Rathayibacter iranicus isolated from symptomless wheat seeds in Turkey

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Rathayibacter iranicus isolated from symptomless wheat seeds in Turkey
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    Plant Pathology   (2009) 58   , 796Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02076.x  © 2009 The Authors   796  Journal compilation © 2009 BSPP  BlackwellPublishingLtd  NEWDISEASEREPORT  Rathayibacter iranicus   isolated from symptomless wheat seeds in Turkey  E. Postnikova  a  , I. Agarkova  b  , S. Altundag  c  , F. Eskandari  a  , A. Sechler  a  , A. Karahan  c  , A. K. Vidaver  b  , W. Schneider  a  , M. Ozakman  c  and N. W. Schaad  a  *   a   ARS-USDA, Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit, Ft. Detrick, Maryland; b   Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA; and c   Plant Protection Research Institute, P.O. Box 49, Ankara, Turkey   Rathayibacter iranicus  (Ri), srcinally reported in Iran in 1961 (Sharif,1961), has not been reported outside Iran and only one strain is known toexist. Like R. tritici  (Rt), Ri causes a gumming disease of wheat in associationwith the nematode Anguina tritici  (Paruthi et al   ., 1989). During 2003, asurvey of wheat seed for Rathayibacter  species (RS) in Turkey using samplesfrom 799 farmers in six provinces in Central Anatolia was conducted.The samples showed neither the brown to black galls typical of A. tritici  infection nor the yellowish galls typical of Ri and Rt. To determine thepresence of RS, 120 g samples were washed in 100 mL of sterile 0·85%NaCl with 0·02% Tween 20 and plated onto 523 agar (Schaad et al   .,2001) modified by adding 30 mg nalidixic acid, 15 mg polymixin Bsulphate and 100 mg cycloheximide per litre. After incubation at 27  °  Cfor seven days, several typical colonies of RS were cloned by streaking ontoYDC agar (Schaad et al   ., 2001). Twenty five strains were presumptivelyidentified as RS based on a Gram positive reaction, oxidase negativereaction and yellow growth. Three strains, TRS2 from Konya, TRS10 from Hisarkikaya, and TRS25from Ankara, were used for further identification and speciation. Theother 22 strains were archived for later studies. The type strains of Rt,(International Collection of Phytopathogenic Bacteria [ICPB] 70004   T  ;FH-5; CT 102   T  ) and Ri (ICPB 70005   T  ; FH-6   T  ; CI 148   T  ), were included ascontrols. All three strains were biochemically typical of Ri and Rt byproducing acid from D-mannose, inulin, galactose, and mannitol.However, the strains failed to utilize acetate, or to hydrolyze casein, failedto grow in greater than 1% sodium chloride amended NBY, or on CNSagar, which is characteristic of Ri but not Rt (Davis & Vidaver, 2001). Thenew strains contained the fatty acids iso-14:0 and 16:0; anteiso 15:0 and15:1, and 17:0, and 16:0, also typical of Ri. Identification of the threestrains as Ri was further supported by 16s rDNA sequence similarities toRi and Rt of 100 and 99·3%, respectively (GenBank Accession Nos.FJ595101 - Ri, ICPB 70005 and FJ595102 – Rt, ICPB 70004). Identificationas Ri was confirmed by AFLP analysis (EcoRI + 0 and MseI + C) showinga pattern of 90% similarity to Ri but only 46% to Rt. This is the first reportof Ri outside of Iran. Cultures have been deposited in the ICPB at Ft.Detrick, MD, USA, as ICPB 70146 (FH-154; TRS2), 70 154 (FH-162;TRS10), and 70 169 (FH-177; TRS25).  References   Davis MJ, Vidaver AK, 2001. Gram positive bacteria, coryneform plant pathogens. In: Schaad NW, Jones JB, Chun W, eds. Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria   , 3rd edn. St. Paul, MN, USA: APS Press, 218–34.Paruthi IJ, Bajaj HK, Bhatti DS, 1989. Further observations on Anguina tritici   (Nematoda) and Corynebacterium michiganense   pv. tritici   causing earcockle and yellow ear rot in wheat. Nematologica   35   , 491–3.Schaad NW, Jones JB, Chun W, eds, 2001. Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria   , 3rd edn. St. Paul, MN, USA: APS Press.Scharif G, 1961. Corynebacterium iranicum   sp. nov. on wheat (   Triticum vulgare   L.) in Iran, and a comparative study of it with C. tritici   and C. rathayi   . Entomologie et Phytopathologie Appliqués   19   , 1–24.  *E-mail: norman.schaad@ars.usda.gov. Accepted 18 February 2009 at www.bspp.org.uk/ndr where figures relating to this paper can be viewed.   BlackwellPublishingLtd  Pyrofomes demidoffii   newly reported to cause a white trunk rot of  juniper (  Juniperus formosana   ) in China  Y. C. Dai  a  * and X. S. He  b   a   Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016; and b   Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China    Juniperus formosana  has a wide distribution in China, and it is animportant conifer tree in central and southwestern China. In the summerof 2006, a typical white trunk rot of the tree was observed at Wolongarea (30  °  50  ′  N, 103  °  10  ′  E), Dujiangyan County, central Sichuan Province,southwest China. Twelve trees were affected from 85 examined, andshowed signs of advanced internal decay of the trunk.A perennial, ungulate and woody polypore was found on the trunk of affected trees. Fruiting bodies were 12–15 cm wide and 14 cm thick at thebase. The upper surface was greyish black, the poroid surface bright yellowto orange brown with densely packed tubes (around 3–4 per mm). The insideof the fruiting bodies was cinnamon to brick-red and contained dimitichyphae; the generative hyphae had clamp connections. Basidiospores wereellipsoid, truncate, thick-walled, pale brownish, slightly dextrinoid andcyanophilous, 6–8 ×  5–6 µ   m. These characteristics agree with thepublished description of Pyrofomes demidoffii (Ryvarden & Gilbertson,1994) and match specimens examined from the Herbarium of theBotanical Museum of the University of Helsinki (H). Voucher specimenshave been deposited at the Institute of Applied Ecology, ChineseAcademy of Sciences (IFP).Previously P. demidoffii has been recorded on junipers in CentralEurope, Africa and North America (Ryvarden & Gilbertson, 1994). Itgrows exclusively on  Juniperus spp. and causes a white trunk rot of livingtrees. The fungus causes major decay of junipers in western North America(Scharpf, 1993) and Pakistan (Zakaullah, 1978). The fungus was notfound in previous surveys (Dai et al   ., 2007) and this is the first report of   P. demidoffii  on  Juniperus formosana from China.  Acknowledgement  The work is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China(Project No. 007AA021506).  References   Dai YC, Cui BK, Yuan HS, Li BD, 2007. Pathogenic wood-decaying fungi in China. Forest Pathology   37   , 105–20.Ryvarden L, Gilbertson RL, 1994. European polypores 2. Synopsis Fungorum   7   , 394–743.Scharpf, RF, 1993. Diseases of Pacific Coast Conifers   . Albany, OR, USA: U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station.Zakaullah, 1978. Decay in the Ziarat juniper forests of Baluchistan. Pakistan  Journal of Forestry   28   , 28–34.  *E-mail: yuchengd@yahoo.com. Accepted 18 February 2009 at www.bspp.org.uk/ndr where figures relating to this paper can be viewed.   Plant Pathology   (2009) 58   , 796Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02075.x
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