Relationship between Geography-Tourism and Tourism's Effects According to High School Students

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This research was designed in the screening model to determine the opinions of high school students on tourism effects and geography-tourism relations. The data were gathered from 760 students who were educated in high schools in the central district
    Review of International Geographical Education Online ©RIGEO 2018, 8  (1), Spring 2018   © R  eview of I nternational G eographical E ducation O nline RIGEO 2018  ISSN: 2146-0353   Relationship between Geography-Tourism and Tourism's Effects According to High School Students Nusret KOCA 1    Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, TURKEY Ramazan YILDIRIM 2    Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, TURKEY 1 Assoc. Prof.; Faculty of Education, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, E-mail: nkoca [at]    2 Corresponding author: Ph.D Student; Graduate School of Social Sciences, Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Campus, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, E-mail: rmznyldrm [at] Research Article Copyright © RIGEO 201 8   To cite this article:   Koca, N.; Yıldırım, R. (2018 ). Relationship between Geography- Tourism and Tourism’s Effects According to High School Students. Review of International Geographical Education Online (RIGEO) , 8 (1), 26-52. Retrieved from   Submitted: October 25, 2017 Revised: March 26, 2018 Accepted: April 4, 2018 Abstract This research was designed in the screening model to determine the opinions of high school students on tourism effects and geography-tourism relations. The data were gathered from 760 students who were educated in high schools in the central district of Kütahya , identified by cluster sampling method. The data were collected with the help of a scale developed by the researchers. This process benefited from the studies carried out in the related literature. According to findings, high school students' opinions on the social and cultural effects of tourism are positive. It was observed that the students do not have a clear view of the environmental effects of tourism, and remain at a level of indecision. According to the students, tourism is an important tool in promoting the country and Turkey is a country rich in natural and cultural tourism values. However, students were not sure whether Turkey can use its full potential and whether it introduces enough tourism opportunities at home and abroad. It was seen that the students can relate geography and tourism. The students emphasized the importance of geography in preserving the natural and cultural environment and in tourism education. In this context, they stated that it is necessary to arrange visits to tourist areas in geography lessons. When the significant differences in the view of students on tourism effects and their views on geography-tourism relation were examined, it was observed that female students have more positive views than male students, that students in 12th grade have more positive views than students in 9th, 10th, and 11th grades, that the students in the academic high schools have more positive views than the students in the skill set related to high schools and in the vocational high schools. Keywords Geography Education, High School Students, Tourism Effects, Geography-Tourism Relationship  Review of International Geographical Education Online © RIGEO Volume 8, Number 1, 2018 27 Traveling and temporary accommodation aimed at fulfilling needs such as holiday, rest, entertainment, culture etc. as a consumer away from the place you live in is called tourism (Sezgin & Acar, 1991, p. 2). Individuals who travel on the basis of these stated objectives are called tourists. According to Doğanay (2001 ), an individual who travels must be accommodated at least one night and not more than six months to be counted as a tourist (p. 10). Tourism activities have gained momentum due to developments, especially after the Industrial Revolution. In this process, the increase of leisure time, the increase of education, culture and income level, the increase of tiredness and discomfort due to urbanization and city life, the developments in rights and freedom, and tourism and travel consciousness started to settle in society and played a great role (Kozak, 2012, p. 39). In his article published right after the Second World War, Cooper (1947) predicted that the future of the tourism industry will depend on the peace and prosperity of the world, and that people will have more time to travel than ever before, provided these conditions. After the European countries were liberated from the devastation created by the Second World War, it was thought that thousands of people would want to visit the war zones and martyrdoms in Europe, that South America, Far East Asia, Australia and even Africa would benefit from tourism, and that travelling between countries would be cheaper and popular as the role of airplanes reduced cost and time (Cooper, 1947). Today we see that Cooper was right. Initially starting with visiting the holy places, tourism has entered the development process by referring to the point that medicinal waters, sea water, and sun are good for health. In recent years, with the influence of globalization, the desire of people to do more shopping, to know countries and people, and to learn their cultural values has given new dimensions to tourism (Atalay, 2005, p . 263). According to Gümüşçü (2013 ), besides sea-sand-sun tourism (3S tourism) which is important from the traditional point of view, alternative tourism branches also gain importance and attract a lot of tourists (p. 312). Mountain tourism, highland tourism, faith tourism, heritage tourism, thermal tourism, congress tourism, health tourism, and sports tourism are some of these. Tourism has many positive and negative effects due to changes in the economic, social, and cultural structure of the country or region in which it is located and the community. These effects can be grouped into three main groups: economic effects, socio-cultural effects, and environmental-ecological effect s (Özgüç, 1998, p. 184). The economic effects of tourism are generally examined under two main headings: monetary and real. Reduction of bilateral deficits by increasing the foreign exchange supply of touristic movements, increasing the value of the national currency, revival of the economy through the redistribution of tourism revenues, the acceleration of investments parallel to the increase in tourist demand, value added effect over national value, the role of the State to increase tax revenues and its effects on domestic prices can be counted as major monetary effects (Öztaş, 2002, p. 59). The employment effect due to the labor-intensive production technique, positive effects on the sectors that it uses in the execution of tourist activities, and its effects on physical and institutional infrastructure can be counted as the real effects. Tourism has positive economic effects  Koca, N., Yıldırım, R. (2018)  / Relationship between Geography-Tourism and Tourism's Effects …   28 as well as negative effects (Öztaş, 2002, p. 64). These include opportunity costs, excessive dependence on tourism, inflationary pressures, seasonal fluctuations, foreign labor force demand, and increases in imports tendency (Kozak, Kozak, & Kozak, 2015, p. 121). The interaction between service receivers (guests) and service providers (hosts) in tourism is accompanied by social and cultural changes. Özgüç  (1998, p.190) interprets these influences of tourism on society and culture in the following way: a) Effect on population structure  –   including population size, age and gender structure, change in family size, the transformation of a population from rural to urban structure. b) Changes in the types of professions and their forms  –   including effects on language effect or language, the effect of the distribution of occupations according to sectors, increase in demand for the female workforce, increase in seasonal employment. c) Transformation of political, social, religious, or moral values. d) Effect on traditional lifestyle through, for example, art, music and folklore, traditions and customs in everyday life. e) Modification of consumption patterns in terms of quality (qualitative regulations), and quantity (quantitative regulations). f) Benefits provided to tourists such rest-recreation, environment change, broadening the perspective, and social contacts. Tourism activities have positive and negative effects on the environment as well. The use of the monetary support obtained from the tourism regions for the environment where the environment is considered important. On-site conservation and development with the inspections carried out can be carried out alongside raising awareness about the environment, and knowledge of the fact that the people who are in activities that harm the environment turn to tourism activities instead; further, the protection of the environment in tourism areas due to the contributions made by tourism, and thus leading environmental protection as a state policy, can be seen as the positives effects of the tourism on the environment (Doğan, 2012, p. 12). Increasing traffic congestion, overcrowding, increased noise and garbage pollution can be considered adverse effects of the tourism on the environment (Ap & Crompton, 1998). With its special position of being the bridge state in between the continents Europe and Asia, its mathematical position that allows the temperate zone to be located close to the hot zone, its horizontal and vertical and different climate features, its geological and geomorphological formations that shows its historical heritage, its rich nature, and animal species, marine and inland water possessing different characteristics, rich archaeological sites of historical and cultural characteristics, Turkey is a country in today's world where almost all the tourism types can be performed within its diverse environments (Güçlü, 2016, p. 461). Thanks to these values, Turkey can perform its  Review of International Geographical Education Online © RIGEO Volume 8, Number 1, 2018 29 tourism activities effectively throughout the country and can spread them over the entire year. Tourism in Turkey contributes to the national income. In addition, tourism helps earn foreign currency, has the potential to close the deficits in the balances of payments, and is among the sectors at the center of economic and social balances in terms of the business opportunities that it provides. Tourism is also an effective marketing and promotional tool for the country. Tourism, which is the largest foreign exchange source sector after exporting, directly affects 54 sectors such as food, eating, and drinking, transportation (AKTOB, 2014). T urkey revealed its future tourism goals by accepting Turkey’s Tourism Strategies 2023  document. Strategies and 2023 goals for reinforcing a total of 16 tourism sectors, ranging from planning to training, are explained. According to the document, in 2023, 20 million people are expected to benefit from the domestic tourism market in Turkey. It is envisaged to reach 63 million tourists, provide 86 billion dollars in foreign tourism revenue, and about 1350 dollars per tourist in 2023 when the work determined in the strategy is completed (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 2007).  To reach the 2023 goals in tourism and to use the existing tourism potential, it is necessary for Turkey to make a good presentation both inside and outside of Turkey. The works in this scope are carried out by the General Directorate of Promotion of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey. Promotional tools such as advertisements abroad, advertising, info-tour, workshop, participating in tourism fairs, promotional publications, hospitality and public relations activities are used with the private sector for the promotion of Turkey (Çakır & Yalçin, 2012) . Since the tourism income in Turkey's economy increases and that tourism sector appears to be a major employment area, there are various regulations that encourage and support tourism activities in Turkey. However, laws, regulations, and agreements are sufficient for the protection of cultural and natural assets, and for the sustainability of tourism activities. In this respect, a total consciousness must be formed and developed in society. The basis of this social consciousness can only be formed through education. The 12-year compulsory education in Turkey does not have any courses directly related to tourism. Basic information and concepts related to tourism are given in some units in the courses of Life Science, Social Studies, and Geography. The importance of Geography courses taught in high school is of great importance in the formation of a tourism consciousness in students. Even though tourism is associated with many science disciplines, geography is the closest. Tourism is a phenomenon created by spatial differences as in the definition of geography (Emekli, 2006). Geography, on the one hand, underpins the spatial distribution of the changing tourism destination, while on the other hand, geography examines the effect of tourism on the population and its economic contribution to the region or country (Kervankıran, 2013, p. 345). From ancient times, nature is an important source of attraction for tourists and tourism-based nature forms the field of study of geographical science. Factors such as climate, natural assets, flora, wild fauna, geological structures, thermal resources, beaches and  Koca, N., Yıldırım, R. (2018)  / Relationship between Geography-Tourism and Tourism's Effects …   30 recreational areas constitute the most important attraction sources of tourism as a tourist attraction in a country or a region (Gürdal, 2001) . According to Turkey's Tourism Strategy 2023  document, Turkey's tourism strategy in education, awareness of the tourism resources, and the protection and the contribution of tourism to the national economy was determined to be raised to the highest level. This will be possible if individuals are provided with a geographical consciousness. Individuals who gain the necessary geographical awareness in tourism education will become the most important human factor for a sustainable tourism sector, will be more functional for the future local tourism activities, and will work in harmony with the geographical environment (Gülüm & Artvinli, 2010).  In the high school geography curriculum (2017), topics related to the global dimension of tourism are included in the 11th-grade program and the local dimensions are included in 12th grade in Turkey. According to the current curriculum, a geography course is taken as an elective in the 11th and 12th grade of high schools other than Social Sciences High Schools. There is no compulsory or elective geography course in the 11th and 12th-grade curriculums of science high school students. High school institutions consist of science high schools, social science high schools, Anatolian high schools, fine arts high schools, sports high schools, Anatolian Imam-Hatip high schools, vocational and technical high schools, vocational and technical education centers and multi-programmed Anatolian high schools in Turkey (Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education Regulation on Secondary Education Institutions, 2017).   The accommodation and travel services of the professional and technical Anatolian High Schools, catering services and entertainment services are the fields providing training for the tourism sector. The aim of this research was to determine the opinions of high school students attending different high school types about tourism effects and geography-tourism relation. The related literature detailing the studies related to determining the opinions of students about tourism and related tourism and geography are examined and explained below. İncekara and Savran  (2011) tried to determine the opinions and awareness of high school students about tourism resources, strengths and weaknesses, social, environmental, economic and cultural effects and necessary steps for tourism development. According to the results of their research, students stated that the development of tourism has positive results in terms of economic, environmental, social and cultural effects. In addition, it was revealed that the students in that research had sufficiently rich natural, historical and cultural resources for tourism development of Hatay Province. However, it appeared that they emphasized the necessity of eliminating deficiencies such as promotion, investment, and education to better benefit from the advantages that tourism brings. Özder, Kaya and Ünlü  (2012) tried to determine the metaphors developed by the high school students for their perceptions of the tourism concept. In that study, it was determined that secondary school students produced 44 different metaphors related to the concept of tourism. These metaphors were gathered in five different conceptual
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