Qualitative and quantitative research

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1. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH 2. QUANTITATIVE VS. QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGICAL ASSUMPTION (CRESSWELL) Quantitative Qualitative Deductive process Inductive…
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  • 1. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 2. QUANTITATIVE VS. QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGICAL ASSUMPTION (CRESSWELL) Quantitative Qualitative Deductive process Inductive process Cause and effect Mutual simultaneous shaping of factors Static design – categories isolated before study Emerging design – categories identified during research process Generalization leading to prediction, explanation, and understanding Patterns, theories developed for understanding Accurate and reliable through validity and reliability Accurate and reliable through verification
  • 3. QUANTITATIVE VS. QUALITATIVE METHODS • Description & explanation oriented • Literature Review plays a major role • Purpose specific, and measurable • Data Collection Predetermined instruments, numeric data • Statistical analysis • Reporting, standard and fixed • Exploratory & understanding oriented • Literature review plays a minor role • Purpose is general and broad, • Data Collection Emerging protocols, text or image data • Text analysis • Reporting, flexible and emerging.
  • 4. RESEARCH • Systematic inquiry that is characterized by a certain amount of rigor and governed by sets of principles and guidelines for procedure (Hitchcock and Hughes, 1989). • Systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories (Best and Kahn, 1998).
  • 5. RESEARCH • Systematic, controlled and empirical inquiry about a subject/topic through problem solving process using the rigorous application of the scientific method (Hanson and Soriano, 1999). • A purposive, systematic and scientific process of gathering, analysing, classifying, organizing, presenting and interpreting data for the solution of the problem, for prediction, for intervention, for the discovery of truth, of for the expansion or verification of existing knowledge, all for the preservation and improvement of the quality of human life (Calderon and Gonzales, 1993).
  • 6. RESEARCH • Common elements from the definitions: 1. There are meaningful questions to be answered. 2. An orderly manner is employed to answer such questions. 3. Knowledge generated in the process. Prado, et.al., 2001
  • 7. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH 1. Systematic 2. Logical 3. Controlled 4. Empirical 5. Critical 6. Analytical 7. Reductive 8. Cyclical 9. Replicable and Transmittable Prado, et.al., 2001
  • 8. ETHICS IN RESEARCH (ETHICAL PRINCIPLES) 1. Voluntary Participation 2. Informed Consent 3. No Risk of Harm 4. Privacy (Confidentiality, Anonymity) 5. Equality of Service 6. No Deception 7. Knowledge of Outcome Prado, et.al., 2001
  • 9. ETHICAL STANDARDS • Informed Consent • Honesty between researchers and participants and institutional representatives • Sensitivity to institutional policies • Participants’ right to withdraw • Researchers not exploiting research populations, subordinates or students • Sensitivity to cultural, religious, gender and other differences among participants American Educational Research Associations, 1992
  • 10. ETHICAL STANDARDS • Careful consideration and minimization of techniques that might have negative social consequences • Researchers’ need to be sensitive to the integrity of on-going local institutional activities • Communication of research findings clearly to appropriate research populations and other stakeholders • Participants’ right to anonymity American Educational Research Associations, 1992
  • 11. RESEARCH DESIGN THE POSITIVISM SCIENTIFIC MODEL Identification of a Topic Review of Previous Literature in the Topic Theories Formulated or Hypothesis to be tested Research Design and Technique Chosen Data Collection Data Analysis Do results supports existing theory or hypothesis Look for Alternative Explanations Report Findings Repeat the process again PARTICULAR GENERAL NO YES
  • 12. THERE ARE MANY METHODS OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH. Experimental Correlational Narrative Ethnographic Case Study DescriptiveSurvey Grounded Theory Mixed Causal-Comparative Single Subject Qualitative Quantitative
  • 13. THE THREE DIFFERENT METHODS OF RESEARCH • Historical Method • Descriptive Method • Experimental Method
  • 14. HISTORICAL METHOD • The historical method is one which deals with past events and interprets them in the light of the present. • It is concerned with giving an account of past events or facts in the spirit of inquiring critically for the whole truth. • Its purpose is to explain the present or anticipate the future based on a systematic collection and critical evaluation of data pertaining to past occurrences.
  • 15. DESCRIPTIVE METHOD • This design is for the investigator to gather information about present condition. • The main objective of this design is to describe the nature of the situation as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the causes of particular phenomena. • It is concerned with conditions or relationships that exist; practices that prevail; and beliefs and processes that are going on; effects that are being felt or trends that are developing.
  • 16. DESCRIPTIVE METHOD • Types of Descriptive Research 1. Case Study 2. Survey Research 3. Developmental Studies 4. Evaluation Studies 5. Comparative Studies 6. Correlational Studies 7. Follow-up Studies 8. Trends and Projection 9. Ex Post Factor Research 10. Participatory Research
  • 17. CASE STUDY • A detailed study about one person or unit over a considerable period of time. • It provides an in-depth analysis for investigation such as an individual patient, a family, a hospital ward, a health agency, a particular disease, a professional organization, or a group. Example: A Case of the Kawasaki Disease A Case Study of Organizational Development of a Public Schools in Caraga
  • 18. SURVEY RESEARCH • A survey is used to gather relatively limited data from relatively large number of cases. The purpose is to gather information about prevailing conditions or about the variable under study. Example: Impressions on Mother Tongue-Based Instruction of Pupils from Selected Private Schools in Caraga Region
  • 19. DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES • Intends to get reliable information about a group of people over a long period of time. • There are two types of developmental studies: 1. Longitudinal Method. Studies the same sample of participants over an extended period of time. 2. Cross-sectional Method. Concerns studying participants of various age levels and of other characteristics at the same point of time.
  • 20. ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION STUDIES • Assessment/Evaluation studies attempt to determine the effectiveness of efficacy of a certain practices or policies when applied to a group of respondents. Example: The Effectiveness of the Quality Assurance System in Teacher Education Program
  • 21. CORRELATIONAL STUDIES • Correlational Studies attempt to establish relationships among 2 or more variables. Example: Familial and Social Factors in Relation to Value Orientation of College Freshmen of Selected Private School of Caraga Region
  • 22. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES • They are used in you want to follow-up the development of a certain condition. Example: Employability of the Graduates of Saint Joseph Institute of Technology from 2010 – 2015.
  • 23. TRENDS AND PROJECTION STUDIES • The attempt to describe the future with respect to emerging pattern in the past and the present of an event or phenomenon. Example: Change and the Future of Agusan River: An Anthropological Viewpoint
  • 24. EX-POST FACTO RESEARCH • Ex-post facto means “from after the fact” and deals with researches where the dependent variable is immediately observable and the events before that have given rise to this consequence. Example: Differing Consequences on Smokers of Varying Amounts of Cigarrettes
  • 25. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 1. Post Test Only Experimental Design 2. Pre-test-Post-test Experimental Design 3. Solomon Four Group Design
  • 26. POST TEST ONLY EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN • It is a simple design. It is called post test only because the date is collected after the experimental treatment is complete. Example: Hypothesis is that color of a school nurses uniform affects the degree to which the children display positive and negative affective behavior (smiling, crying). The causative or independent variable is the uniform color and the effect variable or dependent variable is the child’s behavior. The independent variable is manipulated by assigning some school nurses white uniforms and some with colored or printed uniforms. Thus, in the study we could compare the affective behaviors of school children cared for by nurses in white uniforms and those cared nurses in colored/printed uniform.
  • 27. PRE-TEST-POST-TEST EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN • It is more complex. It is called pre-test-post-test. There are two points of measurements, one before the experimental treatment and one after the experimental treatment. Example: Suppose we wanted to examine the effect of remedial instruction. The design would involve imposing a remedial sessions on the experimental group and no remedial sessions on the control group at certain points in time. Data will be recorded before and after the remedial sessions. This allows us to examine if there are changes in the academic performance of the pupils as a result of the remedial sessions. Example: The Efficacy of Strategic Intervention Materials in Teaching Social Studies Among Grade 10 Students of Saint Joseph Institute of Technology
  • 28. SOLOMON FOUR-GROUP DESIGN • It is a version of pre-test-post-test design. It adds two addition groups. The purpose of adding the two groups is to separate the effects of the pre-test and to segregate it from the intervention. In other words, a pre- test may be sensitizing treatment that may affect the results of an actual treatment. • Is an experimental group without the pre-test. • Is the control group without the pre-test Example: If the intervention is a workshop to improve teachers’ attitudes toward drop-outs, the pre-test may sensitize the teachers and affect their attitudes at that point and obscure the analysis of the workshop’s effect.
  • 29. RESEARCH REPORT WRITING
  • 30. ASSUMPTIONS • You have the passion for research in your heart, mind and soul and now ready to transcend the energy to actual write-up
  • 31. OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION • Parts of the Research Paper ( Chapters 1 to 5) • Parts of the Research Paper ( Chapters 1 to 4 for) • Contents of each chapter • Preliminaries and add-ons • Sample presentations
  • 32. • “Research is formalized curiosity. It is poking and prying with a purpose.” Zora Neale Hurston quotes (American folklorist and Writer, 1903-1960)
  • 33. • “To steal ideas from one person is plagiarism, to steal ideas from many is research.”
  • 34. CHAPTERS OF THE RESEARCH PAPER Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Scope Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature Chapter 3 Methodology Chapter 4 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data Chapter 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 35. CHAPTERS OF THE RESEARCH PAPER Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Scope Chapter 2 Methodology Chapter 3 Results and Discussion Chapter 4 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 36. PRELIMINARIES ( BEFORE CHAPTER 1) • COVER PAGE • APPROVAL SHEET • ACKNOWLEDGMENT • DEDICATION • ABSTRACT • TABLE OF CONTENTS • LIST OF TABLES • LIST OF FIGURES
  • 37. ADD-ONS (AFTER CHAPTER 5) • Bibliography ( APA format) • Appendices • Appendix A and so on • Curriculum Vitae • Note: The current trend uses the term • LITERATURE CITED instead of Bibliography or References
  • 38. CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE • Introduction • Review of Related Literature and Studies • Theoretical/Conceptual Framework • Statement of the Problem/ Objectives • Hypotheses • Significance of the Study • Scope and Limitations • Definition of Terms
  • 39. CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY • Research Design • Brief description of the research method used • Justification on why it is the best method for the study • Research Locale • Brief description of the place where the participants or respondents are to be obtained
  • 40. RESEARCH DESIGNS • A scheme that maps out the data sources, the type of data to be collected, how data will be collected, and the methods to be used in data analysis • Pinpoints specifically the relationships of the variables under study • Set time constraints within which the research problem should be answered
  • 41. CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY • Samples and Sampling Technique Used • Brief description of the population • Sampling size, how it was determined • Specific technique used in selecting the samples • Instrumentation • Description of the instruments used – their contents, how developed and validated
  • 42. CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY • Procedure • Scientific • Details of data collection • Include time frame involved in data collection • Who will do the data collection? • Statistical Analysis of the Data • What statistics are to be used on the research data and why? • Should be in consonance with the objectives/hypothesis of the study
  • 43. CHAPTER 3 (RESULTS AND DISCUSSION • Presented according to the problems of the study • Plain reading and explanation of figures about the results of the study • Analysis and interpretation of results • Interprets data in a unified or holistic manner.
  • 44. CHAPTER 4 (SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS • Summary • Synopsis of the research objectives, hypothesis, research methodology and findings • Summary of Findings • Summary of answers to the statement of the problem (paragraph form)
  • 45. CHAPTER 4 (SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS • Conclusions • Brief statements about the generalization inferred from the results • Includes the theoretical and practical implications of the findings discussed • Recommendations • Detailed description of the suggestions for future action based on the significance of the findings • Includes recommendations for future research
  • 46. TIPS ON ABSTRACT PREPARATION • The abstract is a brief and comprehensive summary of the contents of a study. It should be accurate, concise, and specific. It should not exceed 350 words. • The key elements of an abstract are: background information, research problem/aim, methodology, results, and conclusions or implications. • The background information is a brief sentence or two that establishes the significance or context of the research, and thus, should be directly linked to the research problem. lbg2014
  • 47. TIPS ON ABSTRACT PREPARATION • The research problem must be clearly stated: it can be the problem addressed by the research; the aim of the research; or the specific research question or hypothesis relating to the paper. • The discussion on methodology depends on whether the methodology used was standard or modified.
  • 48. • The key results are summarized in an informative abstract. This section of an abstract often contains the most important information. • The conclusions summarize one or two of the key implications of the research. • The background information and conclusions are written in the present tense. The research problem is written in the past tense. The methodology and key results are written in the past tense. Tips on Abstract Preparation
  • 49. FACTOR THAT INFLUENCE THE SELECTION OF THE PROBLEM • Availability of Data • Time Constraint • Funds • Capability of the Researcher • Attitudes and Interest of the Researcher • Interest of the Sponsor or Benefactor • Importance of the Issues Involved • Recency of Such Issues • Cooperation of Others • Facilities and Equipment
  • 50. THE TITLE OF THE INVESTIGATION • It summarizes the content of the entire study. • It is a frame or reference of the whole study. • It enables the researcher (you) to claim the study as his/her (your) own. • It helps other researcher to refer to it (your work) as they survey some theories themselves.
  • 51. THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY • Statements in this part should not only signify the importance but shall also cause an impact on the reader. • A research report is an objective report which shall deal only with the cold facts and not with a literary piece. • In this portion, one can give a personal opinion but backed with statement/s of persons or authority, documents or records.
  • 52. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK • Directs the research to focus on the concepts and its observable indicators and states which of the concepts will be indicate dependent and intervening variables and the visible indicators of these variables. • Somehow has familiar functions with the theoretical framework but uses more specific or well defined concepts (constructs). • A formal way of thinking (conceptualizing) about the process/system under study.
  • 53. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK • A concept is an image or symbolic representation of an abstract idea or “complex mental formulation of experience” (Chinn and Kramer, 1999). • Concepts are the major components of theory and convey the abstract ideas within a theory and further define the theory. • Each concept creates a mental image, which is explained further through the conceptual definition. When researchers use conceptual frameworks to guide their studies, you can expect to find a system of ideas, synthesized for the purpose of organizing thinking and providing study direction.
  • 54. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY • A theoretical framework outlines the Theory on which the research work being proposed or carried out, is hinged. A theory is a body of interrelated propositions that attempts to describe, explain or predict a phenomenon. Oftentimes the theory is not testable. It is built and verified to a series of interrelated hypotheses that are themselves directly testable.
  • 55. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY • Is the study going to verify, test or investigate the validity of an existing theory? • Or is the study going to build and therefore espouse a new theory?  Example 1: The study will attempt to verify Engel’s Law in the context of Butuanon culture in the Philippines. (Engel’s Law in Economics states that the higher is the income of the family, the lesser the percentage expenditure of the family on food as a proportion of the total family income.) This will verify the spectrum of the of an existing theory.
  • 56. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY  Example 2: The study rests on the theory that supervisory effectiveness is influence by the human resource management skills of leader. (This will attempt to establish a new theory that will likewise be tested in actual operation. The same elements comprising a theory may be used in a study but the functional relationships among the elements may be “new”. This will generate yet another new theory that can be verified through empirical means.)
  • 57. THEORETICAL AND/ OR CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK • It is the basis of the research problem. • It explains the phenomena upon which the investigation hopes to fill the vacuum on the stream or knowledge. • The reader may conclude at the end whether the theoretical framework has been: • fully supported • partially supported or • negated by empirical data. • The theoretical framework is based on actual theory while the conceptual framework is a creation of the author. • Both are organized, logical and coherent frameworks upon which the problems of the study are based. • Can perceive what the study is all about.
  • 58. RESEARCH PARADIGM • A diagrammatic presentation of the conceptual framework which depicts in a more vivid way what the conceptual framework wants t
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