Response of Broilers to Dietary Addition of Medicinal Plants Powders During Extreme Winter of Konkan Region

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Response of Broilers to Dietary Addition of Medicinal Plants Powders During Extreme Winter of Konkan Region
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    Veterinary Research International | April-June, 2018 | Volume 06 | Issue 02 | Pages 43-45 © 2018 Jakraya VETERINARY RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL Journal homepage: www.jakraya.com/journal/vri  ORIGINAL ARTICLE   Response of Broilers to Dietary Addition of Medicinal Plants Powders During Extreme Winter of Konkan Region V.Y.Bharambe 1 *, R.G.Burte 1 , Y.A.Garde 2,  and Weldegerima Kide 1   1 Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli.Dist-Ratnagiri - 415 712 (M.S), India. 2 College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Waghai (Dangs) Gujarat - 394730, India. * Corresponding Author: V. Y. Bharambe   Email: vikas.agri@rediffmail.com  Received: 17/06/2018  Accepted: 29/06/2018    Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the response of broilers to dietary addition of medicinal plants powders during extreme winter of Konkan region. A 162 unsexed day-old broiler chicks of were randomly divided into nine treatment groups with three replications of 18 chicks per treatment using Factorial Randomized Block Design. In order to evaluate seasonal impact of research was conducted in summer (S 1 ), rainy (S 2 ) and winter season (S 3 ). The chicks were fed with standard starter feed up to three weeks of age. Chicks fed with broiler finisher from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The control group (T 0 ) fed on basal diet without any supplementation and other eight treatments groups were supplemented with 0.1 per cent FSP (T 1 ), 0.2 per cent FSP (T 2 ), 0.1 per cent GSP (T 3 ), 0.2 per cent GSP (T 4 ), 0.1 per cent FSP and 0.1 per cent GSP (T 5 ), 0.1 per cent FSP and 0.2 per cent GSP (T 6 ), 0.2 per cent FSP and 0.1 per cent GSP (T 7 ) and 0.2 per cent FSP and 0.2 per cent GSP (T 8 ), respectively. The study concluded that supplementation of fenugreek seed and guduchi stem powder in broiler diet at 0.2 per cent level showed economically beneficial in winter season of Konkan region. Key words :  Medicinal plant, Broilers production, Winter season, cost-benefit ratio. 1. Introduction Poultry meat is an excellent source of high quality protein, vitamins and minerals for human nutrition. India ranks 5 th  in broiler meat production and contributes nearly 2.53 per cent world’s chicken meat production (FAO, 2010). The magnificent expansion of industry is also due to the fact that it provides the main source of animal protein through meat and eggs at cheaper rate as compared to other sources of animal protein, low maintenance cost and minimum space requirements, broilers adapt easily to almost any condition and profits are quite high. In a developing country like India, poultry plays an important role in improving nutritional status of masses, which are mostly suffering from malnutrition due to inadequate and inferior quality protein in their diet and augmenting the income of weaker sections. The whole concept of poultry farming during the last two decades or so has undergone a sea change. The poultry industry has now emerged as a highly structured and market-oriented enterprise. Thus the major objective of poultry farming is to increase the profit margin in poultry business by improving feed efficiency and growth rate. Antibiotics are used to control the disease and infection effect in the poultry industry. The poultry nutritionists are added stress relieving medicines to feed to trying to ease stress from broilers and improve the body weight. Large number of laboratory derived anti-stress and growth promoting medicines are available in the field to improve its performance. However, the use of chemical products, especially hormones and antibiotics, may cause adverse side effects. Attempts to use the natural resources such as medicinal plants could be widely accepted as feed additives to improve the efficiency of feed utilization and productive performance in poultry. Antibiotic have a certain period as a pulling out time. If the antibiotics are not reserved from the broiler diet before catching the birds for slaughter, it will lead to a problem, like deposition of antibiotic residues in commercial broiler meats and also delivered the antibiotic residues to the consumers through this meat consumption. Poultry nutritionists are trying to rectify this problem through supplementation of phyto-additives, which contain antibiotic and antibacterial properties. The majority of medicinal plants do not have the residual effects (Tipu et al.,  2006). Ever increasing feed cost and consumer –   Bharambe et al…Response of Broilers to Dietary Addition of Medicinal Plants Powders During Extreme Winter of Konkan Region Veterinary Research International | April-June, 2018 | Volume 06 | Issue 02 | Pages 43-45 © 2018 Jakraya 44 Table 1: Economics of broiler production in different treatment groups in winter season of Konkan region Sr. No . Cost of production of broiler in winter season Costs/kg(Rs) T 0  T 1  T 2  T 3  T 4  T 5  T 6  T 7  T 8  1.   Expenditure Chick cost( A )= 1.05 x cost of day-old chick (Rs) 41.00 43.05 43.05 43.05 43.05 43.05 43.05 43.05 43.05 43.05 Feed cost ( B )=Live weight in kg x FCR x Feed cost/kg (Rs) 28.00 88.53 86.35 84.42 88.63 85.87 87.11 87.59 84.52 83.36 A+B 131.58 129.40 127.47 131.68 128.92 130.16 130.64 127.57 126.41 Miscellaneous Expenditure ( C )=Add 12 % (A +B) (Rs) 15.79 15.53 15.30 15.80 15.47 15.62 15.68 15.31 15.17 Additional cost of feed additive a. Fenugreek seed powder cost /kg (Rs) 95.00 0.00 0.29 0.59 0.00 0.00 0.30 0.31 0.59 0.57 b. Guduchi stem powder cost /kg (Rs) 450.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.49 2.83 1.46 2.94 1.35 2.74 Total cost of feed additives ( D ) (Rs) 0.00 0.29 0.59 1.49 2.83 1.76 3.25 1.94 3.31 Production cost per kg live weight of broiler (A+B+C+D)  (Rs) 147.37 145.22 143.36 148.97 147.22 147.53 149.57 144.82 144.89 2.   Returns 1.Sale of one live broiler bird @ Rs.100/kg 171.57 194.81 198.79 194.46 186.16 198.40 199.12 199.66 202.53 3.   Gross returns per broiler (Rs)   24.20 49.60 55.43 45.48 38.93 50.86 49.55 54.84 57.65 4. Net profit per kg live weight of broiler bird (Rs) 14.10 25.46 27.88 23.39 20.91 25.64 24.89 27.47 28.46 concern about chemical feed additives forced poultry farmers to look for newer and safer feed additives, which could improve feed efficiency, product quality and concurrently should not leave chemical residue in the product. On the other hand, antibiotics as growth promoter in poultry feed are posing serious health risks in humans, because of their residual effect in poultry meat and eggs. A range of organic feed additives of microbial or plant srcin have been tested for their effect on the performance of broilers. Various herbs that are commonly known for their beneficial effects as regular ingredient of human food have also been evaluated as feed additives in poultry feed (Bunyapraphatsara, 2007). Several methods have been suggested to maintain the quality of broiler meat through alleviation of negative effects of extreme environmental conditions. The fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum-graecum  L.) is a well known medicinal plant anabolic, hypolipidemic, antistressor and antioxidant phyto-herb having homeostatic role in body of broilers. The alkaloid diosgenin are most responsible for most of its biological properties (Alloui et al ., 2012). The adverse effect of weather on growth performance of broilers are overcome by using another medicinal plant Guduchi possess antistress, adaptogenic, immunomodulatory and performance enhancing properties (Mahima et al., 2014). Keeping in mind anti-stress and growth enhancing properties of Fenugreek seed powder and Guduchi stem powder at different levels and its combinations, the present study is undertaken to investigate the response of broiler during extreme winter season in Konkan region. 2. Material and Methods The trial was conducted for period of six weeks on 162 unsexed broiler chicks, uniformly distributed into nine groups of 18 chicks in each T 0 to T 8 groups. The chicks were fed with standard starter feed up to three weeks of age. Chicks fed with broiler finisher from 4 to 6   Bharambe et al…Response of Broilers to Dietary Addition of Medicinal Plants Powders During Extreme Winter of Konkan Region Veterinary Research International | April-June, 2018 | Volume 06 | Issue 02 | Pages 43-45 © 2018 Jakraya 45 weeks of age. Group T 0 received standard broiler diet. Group T 1 to T 8 supplemented with 0.1 per cent Fenugreek Seed Powder (T 1 ), 0.2 per cent Fenugreek Seed Powder (T 2 ), 0.1 per cent Guduchi Stem Powder (T 3 ), 0.2 per cent Guduchi Stem Powder (T 4 ), 0.1 per cent Fenugreek Seed Powder and 0.1 per cent GSP (T 5 ), 0.1 per cent Fenugreek Seed Powder and 0.2 per cent Guduchi Stem Powder (T 6 ), 0.2 per cent Fenugreek Seed Powder and 0.1 per cent Guduchi Stem Powder (T 7 ) and 0.2 per cent Fenugreek Seed Powder and 0.2 per cent Guduchi Stem Powder (T 8 ), respectively.  Ad libitum  feed was offered daily and record was maintained. The cost of broiler was calculated by using inputs viz ., cost of day old chicks, feed and herbal additives. The prevailing market rates of feed and herbal additives were considered for this purpose. Cost was calculated per kg live body weight of broiler by using formulae as per Narhari and Rajni (2005). 3. Results and Discussion The results of economics of broiler production are given in Table 1. The present study revealed that net cost of production per bird was maximum for T 6  (Rs.149.57), followed by T 3  (Rs.148.97), T 5  (Rs.147.53), T 0  (Rs.147.37), T 4 (Rs.147.22), T 1  (Rs.145.22), T 8  (Rs.148.89), T 7  (Rs.144.82), and T 2  (Rs.143.36). The net profit per bird for groups T 0 , T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 , T 5 , T 6 , T 7 , and T 8  was Rs.14.10, 25.46, 27.88, 23.89, 20.91, 25.64, 24.89, 27.47 and 28.46, respectively. The finding proved that medicinal plant powders supplemented groups of broiler chickens has more net profit than the control group. The data given in Table 1 showed that the net profit was more in 0.2 per cent fenugreek seed and Guduchi stem powder supplemented group (T 8 ) this might be due to the antibacterial, antistress, antioxidant, performance enhancing properties of fenugreek and guduchi plants. These results agree with finding of (Thakur et al ., 2017) who reported that the inclusion level of herbal feed additive in broiler diets recorded the least cost/kg gain and highest per cent of economic efficiency compared with that of the un-supplemented diets under semi arid climatic conditions. Similar findings was reported by Dhande et al.  (1994) and Bhagwat et al. (1999) showed that supplementation of Liv-52 ( Tinospora cordifolia  constituents) in broiler diets may be used for getting better economical returns from broiler production. 4. Conclusion It was concluded that supplementation of fenugreek seed powder and guduchi stem powder in broiler diet alone and its combination at 0.1 and 0.2 per cent level than the un-supplemented group. However, 0.2 per cent level of fenugreek seed powder and guduchi stem powder could be more economical. It could be help to minimize the cold stress in broiler during winter season. References Alloui NB, Aksa M, Alloui N and Ibrir F (2012).Utilization of fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum-graecum ) as growth promoter for broiler chickens.  Journal of Worlds Poultry  Research,  2(2): 25-27. Bhagwat V, Mitra SK, Suryanarayana T and Sachan A (1999). The antibiotic activity of Liv-52 protein in commercial broilers. Poultry Advances,  32(8): 27. Bunyapraphatsara N (2007).Utilization of medicinal plants in animal production. 11 th    International Congress, Leiden the Netherlands. pp: 15-25. Dhande VO, Kukde RJ and Lende RM (1994). Influence of feeding Livol on dressed and edible meat percentage of broilers. Poultry Guide, (2): 57-59. FAO (2010). Poultry Meat and Eggs, In: Agribusiness Handbook. Director of Investment Centre Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp 77. Mahima A, Rahal AP, Verma A, Kumar V and Roy D (2014). Proximate and elemental analysis of Tinospora cordifolia  stem. Pakistan Journal of     Biological Science, 17: 744-747. Narahari D and Rajini RA (2005). Poultry Project and Economics 2 nd edn PIXIE Publication India (P) Ltd., Karnal, Haryana.pp:204-205. Thakur S, Sharma T, Arya RS, Bais B and Agrawal VK (2017). Nutritional enrichment of broiler breast meat through dietary supplementation of   Withamia somnifera  and symbiotic substances under semi-arid climate conditions. Veterinary World,  10(11): 1301-1306. Tipu MA, Akhtar MS, Anjum MI and Raja ML (2006). New dimension of medicinal plants as animal feed. Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 26: 144-148.
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