldwide increases in fossil fuel-based road transport, industrial activity, and power generation (as well as the open burning of waste in many cities) contributes to elevated levels of air pollution. In many developing countries, the use of charcoal and fuelwood for heating and cooking also contributes to poor indoor air quality.   Page 3 of 12 This has led to the rise of a number of alternative energy sources. While the viability of each can be argued, they all contribute something positive when compared to fossil fuels. Lower emissions, lower fuel  prices and the reduction of pollution are all advantages that the use of alternative fuels can often provide. Herewith are eleven examples of renewable energy sources that may be adapted instead of Foss source such as Hydrogen gas, Tidal Energy, Biomass energy, Wind, Geothermal power, Natural Gas, Biofuel, Wave energy, Hydroelectric power, Solar, and Nuclear power. The peaceful use of nuclear energy is growing in various walks of life, including industrial, medical, agricultural and other fields. The generation of electricity from nuclear energy is one of the most important uses by generating clean and economically competitive energy. It is also a sustainable technology that guarantees the right of future generations to fossil resources as a result of the availability of their fuel for decades. Power stations are spread in more than 30 countries with a global contribution estimated at 16% of the total electricity generated from all sources combined, through 449 nuclear reactors operating. Currently there are about 60 reactors under construction, and many countries have announced plans to develop nuclear  power generation programs and consider them as a strategic energy option. Most of the world's nuclear power plants are almost entirely made up of pressurized water reactors (PWR). In the United States, 69 out of 104 commercial nuclear power plants licensed by the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission are PWR's. [1] The PWR is one of three light water reactors and produces about 65,100 net megawatts (electric). [2] In an archetypal design of a PWR, as represented in Fig. 1, heat is created inside the core of the reactor. High-pressurized water is pumped to the core where it is further heated  by the energy produced by the fission of atoms. The pressurized water in a primary coolant loop, then carries this thermal energy to the steam generator. [2] Heat carried from the primary coolant loop vaporizes water from a secondary loop, producing steam (within the steam generator). This stem is pushed to the main turbine generator and powering it and further creating electricity. Any unused steam is condensed into water and pumped out of the condenser, reheated and then pumped back into the steam generator where the cycle  begins again.   Page 4 of 12 Egypt, as a leader country in MENA region planned to adopt a nuclear technology in cooperation with Russia, to reduce the usage of Foss fuel electrical generating stations at el Dabaa region, utilizing the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) technology, ‘’  Construction of El Dabaa NPP is the most ambitious energy project not only in Egypt but also on the whole African continent. In terms of its scale and importance for the development of our country it can be compared only with the construction of Aswan High Dam celebrated as the engineering masterpiece and the symbol of Russian-Egyptian cooperation. Nowadays Russia is the leader on the  global nuclear technology market as well as the trustworthy partner capable of providing the full  package of services in the area of peaceful atom. I am sure that safety and ecological compatibility of nuclear technologies, experience and unique competences of Russian specialists who are able to apply and develop cutting-edge solutions as well as potential and diligence of Egyptian people will become the basis of effective evolution of Egypt’s nuclear energy indus try for the purposes of  prosperity and progress of the country ’'  .   Prof.Dr. Amged El-Wakeel Chairman - NPPA
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