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    WARDRIVING Mohammed Nawaz 17265A0518, Department of Computer Science and Engineering Mahatma Gandhi institute of Technology Hyderabad,India ABSTRACT   War driving is searching for Wi-Fi wireless networks by moving vehicle. It involves using a car or truck and a Wi-Fi-equipped computer, such as a laptop or a PDA, to detect the networks. It was also known as 'WiLDing' (Wireless Lan Driving).Many wardrivers use GPS devices to measure the location of the network find and log it on a website. For better range, antennas are built or bought,and vary from omnidirectional to highly directio nal. Software for wardriving is freely available on the Internet, notably, NetStumbler for Windows, Kismet for Linux, and KisMac for Macintosh. Wardriving was named after wardialing because it also involves searching for computer systems with software that would use a phone modem to dial numbers sequentially and see which ones were connected to a fax machine or computer, or similar device. 1. INTRODUCTION Wardriving is searching for Wi-Fi wireless networks by moving vehicle. Wardriving was first developed by Pete Shipley in April 2001. It involves using a car or truck and a Wi-Fi-equipped computer, such as a laptop or a PDA, to detect the networks. Many wardrivers use GPS devices to measure the location of the network find and log it on a website. For  better range, antennas are built or bought, and vary from omnidirectional to highly directional. Software for wardriving is freely available on the Internet, notably,  NetStumbler for Windows, Kismet for Linux, and KisMac for Macintosh.The gathering of statistics about wireless networks in a given area by listening for their publicly available  broadcast beacons is War Driving. Wireless access points (APs) announce their presence at set intervals (usually every 100 milliseconds) by roadcasting a packet containing their service set identifier (SSID; basically, the user-defined name of the access point) and several other data items. A stumbling utility running on a portable computer of some sort (a laptop or PDA) listens for these broadcasts and records the data that the AP makes publicly available.Wireless networks have become a way of life in the past two years. As more wireless networks are deployed, the need to secure them increases. The activity of driving around discovering wireless access points is called WarDriving. In order to successfully WarDrive, there are some tools, both hardware and software. WarDriving is a fun hobby that has the potential to make a difference in the overall security posture of wireless networking. 2. THE ORIGINS OF WARDRIVING WarDriving is an activity that is misunderstood by many people.This applies to both the general public, and to the news media that has reported on WarDriving. Because the name "WarDriving' has sound to it,associate WarDriving with a criminal activity. 2.1   WHAT'S IN A NAME? WarDriving is the act of moving around a specific area and mapping the population of wireless access points for statistical  purposes.These statistics are then used to    raise awareness of the security problems associated with these types of networks (typically wireless).The commonly accepted definition of WarDriving among those who are actually practitioners is that WarDriving is not exclusive of surveillance and research  by automobile - WarDriving is accomplished  by anyone moving around a certain area looking for data.This includes:walking, which is often referred to as WarWalking; flying, which is also referred to as WarFlying; bicycling, and so forth. WarDriving does not utilize the resources of any wireless access point r network that is discovered without prior authorization of the owner. 2.2   THE TERMINOLOGY HISTORY OF WARDRIVING The term WarDriving comes from WarDialing, a term you may be familiar with  being that it was introduced to the general  public by Matthew Broderick's character,David Lightman, in the 1983 movie, WarGames. WarDialing is the practice of using a modem attached to a computer to dial an entire exchange of telephone numbers (often sequentially  —  for example, 555-1111, 555-1112, and so forth) to locate any computers with modems attached to them. Essentially, WarDriving employs the same concept, although it is updated to a more current technology: wireless networks. A WarDriver drives around an area,often after mapping a route out first, to determine all of the wireless access points in that area. Once these access points are discovered, a WarDriver uses a software program or Web site to map the results of his efforts. Based on these results, a statistical analysis is  performed.This statistical analysis can be of one drive, one area, or a general overview of all wireless networks.The concept of driving around discovering wireless networks  probably began the day after the first wireless access point was deployed. However, WarDriving became more well-known when the process was automated by Peter Shipley, a computer security consultant in Berkeley, California. During the fall of 2000,Shipley conducted an 18-month survey of wireless networks in Berkeley, California and reported his results at the annual DefCon hacker conference in July of 2001.This  presentation, designed to raise awareness of the insecurity of wireless networks that were deployed at that time, laid the groundwork for the "true" WarDriver. 2.3 WARDRIVING MISCONCEPTIONS These days, you might hear people confuse the terminology WarDriver and Hacker. As you probably know, the term hacker was srcinally used to describe a person that was able to modify a computer (often in a way unintended by its manufacturer) to suit his or her own purposes. However, over time, owing to the confusion of the masses and consistent media abuse, the term hacker is now commonly used to describe a criminal; someone that accesses a computer or network without the authorization of the owner. The same situation can be applied to the term WarDriver. WarDriver has been misused to describe someone that accesses wireless networks without authorization from the owner. An individual that accesses a computer system, wired or wireless, without authorization is a criminal. Criminality has nothing to do with either hacking or WarDriving. The news media, in an effort to generate ratings and increase viewership, has sensationalized WarDriving. Almost every local television news outlet has done a story on "wireless hackers armed with laptops" or "drive-by hackers" that are reading your e-mail or using your wireless network to surf the Web. These stories are geared to  propagate Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD). FUD stories usually take a small risk, and attempt to elevate the seriousness of the situation in the minds of their audience. Stories that prey on fear are good for ratings,  but don't always depict an activity accurately. An unfortunate side effect of these stories has been that the reporters invariably ask the "WarDriver" to gather information that is being transmitted across a    wireless network so that the "victim" can be shown their personal information that was collected. Again, this has nothing to do with WarDriving and while a case can be made that this activity (known as sniffing) in and of itself is not illegal, it is at a minimum unethical and is not a practice that WarDrivers engage in. These stories also tend to focus on gimmicky aspects of WarDriving such as the directional antenna that can be made using a Pringles can. While a functional antenna can be made from Pringles cans, coffee cans, soup cans, or  pretty much anything cylindrical and hollow, the reality is that very few (if any) WarDrivers actually use these for WarDriving. Many of them have made these antennas in an attempt to both verify the srcinal concept and improve upon it in some instances.from the Warchalking Is a Myth  Figure 1.2 The Closed Mode Figure 1.2 indicates a closed node. One that is not open for public use. The SSID or network name is chalked above the symbol and nothing is chalked  below the symbol... In 2002. the news media latched onto something called warchalking. Warchalking is the act of making chalk marks on buildings or sidewalks to denote the presence and availability of wireless networks. Playing off of the practice of hobos during the Great Depression who would mark homes or areas to communicate information about the area to other hobos, warchalkers use a series of symbols to alert others as to what type of wireless network they will find in that area. Three primary symbols used by warchalkers are illustrated in the following figures. Figure 1.1 indicates an open node, or one in which WEP encryption is not uti-lized and individuals are encouraged to use. The Service Set Identifier (SSID) ot network name is chalked above the symbol and the available  bandwidth speed is chalked below the symbol. 3. THE TRUTH ABOUT WARDRIVING The reality of WarDriving is simple.Computer security professionals, hobbyists, and others are generally interested in providing information to the public about security vulnerabilities that are present with "out of the box" configurations of wireless access points. Wireless access points that can  be purchased at a local electronics or computer store are not geared toward security. They are designed so that a person with little or no understanding of networking can purchase a wireless access point, and with little or no outside help, set it up and  begin using it. Computers have become a staple of everyday life. Technology that makes using computers easier and more fun needs to be available to everyone. Companies such as Linksys and D-Link have been very successful at making these new technologies easy for end users to set up and begin using. To do otherwise would alienate a large part of their target market. The Legality Of Wardriving According to the FBI, it is not illegal to scan access points, but once a theft of service,denial of service, or theft of information occurs, then it becomes a federal violation. While this is good, general information, any questions about the legality of a specific act in the United States should  be posed directly to either the local FBI field office, a cyber crime attorney, or the U.S. Attorney's office. This information only applies to the United States. WarDrivers are encouraged to investigate the local laws where they live to ensure that they aren't Understanding the distinction between "scanning" or identifying wireless access  points and actually using the access point is understanding the difference between WarDriving, a legal activity, and theft, an obviously illegal activity. 4. TOOLS OF THE TRADE OR "WHAT DO I NEED?" This section will introduce you to all of the tools that are required in order to successfully WarDrive. There are several different configurations that can be effectively used for WarDriving, o   Getting the hardware o   Choosing a wireless network card   o   Deciding on an external antenna    o   Connecting your antenna to your wireless NIC 4.1 GETTING THE HARDWARE ->The Laptop Setup ->The PDA Setup The Laptop Setup    A laptop computer    A wireless NIC Card A pigtail to connect the external antenna to the wireless NIC A handheld global positioning system (GPS) unit A GPS data cable A WarDriving software program A cigarette lighter or AC adapter power inverter Because most of the commonly used WarDriving software is not resource intensive, the laptop can be an older model. If you decide to use a laptop computer to WarDrive, you need to determine the WarDriving software you plan to use as well. For instance, if you do not feel comfortable with the Linux operating system, you will have to rely on tools that are supported in a Microsoft Windows environment. Because  NetStumbler only works in Windows environments (and Kismet only runs on Linux), your choice of software is limited. 4.1.2 The Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Setup PDAs are the perfect accessory for the WarDriver because they are highly  portable.The Compaq iPAQ (see Figure 2), or any number of other PDAs that utilize the ARM, MIPS, or SH3 processor can be utilized with common WarDriving software packages. As with the laptop setup, the PDA setup requires additional equipment in order to be successful: o   A PDA with a data cable o   A wireless NIC Card o   An external antenna o   A pigtail to connect the external antenna to the wireless NIC o   A handheld global positioning system (GPS) unit o   A GPS data cable o   A null modem connector A WarDriving software program Similar to the laptop configuration, the software package you choose will affect your choice of PDA. MiniStumbler, the PDA version of NetStumbler, works on PDAs that utilize the Microsoft Pocket PC operating system.The HP/Compaq iPAQ is one of the more popular PDAs among WarDrivers that  prefer MiniStumbler. WarDrivers that prefer to use a PDA port of Kismet are likely to choose the Sharp Zaurus since it runs a PDA version of Linux.There are also Kismet  packages that have specifically been designed for use on the Zaurus. The different software packages used for War Driving are:-Kismet Kismet is an 802.11 layer2 wireless network detector, sniffer, and intrusion detection system. Kismet will work with any wireless card which support raw monitoring (rfmon) mode, and can sniff 802.1 lb, 802.1 la, and 802.1 lg traffic. Kismet is fully passive and undetectable when in operation. Kismet automatically tracks all networks in range and is able to detect (or infer) hidden networks, attack attempts, find rogue accesspoints, and find unauthorized users. MiniStumbler Mini Stumbler is a tool for Windows CE that allows you to detect Wireless Local Area  Networks (WLANs) using 802.1 lb, 802.1 la and 802.1 lg. It has many uses: Verify that your network is set up the way you intended. Find locations with poor coverage in your WLAN Detect other networks that may be causing interference on your network.Detect unauthorized "rogue" access points in your workplace. Help aim directional antennas for long-haul WLAN links.Use it recreationally for WarDriving. Operating System:Windows CE.    NetStumbler  NetStumbler is a tool for Windows that facilitates detection of Wireless LANs using the 802.1 lb, 802.1 la and 802.1 lg WLAN standards. The program is commonly used for: Wardriving Verifying network configurations. Finding locations with poor coverage in one's WLAN. 4.2 CHOOSING A WIRELESS NETWORK INTERFACE CARD Most of the wireless networks that are currently deployed are 802.11b networks. You will find more access points if you use an 802.1 lb NIC. 802.1 lg access points, which transfer data at nearly five times the speed of 802.11b (54 MBps as opposed to 11 MBps) are gaining popularity and it is likely that an 802.1 lg card will soon supplant an 802.1 lb card as the favorite of WarDrivers. In addition to increased speed, the 802.1 lg standard supports WiFi Protected Access (WPA) encryption. Once effectively deployed,WPA will help to improve the overall security posture of wirelesnetworks. Some 802.1 la cards are currently supported  by WarDriving software under certain conditions. As a general rule, 802.1 la (or any 802.1 la/b/g combo) cards are not recommended for WarDriving. This is  because 802.1 la was broken into three distinct frequency ranges: Unlicensed  National Information Infrastructure (UN1I)1, UNII2, and UNII3. Under Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations, UN1I1 cannot have removable antennas. Although UNII2 and UNII3 are allowed to have removable antennas, most 802.1 la cards utilize both UNII1 and UNII2.Because UNI 11 is utilized, removable antennas are not an option for these cards in the United States. When Kismet and NetStumbler were first introduced, there were two primary chipsets available on wireless NICs: the Hermes chipset and the Prism2 chipset. Although there are many other chipsets available now, most WarDriving software is designed for use with one of these two chipsets. As a general rule NetStumbler works with cards  based on the Hermes chipset. Kismet, on the other hand, is designed for use with cards  based on the Prism2 chipset.This is not a hard and fast rule since some Prism2 cards will work under NetStumbler in certain configurations. Also, with appropriate Linux kernel modifications, Hermes cards can be used with Kismet. Types Of Wireless NICs. In order to WarDrive, you will need a wireless NIC. Before purchasing a wireless card, you should determine the software and configuration you plan to use. NetStumbler offers the easiest configuration for cards  based on the Hermes chipset (for example, ORiNOCO cards). In order to maximize your results, you will want a card that has an external antenna connector (Figure 3.).This will allow you to extend the range of your card by attaching a stronger antenna to your WarDriving setup. Many WarDrivers prefer the ORiNOCO Gold 802.1 lb card produced by Agere or Lucent (see Figure 4.) because it is compatible with  both Kismet and NetStumbler and because it also has an external antenna connector.This card is now produced by Proxim and no longer uses the Hermes chipset, nor does it have an external antenna connector.The Hermes-based card is still available; however, it is now marketed as the "ORiNOCO Gold Classic." This card is outstanding for both everyday use and for WarDriving. Also, as  previously noted, this card can be configured for use in both NetStumbler and Kismet.This is particularly useful when using a laptop computer that is configured to dual boot both Linux and Windows. This allows you to utilize the wireless NIC in both operating systems as well as most common WarDriving software in both environments without having to change hardware. 4.3 DECIDING ON AN EXTERNAL ANTENNAS
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